Crop Management Conference

The Wisconsin Crop Management Conference – WCMC (formerly the Wisconsin Fertilizer, Aglime & Management Conference) is the Midwest’s premier agronomic inputs industry event. This conference encompasses 3 days of educational sessions and 2 days of ag industry tradeshow exhibits. The 2016 event is set for January 12-14.

Complete proceedings volumes can be downloaded from the links below. Individual papers/presentations from 2014 and 2015 can be searched at the bottom of the page.

2015 Proceedings

2014 Proceedings

2013 Proceedings

2012 Proceedings

2011 Proceedings

2010 Proceedings

2009 Proceedings

2008 Proceedings

2007 Proceedings

2006 Proceedings

2005 Proceedings

  • Late blight is a potentially destructive disease of potatoes and tomatoes caused by the fungal-like organism, Phytophthora infestans. This pathogen is referred to as a ‘water mold’ since it thrives under wet conditions. Symptoms include leaf lesions beginning as pale green or olive green areas that quickly enlarge to become brown-black, water-soaked, and oily in appearance. Lesions on leaves can also produce pathogen sporulation which looks like white-gray fuzzy growth. Stems can also exhibit dark brown to black lesions with sporulation. Tuber infections are dark brown to purple in color and internal tissues are often reddish brown in color and firm to corky in texture. The time from first infection to lesion development and sporulation can be as fast as 7 days, depending upon the weather.

    Two mating types are needed to produce sexual, persistent soil-borne oospores. The population is largely clonal outside its center of origin in the Toluca Valley of Mexico, relying on production of asexual sporangia for persistence. In the U.S., clonal lineage (also referred to as genotype or strain) US-1 (A1 mating type) was the predominant clonal lineage until the late 1980s-early 1990s, when US-8 appeared. US-8 was the opposite mating type (A2) and was insensitive to mefenoxam, a fungicide with exceptional activity against oomycetes, but with a specific mode of action that effectively selects for insensitivity. New clonal lineages have predominated epidemics in recent years with varying levels of mefenoxam resistance. Late blight pathogen populations in the U.S. have and continue to experience major genetic changes or evolution. The end result is the production of pathogen isolates with unique genotypes and epidemiological characteristics. As such, continued investigation of this pathogen is necessary to maintain best management strategies in susceptible crops.

    Our objective was to monitor for late blight on a state-wide basis and characterize P. infestans in a timely manner to inform appropriate management recommendations and enhance understanding of the pathogens introduction and persistence in Wisconsin.

    UW-Madison
    Late blight and downy mildew updates in processing vegetable crops
    vegetable topics
  • Co-application of the diamide insecticides in snap beans

    Author
    Anders S. Huseth
    Author
    Russell L. Groves
    Author
    Scott A. Chapman
    Year
    2015

    Multiple applications of pyrethroid insecticides are used to manage European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner, in snap bean, but new diamide insecticides may reduce application frequency. The objective of this study was to examine the potential for improving control of O. nubilalis in processing snap bean with diamide insecticides. Specifically, we compared O. nubilalis control with chlorantraniliprole, cyantraniliprole, and bifenthrin at three different phenological snap bean stages (i.e., bud, bloom, pod formation) to determine the duration of residual activity for each insecticide under field conditions in snap bean, and co-applied cyantraniliprole and bifenthrin insecticides with either herbicides or fungicides at each vegetative stage to determine if tank mixing cyantraniliprole and bifenthrin with common agrochemicals would reduce O. nubilalis control, and finally we confirmed the suitability of diamide insecticides for O. nubilalis control using commercial snap bean fields and processing plant contamination data, over two consecutive field seasons. Cyantraniliprole applications timed either during bloom or pod formation controlled O. nubilalis better than similar timings of bifenthrin. Co-applications of insecticides with fungicides controlled O. nubilalis as well as insecticide applications alone. Insecticides applied either alone or with herbicides during bud stage did not control this pest. In commercial snap bean fields, yield and quality were equivalent in fields treated once with chlorantraniliprole and twice with pyrethroids. Diamides are an excellent alternative to pyrethroids for manage O. nubilalis in snap bean. Adoption of diamides by snap bean growers could improve the efficiency of production by reducing the number of sprays required each season.

    UW Madison
    Co-application of the diamide insecticides in snap beans
    vegetable topics
  • Web-based pest and disease forecasting tool for enhanced processing vegetable crop management

    Author
    Kenneth Frost
    Author
    Amanda Gevens
    Author
    Ross Groves
    Year
    2015

    Alternaria leaf blight, caused by the fungus Alternaria dauci, andCercospora leaf spot, caused by the fungus Cercospora carotae, infect leaves and petioles of carrot and are the most prevalent foliar diseases of carrot worldwide. These foliar blight pathogens reduce yield by limiting the plant’s photosynthetic capacity and by weakening the petioles needed for mechanical harvest. Typically, carrots are harvested by implements that loosen the soil and simultaneously grasp the foliage while lifting the roots out of the soil; blighted petioles break when gripped by the mechanical harvester and carrots are left in the soil. Environmental conditions greatly influence the occurrence and progression of these foliar diseases of carrot and the anticipation of heightened disease risk through the identification and monitoring of critical environmental factors, such as, relative humidity and temperature, can enhance disease management by optimizing the timing of fungicide applications. However, implementation of the weather-based models is difficult because, typically, each field requires a customized forecast that is dependent on disease severity, weather conditions, and fungicide program, factors that are field-specific. A goal of this research is to provide a set of generalized recommendations for managing foliar diseases of carrot that can be used for the majority of WI fields without the need for grower investment in weather stations.

    UW Madison
    Web-based pest and disease forecasting tool for enhanced processing vegetable crop management
    vegetable topics
  • Implications of off-target herbicides near specialty crops

    Author
    Jed Colquhoun
    Author
    Dan Heider
    Author
    Richard Rittmeyer
    Year
    2015

    The introduction of new agronomic crop herbicides in recent years that are active at low doses, as well as the pending introduction of crop traits conferring resistance to additional herbicides, have spurred an interest among specialty crop producers in knowing more about the potential off target implications of these tools. While pesticide drift remains a concern, our recent work has focused more on implications of potential spray tank contamination when specialty crops are sprayed after agronomic crops, such as corn, soybean or small grains. We recently completed a replicated study in snap bean and potato in this subject area and have also completed the first repetition of a 2-year study looking at the implications of potato seed crop exposure to herbicides on daughter tuber germination and growth.

    UW Madison
    Implications of off-target herbicides near specialty crops
    vegetable topics
  • Cover crops in processing crops

    Author
    Erin Silva
    Year
    2015

    Cover crops are increasingly recognized for their multiple agronomic benefits, including improving soil quality and health, enhancing soil fertility, and preventing erosion. Choosing cover crops for a particular farming system requires consideration of several factors, including planting window, termination time and strategy, desired functionality (weed suppression, erosion prevention, nitrogen credits), and potential disease and insect interactions. Resources exist to assist farmers in the selection of appropriate cover crops for their specific system and crop rotations. The Midwest Cover Crop Council has created one of the most extensive sources of information regarding cover crops for the upper Midwest; comprised of a diverse group of academia, farmers, non-governmental organizations, and state and federal agency representatives, this group works to provide materials on cover crop practices and opportunities, including farmer profiles, webinars, and field days. The information is housed on their website, www.mccc.msu.edu.

    UW Madison
    Cover crops in processing crops
    vegetable topics
  • Using crop sensors for nitrogen management

    Author
    Richard Ferguson
    Year
    2015
    University of Nebraska-Lincoln
    Using crop sensors for nitrogen management
    nutrient management
  • Government agency panel on nutrient management

    Author
    Pat Murphy
    Author
    Sara Walling
    Author
    Andrew Craig
    Year
    2015
    NRCS
    Government agency panel on nutrient management
    nutrient management
  • In response to increasing levels of nitrate-N in groundwater in the Central Platte River Valley of Nebraska, intensive education and then regulatory efforts were implemented starting in the 1980s, to encourage adoption of nitrogen fertilizer and irrigation management practices which can reduce nitrate leaching to groundwater. Since 1988, there have been steady declines in average NO3-N concentrations in groundwater in the Central Platte River Valley, resulting from adoption of recommended practices – in particular conversion from furrow to center-pivot irrigation. However, fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency has remained fairly static over the past 25 years. Trends suggest that further improvement in nitrogen use efficiency may require development and adoption of next generation nutrient management tools, such as increased use of fertigation, controlled release formulations, or crop canopy sensors for in-season fertilization.

    University of Nebraska- Lincoln
    Groundwater nitrate and nitrogen use efficiency in Nebraska's Central Platte River Valley
    nutrient management
  • Making every seed count: Who’s responsible for stand loss?

    Author
    Martin Chilvers
    Author
    Alejandro Rojas
    Author
    Janette Jacobs
    Year
    2015

    Seedling diseases of soybean and corn can cause significant losses through poor stand establishment and reduced plant vigor. Identifying the causal agent of seedling disease is not a simple process as the soil environment is complex and contains many thousands of microbe species but only a small portion of these actually cause disease. The primary causes of soybean seedling disease are Pythium spp., Phytophthora sojae, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium spp. In this study it was our objective to identify the predominant oomycete (Pythium and Phytophthora) species that cause soybean seedling disease. Only by understanding which pathogens cause disease are we are ultimately able to improve disease management.

    Michigan State University
    Making every seed count: Who's responsible for stand loss?
    disease management
  • Fungicide use in alfalfa: What four years of research has taught us

    Author
    Damon Smith
    Author
    Scott Chapman
    Author
    Bryan Jensen
    Year
    2015

    Over the past several years, interest in using foliar-applied fungicides on alfalfa for dairy production has increased. This has subsequently led to new labeling for foliar fungicide products for use on alfalfa. Research at the University of Wisconsin-Madison began in 2011 to evaluate some of the products labeled for use in alfalfa. From 2011 to 2014 replicated on-farm and research station trials were conducted to evaluate the utility of using fungicide on alfalfa for dairy production.

    UW Madison
    Fungicide use in alfalfa: What four years of research has taught us
    disease management
  • 2014 Wisconsin Crop Disease Survey

    Author
    Anette Phibbs
    Author
    Susan Lueloff
    Author
    Adrian Barta
    Year
    2015

    DATCP’s 2014 early soybean disease survey found the highest level of Phytophthora root rot since the beginning of this survey in 2008 and identified four different species of Phytophthora on Wisconsin soybean. Besides the well-known cause of seedling root rot Phytophthora sojae, DNA based testing also determined P. sansomeana that was first detected in Wisconsin soybeans in 2012, and two additional new species P. pini and P. sp. “personii”.

    WI DATCP
    2014 Wisconsin Crop Disease Survey
    disease management
  • Tools for better management of white mold on soybean

    Author
    Damon Smith
    Author
    Jaime Jensen
    Year
    2015

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, the causal agent for white mold disease, is a devastating soybean fungal pathogen. In 2006, white mold ranked in the top 10 yield reducing diseases of soybean and was estimated to account for over 2 billion metric tonnes of yield loss world-wide (1). In the United States, soybean losses in 2009 reached an estimated 59 million bushels due to white mold, which cost producers ~$560 million (2, 3). Disease control is limited due to the lack of complete resistance in commercial cultivars and an incomplete understanding of resistance mechanisms (3). Further investigation of white mold resistance mechanisms in soybean and subsequent resistance evaluations of soybean germplasm would improve commercially available resistance.

    UW-Madison
    Tools for better management of white mold on soybean
    disease management
  • Soybean sudden death syndrome: plant infection and management

    Author
    Martin Chilvers
    Author
    Jie Wang
    Author
    Janette Jacobs
    Year
    2015

    Soybean sudden death syndrome (SDS), caused by Fusarium virguliforme, is one of the most yield limiting diseases in the US, and effective disease management options are limited. We developed a realtime quantitative PCR assay for the diagnosis and quantification of F. virguliforme. Using this assay we investigated the F. virguliforme infection process of four soybean cultivars with differing resistance to the foliar SDS leaf scorch symptoms. We found that the quantity of F. virguliforme did not differ between the varieties as expected, indicating that leaf scorch resistance is separate to root infection resistance. Interestingly the ratio of F. virguliforme to soybean increased sharply just before the R5 growth stage, around the time of foliar disease onset. The findings also demonstrate that use of a soybean variety with resistance to the SDS foliar scorch will not necessarily reduce the subsequent amount of F. virguliforme in the soil.

    Michigan State University
    Soybean sudden death syndrome: plant infection and management
    disease management
  • Making baleage

    Author
    Dan Undersander
    Year
    2015

    Baleage is a practical method to harvest and store either wet hay or to make haylage. If the harvested forage is less than 50% moisture, preservation is primarily by maintenance of anaerobic (oxygen limiting) conditions and, if harvested forage is 50 to 70% moisture, preservation is due both to anaerobic conditions and acids produced in the fermentation.

    UW Madison
    Making baleage
    forages
  • Effects of manure on legume productivity and persistence

    Author
    Geoff Brink
    Author
    W.K. Coblentz
    Author
    W. Jokela
    Year
    2015

    Forage legumes such as alfalfa and red clover have greater nutritive value than grasses, reduce the need for applied N, and may be more productive during drought. Producers often wish to apply manure to grass-legume or pure legume stands, however, to increase yield, amend soil nutrient deficiencies, or address manure storage challenges. This practice may reduce legume persistence and result in poor hay or silage preservation. In two separate studies, dairy manure was applied to red clover – orchardgrass mixtures or to alfalfa to determine its effect on productivity, persistence, and feed quality. Applying liquid or solid manure (60 lb N/acre) to a grazed red clover-orchardgrass mix increased annual yield 500 lb DM/acre above that of the non-fertilized control (7100 lb DM/acre/year), but reduced annual yield when applied in July or September. Applying manure in any form at any time of the year reduced red clover persistence, but the effect was generally greatest when application occurred in July. Applying liquid manure to alfalfa did not improve annual yield. Based on counts of Clostridium tyrobutyricum, the greatest risk of undesirable fermentation after harvesting for balage occurred when slurry was applied 7 and 14 days after cutting compared to application directly onto stubble. Results from these studies suggest that 1) spring manure application to grass-legume pastures will improve annual yield but will likely reduce legume persistence, which may ultimately reduce pasture nutritive value; and 2) manure application to alfalfa stubble is preferred, but if application to growing alfalfa is necessary, choose old alfalfa stands and consider additional field wilting to reduce clostridial fermentation.

    UW-Madison & USDA-ARS
    Effects of manure on legume productivity and persistence
    forages
  • Unlike corn and soybeans, obtaining accurate yield information for forage crops involves considerable planning, time, and effort on behalf of the person collecting the yield data and the farmer. Historically, few producers had the capacity or patience during harvest to undertake such a task. Most efforts to measure alfalfa yield in the past were usually limited to the best small area of the best field. Currently, many larger dairies have installed on-farm scales for measuring purchased production of forages and/or feed commodities. These scales now make it relatively easy to weigh production not just from small areas of fields, but entire fields over the course of several years.

    UW-Extension
    Checking in on Wisconsin alfalfa yield and persistence
    forages
  • Weeds can affect alfalfa establishment, productivity and forage quality but the magnitude of the impact has not been thoroughly studied. Over the past three years we have established studies to evaluate the impact of all of these factors during the establishment year as previous research has shown this to be the most sensitive to weed populations. While previous experiments have been conducted throughout the state, research in 2014 was focused at the Arlington research station to determine the impacts of annual grasses on alfalfa establishment.

    UW-Madison
    Effect of annual grass weeds in alfalfa establishment, yield and forage quality
    forages
  • Farm policy update: County ARC or PLC+SCO

    Author
    Paul Mitchell
    Year
    2015
    UW-Madison
    Farm policy update: County ARC or PLC+SCO
    economics, transportation and soil health
  • Grains price outlook

    Author
    Brenda Boetel
    Year
    2015
    UW-River Falls
    Grains price outlook
    economics, transportation and soil health
  • Interseeding cool-season grasses: annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum); barley (Hordeum vulgare) or winter rye (Secale cereal) alone or in combination forage legumes or radish (Raphanus sativus) into standing row crops is an increasingly common practice in the upper midwest for corn and soybean producers who otherwise could not grow cover crops because of insufficient time for growth if planted after harvest. Perceived soil quality benefits: species diversity and impact on the soil biological community; return of vegetative (green) biomass to soil (including roots) and enhanced over-winter soil cover are all responsible for this interest and the belief that it will result in long-term improvement of crop yield and economic return (CTIC, 2013). Additional ecosystem services in this intensified system include the potential to increase infiltration and the retention of residual applied nitrogen when growing season conditions prevent corn from achieving its full yield potential. Increased infiltration is important for soil and nutrient retention as well as water capture and storage to mitigate increasing precipitation variability induced by climate change.

    Michael Fields Agricultural Institute
    Aerial application of cover crops into corn and soybeans
    economics, transportation and soil health
  • Interaction of FGD gypsum, tillage and soil type on corn production in Wisconsin

    Author
    Elyssa McFarland
    Author
    Francisco Arriaga
    Author
    Richard Wolkowski
    Year
    2015

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum is a by-product of the process that removes sulfur from the gas emissions stream of coal fired electric power plants. FGD gypsum is currently being soil in Wisconsin to producers as a soil amendment and sulfur source. Most of the current work on FGD gypsum for row crop production in the Midwest is taking place in Ohio on soils that are very different from those in Wisconsin (Chen et al., 2008). The goal of this study was to better understand the effect of gypsum on corn production and soils under no tillage and conventional tillage cropping systems with six different rates of nitrogen fertilizer in Wisconsin.

    UW Madison
    Interaction of FGD gypsum, tillage and soil type on corn production in Wisconsin
    economics, transportation and soil health
  • Sprayer set-up to mitigate drift

    Author
    Dan Heider
    Year
    2015

     Spray drift has been a part of the agricultural landscape since the very beginning of pesticide application through sprayers. Although our ability to contain drift has improved, current application technologies are never fully able to eliminate drift. Applicator understanding of the forces involved in delivering pesticides through a sprayer is critical for proper sprayer management in drift prone conditions. 

    UW Madison
    Sprayer set-up to mitigate drift
    all subjects
  • Spatial variation in soil properties exists within fields, farms and across landscapes. Although spatial variation in agricultural fields has received considerable attention recently, its importance and impact on crop management has been discussed for over a century. Many approaches have been proposed over the last two decades for quantifying and managing spatial variation in crop production fields to implement site specific crop management. However, most or all of these approaches utilize complex geo-statistical techniques which often prove to be challenging for practicing crop advisors to implement such techniques in field conditions. This is primarily because of lack of understanding and accessibility to “simple to understand” educational materials on such complex techniques and topics. This presentation will simplify the concept of spatial variability and how to understand the science of managing spatial variability in an easy to comprehend educational material.

    Colorado State Univ.
    Understanding the science of managing spatial variability
    all subjects
  •  Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV’s) have recently been a hot topic of discussion. Several industries, including agriculture, have expressed interest in implementing these devices to aid in performing various tasks. Implementation of UAV’s in our current infrastructure poses several potential problems which are currently being addressed by Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) regulators. Integration of UAV’s in agriculture production will have a major impact on how information about a crop is gathered throughout the growing season. Visual crop assessment and vegetative index data currently provide indicators to the state of the crop. This data is usually collected manually or via sensors mounted on a machine based tool bar. Several benefits can be gained by gathering this data with an aerial platform. This presentation will cover the FAA’s progress on regulating the use of UAV’s in the United States, the different types of UAV’s currently available with pro’s and con’s of each, and the data collection capabilities of the UAV’s and how the data can help crop management. 

    UW Madison
    Integrating UAV's into your crop management system
    all subjects
  • The realities of precision farming for corn

    Author
    Joe Lauer
    Year
    2015

     More site-specific management has been adopted by farmers to increase field productivity and profitability, although successful prediction of input response within management zones remains challenging. For some inputs, like plant density, the maximum yield plant density (MYPD) and the economic optimum plant density (EOPD) changes as new genetics become available. The objective of this research is to determine whether an MYPD and EOPD could be determined for one soil type given that genetics constantly change.

    UW Madison
    The realities of precision farming for corn
    all subjects
  • Can soybean growers benefit from precision agricultural data?

    Author
    Ethan Smidt
    Author
    Shawn Conley
    Year
    2015

     Growers are collecting many forms of spatial data for their fields including yield, elevation, and soils data. Highly accurate GPS systems along with advances in variable rate technology (VRT) are allowing growers to create and use variable rate planting prescriptions to optimize yields and seed placement. Finding the key measureable parameters determining soybean seed yield in Wisconsin and using them to create VRT prescriptions are the objectives of this research.

    UW Madison
    Can soybean growers benefit from precision agricultural data?
    all subjects
  • DATCP
    Wisconsin insect survey results: 2014 and outlook for 2015
    insects and disease
  • Research progress on understanding herbicide resistance in Wisconsin giant ragweed

    Author
    Dave Stoltenberg
    Author
    Stacey Marion
    Author
    Courtney Glettner
    Year
    2015

     Giant ragweed is one of the most difficult to manage weed species in Midwestern cropping systems due to its biology and competitive ability. Adaptation to a wide range of soil environments, rapid vertical growth, and high biomass production make giant ragweed particularly competitive (Abul-Fatih et al. 1979; Harrison et al. 2007; Webster et al. 1994). An extended germination period characterized by the ability to germinate early and grow rapidly, combined with embryo dormancy that allows for prolonged emergence periods, contributes to the difficulty of managing giant ragweed (Gramig and Stoltenberg 2007; Harrison et al. 2001; Schutte et al. 2012). In Wisconsin, giant ragweed is found in both corn (Fickett et al. 2013a) and soybean (Fickett et al. 2013b) production fields. As the most competitive species relative to other common weed species in corn and soybean cropping systems (Fickett et al. 2013a,b), giant ragweed represents a serious threat to crop yield potential. 

    UW Madison
    Research progress on understanding herbicide resistance in Wisconsin giant ragweed
    weed management
  •  Pigweeds, specifically common waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis Sauer) and Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.), are an increasing threat to current agricultural production systems. Common waterhemp and Palmer amaranth are dioecious, small seeded, broadleaf weed species’ known for their prolific growth characteristics and high competitive ability. Exceedingly plastic in nature, common waterhemp and Palmer amaranth can grow at rates of 0.16 and 0.21 cm per growing degree day, respectively (Horak and Loughin, 2000). Furthermore, both species can produce over 250,000 seeds per female plant (Sellers et al., 2003). This intensifies the likelihood and speed that herbicide-resistant biotypes can increase in a population and transfer from one location to another through seed dispersal. Moreover, common waterhemp and Palmer amaranth cause significant yield loss in corn (74 and 91%, respectively) and soybean (56 and 79%, respectively) when left unmanaged (Bensch et al., 2003; Massinga et al., 2001; Steckel and Sprague, 2004). 

    UW Madison
    Herbicide-restant pigweeds (Amaranthus spp.) are in Wisconsin, how serious is it?
    weed management
  • Efficacy of “new” herbicides and program approaches for resistance management

    Author
    Vince Davis
    Author
    Elizabeth Bosak
    Year
    2015

     Do you want to compare new herbicides, and herbicide programs, to products and programs you are already familiar with? 

    In the Wisconsin Crop Weed Science program Herbicide Evaluation program, that’s what do we do. We evaluate new herbicide products, application timings, and efficacy for controlling an array of weed species of interest to Wisconsin farmers. 

    UW Madison
    Efficacy of "new" herbicides and program approaches for resistance management
    weed management
  •  Cover crops are of increasing interest to producers in Wisconsin due to many potential agronomic benefits. These potential benefits include reducing soil erosion, providing and scavenging nutrients, weed suppression, improving soil health, reducing soil moisture losses, protecting water quality, reducing production costs and increasing yield. Cover crops have been utilized for many years in crop organic production. While cover crops are of increasing interest there are often challenges with their establishment. The increasing interest is shown through results from a 2013-2014 survey conducted by the North Central Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE) program with the Conservation Technology Information Center (CTIC). This survey indicated there has been a steady increase in cover crop acres since 2009 with 415,191 acres planted in the Mississippi river basin in 2014. Of the farmers surveyed 42.5% indicated that establishing cover crops was one of the biggest challenges. (SARE/CTIC, 2014) Some of this challenge may be due to herbicide carryover issues. Herbicide persistence factors include chemical properties of the herbicide, rate of application, soil pH, organic matter content, amount of surface plant residue, temperature, rainfall, and microbial degradation (Walsh, 1993). The objective of this study was to determine if persistence of commonly used residual herbicides applied in the spring to corn and soybean crops affect the subsequent establishment of cover crops in the fall.

    UW Madison
    Cover crop establishment following commonly applied corn and soybean herbicides in Wisconsin
    weed management
  •  Invasive plants are defined by Wisconsin Legislation as “nonindigenous species whose introduction causes or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health” (NR40). These plants can persist in our climate, reproduce, and spread. This is why Wisconsin has developed legislation to prevent the introduction and spread of these species. While much of the benefit from these regulations is focused on non-agricultural areas, this can directly (and indirectly) influence agriculture. Below are several examples of how invasive plants impact agriculture followed by a brief description of how agronomists can assist in preventing the spread of these new invaders. 

    UW Madison
    Why agronomists should be concerned about invasive plants
    weed management
  • Food safety modernization

    Author
    Henry Turlington
    Year
    2015

     The Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) was signed into law on January 4, 2011, and provides the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) with sweeping new authorities and requirements. The law was a bi-partisan supported bill backed by the food and feed industries. It authorizes FDA to promulgate new rules for preventive controls, develop performance standards, create new administrative detention rules, provides authority for mandatory recall of adulterated products and provides authority for hiring more than 4,000 new field staff among other provisions. It remains unclear whether Congress will provide sufficient funding to fully implement the law, but FDA is proceeding with rulemaking to meet the court ordered deadlines that were established by court order. The animal food final rule must be published by August 2015.

    American Feed Industry Assoc.
    Food safety modernization
    economics, transportation and soil health
  • OSHA 2015: What you need to know

    Author
    Jim Nolte
    Year
    2015
    WABA
    OSHA 2015: What you need to know
    nutrient management
  • CHS Inc.
    Transportation issues: rail car, waterway locks and dams, trucks
    economics, transportation and soil health
  • Advance Trading
    World grain production trends, supply/demand, price and yield projections, market outlook
    nutrient management
  • Fixing tile blowouts: What you need to know!

    Author
    Eric Cooley
    Year
    2015

     Tile blowouts in Wisconsin are increasing in prevalence as older clay and concrete tile drainage systems continue to age. The gradual expansion of tile lines to an existing system, without proper resizing or venting, has only exacerbated this problem. Sinkholes caused by tile blowouts can introduce soil and nutrients into the tile drainage system and increase the potential for nutrient loss and tile blockage.

    UW Discovery Farms
    Fixing tile blowouts: What you need to know!
    soil, water and climate
  • Crop residue management: trash or treasure?

    Author
    Francisco Arriaga
    Year
    2015

    Crop residues provide several benefits to the soil and crop production systems. Minerals and nutrients in crop tissue are released as residue decomposes, aiding in the recycling and better utilization of nutrients by subsequent crops. During decomposition, carbon in the residue is transformed into different soil organic matter forms. These different fractions of soil organic matter play important roles in soil fertility, soil water relations, and soil biology.

    UW Madison, Soil Science
    Crop residue management: trash or treasure?
    soil, water and climate
    soil management
  • Manure irrigation: Benefits and challenges

    Author
    Rebecca Larson
    Year
    2015

     Manure production is an unavoidable by-product of livestock production facilities. In the United States, there are approximately 58,000 dairy farms (USDA-NASS, 2013a) with a total of 9.2 million dairy cows (USDA-NASS, 2013b) which represent a manure production value of nearly 183 million tons of manure per year (USEPA, 2012). Manure production, collection, and land application are a part of every dairy system. When land applied, manure can provide essential nutrients for crop production and promote soil health and fertility. However, during these processes the manure constituents (including pathogens) can be lost to the environment causing negative environmental impacts and potentially human health impacts. 

    UW Madison, BSE
    Manure irrigation: Benefits and challenges
    manure and fertilizer
    manure
  • Irrigation water management

    Author
    John Panuska
    Year
    2015

     Water stress can adversely impact crop yield and quality making adequate root zone soil water availability essential to any crop production operation. Irrigation has become an important tool of choice by growers for drought risk management. The recommended approach to root zone soil water management includes the use of soil moisture tracking in combination with monitoring. Irrigation scheduling and rainfall forecasts can project soil moisture conditions into the near future (1-3 days) while monitoring can be used to ground truth scheduler predictions.

    UW Madison
    Irrigation water management
    soil, water and climate
  •  A project in southwestern Wisconsin has shown that producers’ changes in management can lead to improvements in stream water quality. This project began in 2006 as a pilot to test the targeting ideas of the Wisconsin Buffer Initiative (WBI, CALS, 2005). This was a project with many partners in addition to producers: Dane, Green and Iowa County Land Conservation offices, University of Wisconsin, University of Wisconsin-Extension, The Nature Conservancy, The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), US Geological Survey, and private sector agronomists. 

    UW Madison Soil Science
    Success: Producer implemented water quality improvement in the Driftless Area
    watershed studies and ag technology
  •  Manure can provide valuable nutrients, especially nitrogen, to high N-requiring crops such as corn. However, a large portion of manure N, about half in typical liquid dairy manure, is in the ammonium or urea form and can potentially be lost to the air as ammonia if the manure is not incorporated into the soil promptly (Jokela and Meisinger, 2008). Tillage is the most common method of incorporation, but tillage and, to a lesser extent, standard injection reduce crop residue cover, leaving the field more susceptible to erosion. Tillage may also be incompatible with management requirements to meet criteria in nutrient management plans. Corn production for silage is particularly problematic because whole-plant removal leaves minimal residue cover after harvest. Establishment of a cover crop such as winter rye after harvest can provide adequate residue cover, but timely seeding (preferably by mid-September) is critical. Farmers need a system that incorporates manure while still maintaining crop residue cover. 

    USDA Marshfield
    Low-disturbance manure application methods in a corn silage-rye cover crop system
    manure and fertilizer
  • Impact of manure application in different seasons on phosphorus loss in runoff

    Author
    Peter Vadas
    Author
    Bill Jokela
    Author
    Laura Ward Good
    Year
    2015

     Agricultural nutrient management continues to be an important area of research and policy due to concerns of phosphorus (P) loss in runoff and water quality degradation. Surface manure application to fields without incorporation can be a significant source of P loss (Daniel et al., 1998). In many northern states, winter manure application without incorporation is common (Srinivasan et al., 2006). This fact, combined with frequent snowmelt runoff, has prompted some states to restrict winter manure spreading. However, restrictions are based more on commonly held perceptions than on research. Studies of winter manure P loss are limited, and most have been observational with mixed results (Kongoli and Bland, 2002). P transport from winter‐applied manure varies due to infiltration, runoff, erosion, and nutrient cycling processes, all of which are sensitive to air and soil temperatures. Manure P loss also varies with spreading practices, especially relative to manure placement beneath or on top of snow and the effect of manure on rates of snow melt (Williams et al., 2011). Overall, good understanding of P cycling and transport associated with winter manure application is still lacking.

    UW Madison
    Impact of manure application in different seasons on phosphorus loss in runoff
    manure and fertilizer
  • Defining nitrogen management zones with apparent electrical impacts of dairy production systems

    Author
    Matt Ruark
    Author
    David Evans
    Author
    Jim Leverich
    Year
    2015

     The use of apparent electrical conductivity to map the variation in fields has been around for several decades (Corwin and Lesch, 2003) and several studies have shown that there can be a statistically significant correlation between EC and various soil physical, chemical, and biological properties (e.g., Corwing and Lesch, 2003; Johnson et al., 2003). However, there isn’t a clear or standardized use of apparent EC to develop N management zones within a corn field. What we will describe here is a simple approach to using apparent EC data, with targeted soil sampling, to identify with soil properties are the best upon which to alter N rates within a field.

    UW Madison Soil Science
    Defining nitrogen management zones with apparent electrical impacts of dairy production systems
    nutrient management
  •  Nitrogen (N) is the most limiting nutrient for productive agriculture. The principal N inputs on dairy farms are feeds, manure, fertilizers, biologically-fixed N, soil N and atmospheric N deposition. The relative importance of each N source to the production of crops, pasture and milk depends on several factors, including a farm’s stocking rate (animals per unit land area), which influences the type and amount of feed grown on a farm, feed and fertilizer purchases, manure management, N use efficiency, whole-farm N balances and environmental N loss. Soil type also impacts N use efficiency (NUE, the amount of applied N transformed into products) and N loss as ammonia (NH3), nitrate (NO3-) and nitrous oxide (N2O). This presentation will demonstrate how stocking rate, fertilizer, feed and manure management impact NUE and N loss from dairy production systems. 

    USDA, UW Madison Soil Science
    Measures of nitrogen use efficiency and environmental impacts of dairy production systems
    nutrient management
  • Fertilizer market update 2015

    Author
    Yao Yao
    Year
    2015
    Potash Corporation
    Fertilizer market update 2015
    nutrient management
  • Does adjuvant choice really matter?

    Author
    Bryan Young
    Year
    2015

     The Roundup Ready crop era and the robust activity of glyphosate has almost eliminated the need for an applicator to be knowledgeable about adjuvants. Arguably, glyphosate is the most forgiving herbicide when applied under less than optimal conditions or application methods. Glyphosate can be optimized with proper adjuvant selection, however, the lack of doing such can be offset by just applying progressively higher rates of glyphosate. Continued abuse of glyphosate in these applications eventually led to the evolution of glyphosate-resistant weed biotypes which has required the use of alternative herbicides to glyphosate.

    Purdue University
    Does adjuvant choice really matter?
    weed management
    glyphosate
  • Evaluation of Adapt-N in the Corn Belt

    Author
    Carrie A.M. Laboski
    Author
    Jim Camberato
    Author
    John Sawyer
    Year
    2015

    Nitrogen is the plant nutrient required in the largest quantity, the most likely to be deficient, and the most impactful on corn yield as well as grower profit. Providing N to a corn crop in the right amount while minimizing loss is difficult because of complex biological and chemical reactions that result in the loss of N from the crop root zone via deep percolation to ground water, lateral flow, runoff and erosion to surface waters, and volatile losses to the atmosphere as ammonia, nitrogen gas, nitric oxide, nitrous oxide, etc. Increasing crop utilization of N and reducing loss of N outside the field is important to the sustainability of corn production in the Corn Belt.

    UW-Madison, Soil Science
    Evaluation of Adapt-N in the Corn Belt
    nutrient management
  • UW Discovery Farms
    Documenting Management in Watersheds UW-Discovery Farms
    watershed studies and ag technology
  • Soil Management Practices for Reducing Risk

    Author
    Francisco Arriaga
    Year
    2014

     Farmers are faced with uncertainty and risk every growing season. Changes and differences in weather patterns are typically the main driver for this risk, but other factors such as commodity prices and pest pressure can also be contributing factors. Although every farm activity will have a certain inherent level of risk associated with it, some of this risk can be reduced and its impact lessened with certain management practices. This presentation will provide some recommendations to help lower risk for a crop production operation by looking at soil management, but these recommendations are not comprehensive by any means. It is advised to also pay close attention to agronomic, weed, insect, and other pest management guidelines to further improve risk management of a farming operation using an integrated approach.

     

    UW-Madison Soil Science
    Soil Management Practices for Reducing Risk
    water and soil management
    quality
    Soil
  •  Subsurface drainage of agricultural land has the ability to improve yields and reduce surface runoff and erosion losses. However, with a reduction in surface runoff, more water infiltrates the soil and percolates through the soil profile. This is of particular importance to farmers, as this water can also transport essential plant nutrients, specifically nitrogen and phosphorus, out of the root zone. Once nutrients reach the tile drain, they have a direct conduit to surface waters.

    Tile-drained agricultural land must be well-managed to reduce the loss of nutrients to surface waters. Nutrient management practices must be carefully followed to minimize the risk of nutrient loss and to maximize fertilizer use efficiency. Additional considerations need to be taken with manure applications on tile-drained land to both minimize nutrient loss and prevent manure entry into tile drains.

    There are a variety of best management practices customizable to fit individual cropping systems and various tile-drained landscapes. We have identified twelve key elements that will lead to proper nutrient management on tile-drained land and thus minimize the potential to transmit manure to tile drains.

    UW Discovery Farm
    Management Practices and Emerging Technologies in Tile Drained Landscapes to Mitigate Sediment and Nutrient Loss
    water and soil management
    ecology
    environment
  • On-Farm Cover Crop Trials: Clover, Rye, and Radish

    Author
    Matt Ruark
    Author
    Kevin Shelly
    Author
    Richard Proost
    Year
    2014

    Clover There has been much research using red clover as cover crop, frost-seeded in to winter wheat (Stute UWEX pub). Planting red clover into winter wheat provides a clear value for the subsequent corn crop in terms of greater yields and reduced need for nitrogen (N) fertilizer (Fig. 1.) The drawback to using red clover is that it will not die during winters in Wisconsin and thus needs to be chemically terminated in the late fall or early spring. There are two other clover species that will winter kill and can be planted after winter wheat: berseem clover and crimson clover. Neither of these species has been well-researched in Wisconsin. In late-summer of 2013, berseem and crimson clover was planted in replicated strips on a farmer field in Sheboygan County. Preliminary findings suggest that both clover species established well. In 2014, this field will be planted to corn and a N rate study will be conducted.

    UW-Madison Soil Science
    On-Farm Cover Crop Trials: Clover, Rye, and Radish
    water and soil management
  • Economic Risk & Profitability of Soybean Seed Treatments at Reduced Seeding Rates

    Author
    Adam Gaspar
    Author
    Shawn Conley
    Author
    Paul Mitchell
    Year
    2014

     Earlier soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] planting coupled with increasing seed costs and higher commodity prices has led to a surge in the number of hectares planted with seed treatments (Esker and Conley, 2012). Furthermore, recent studies have suggested that growers should consider lowering seeding rates to increase their return on investment (De Bruin and Pedersen, 2008; Epler and Staggenborg, 2008). Ultimately, growers would like to know the value proposition of combining seed treatments with lowered seeding rates. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to quantify the effects of seed treatments and seeding rates on soybean seed yield and assess the economic risk and profitability of seed treatments and seeding rates, including the calculated economically optimal seeding rate (EOSR) for each seed treatment.

    Trials were conducted at nine locations throughout Wisconsin during the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons, totaling 18 site-years. Syngenta brand S20-Y2 ($50 unit-1) soybeans were treated with either no seed treatment (UTC), ApronMaxx ($5 unit-1) (mefenoxam + fludioxonil at 0.0094 mg ai seed-1), or CruiserMaxx ($12 unit-1) (mefenoxam + fludioxonil + thiamethoxam at 0.0858 mg ai seed-1) at six seeding rates of 40000, 60000, 80000, 100000, 120000, and 140000 seeds acre-1. The analysis used a soybean grain sale price of $12 bu-1.

    UW-Madison
    Economic Risk & Profitability of Soybean Seed Treatments at Reduced Seeding Rates
    seeds and traits
  • Role of Adjuvants and Nozzles in Managing Drift: Lessons from Wind Tunnel, Greenhouse, and Field Studies

    Author
    Greg Kruger
    Author
    Brad Fritz
    Author
    Andrew Hewitt
    Year
    2014

     Since 1996, glyphosate has been the predominant herbicide used postemergence for weed control in corn, soybean and cotton in the United States. Because of that, glyphosate-resistant weeds have become increasingly more prevalent in glyphosate-resistant crops which have forced many growers to use other herbicides. Herbicide programs that relied primarily on glyphosate for weed control often used rates as low as 5 gallon/acre (GPA). The other herbicides being used in row crops often require a higher carrier volume according to the label when compared to glyphosate which can be burdensome to the applicator, requiring the transport of more water, more refills and more potential of mixing errors. Additionally, there is growing concern about off-target movement of pesticides and what can be done to mitigate pesticide drift. Both drift and efficacy can be affected by spray quality and application decisions such as nozzle selection, operating pressure and components of the spray solution.

    Applicators should be aware that pesticide applications are complex and there are many applicator driven decisions which will impact both the efficacy and off-target movement of pesticides following the application (Figure 1). Every applicator should be aware of the potential effects starting with properly mixing and agitating the spray solution through the resulting droplet size and deposition from atomization of the spray contingent upon nozzle selection, operating pressure and spray solution composition. In general, every applicator should be aware of the weather conditions (especially wind speed), boom height, droplet size and distance away from susceptible vegetation.

    University of Nebraska-Lincoln
    Role of Adjuvants and Nozzles in Managing Drift: Lessons from Wind Tunnel, Greenhouse, and Field Studies
    weed management
  •  Atrazine provides effective control of many small and large seeded broadleaf weeds, as well as some grass weed species, in numerous grass crops such as corn. In Wisconsin, the use of atrazine is prohibited in areas where atrazine total chlorinated residues were once found in concentrations greater than 3 parts per billion in drinking water wells. Glyphosate-resistant weeds, confirmed in 32 states, continue to be a major threat to corn and soybean production across the Nation and Wisconsin. In Wisconsin, a population of both giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida) and horseweed (Conyza canadensis) has been confirmed to be resistant to glyphosate (Stoltenberg et al. 2012; Recker et al. 2013). Integrated weed management tactics, including the use of multiple effective modes-of-action (MOA) against troublesome weeds are important to delay the onset of glyphosate resistance (Norsworthy et al. 2012). Identifying geographies that may be most vulnerable to glyphosate resistance development could help direct attention and pro-active resistance management tactics before wide-scale control failures occur (Davis et al. 2008). A pro-active survey of late-season weed escapes in corn and soybean fields was conducted throughout Wisconsin in 2012 and 2013. The objective of the late-season weed escape survey was to compare weed community composition in different types of management, including previous atrazine use, as well as identify areas where glyphosate-resistant weeds may first appear.

    UW-Madison
    Influence of Management and Atrazine Use on Late-Season Weed Escapes in Wisconsin Corn and Soybean Fields
    weed management
    herbicide
  •  Over the past several years there has been uncertainty within the grain handling industry on what type of sweep-auger equipment can be used and the types of procedures the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) may find acceptable.

    In 2009, OSHA issued a letter of interpretation that essentially created a new policy for operating sweep augers inside grain bins. In the letter, OSHA stated an employee cannot work inside a bin with an energized sweep auger, unless the auger was “completely guarded.” The Agency did not offer any acceptable alternative procedures for removing grain from a bin if a partially guarded auger cannot be used, nor did OSHA define what is meant by completely guarded or unguarded. Prior to the letter, it was common practice in the industry to “guard”, or cover the top and back of the auger while in operation. Following the letter, OSHA stated that the entire auger, including the front, needed to be covered. However, a sweep-auger cannot properly function if it is completely guarded.

    As a result, OSHA issued numerous citations to grain-handling facilities for allowing employees to work around “unguarded” sweep augers. This caused confusion within the industry since many were unsure of what type of sweep-auger equipment could be used and the types of procedures OSHA may find acceptable.

    Not long ago, an Illinois grain company legally challenged OSHA citations they had received based on the 2009 letter of interpretation. Following a settlement agreement in early 2013, OSHA released a sweep auger policy memo in May of 2013. In total, there are 10 criteria outlined in the memo regarding employee entry into bins with mobilized sweep augers. The entire document is based mostly upon the existing requirements under 29 CFR 1910.272 or OSHA’s Grain Handling Standard as well as both engineering and administrative controls.

    This presentation will review these 10 criteria in detail and provide examples of engineering controls that can be utilized to comply with OSHA’s new sweep auger interpretation policy memo. The PowerPoint presentation is available for viewing on the WABA website at www.wiagribusiness.org. The May 3rd 2013 policy memo can be viewed on OSHA’s website at www.osha.gov.

    ____________________

    Wisconsin Agri-Business Association
    OSHA Issues New Sweep Auger Interpretation Policy Memo
    grain and feed legislation and regulatory topics
  • Runoff Losses from Corn Silage-Manure Cropping Systems

    Author
    Bill Jokela
    Author
    Mike Casler
    Author
    Mike Bertram
    Year
    2014

     Transport of phosphorus (P), nitrogen (N), sediment, and pathogens via runoff from crop fields, especially where manure has been applied, can contribute to degradation of surface waters, leading to eutrophication and potential health effects. In the dairy cropping system of Wisconsin and most of the northern dairy belt, the silage corn phase of the rotation is the most susceptible to runoff and erosion losses because of the lack of protective crop residue and regular applications of livestock manure. We initiated this study to evaluate cropping systems to minimize adverse water quality impact, while maintaining or increasing nutrient efficiency and productivity.

    The objective of this study was to evaluate field runoff losses of nutrients and pathogens from different manure/crop/tillage management systems for silage corn production. We chose to use a paired watershed design, rather than conventional replicated field plots, because the larger field-scale units provide data that more adequately reflects the more complex hydrology of the real-world landscape.

    USDA-Agricultural Research Service
    Runoff Losses from Corn Silage-Manure Cropping Systems
    manure and fertilizer
  •  Non-point source pollution of surface water by nutrients such as phosphorus can degrade water quality for drinking, recreation and industry. When excess nutrients accumulate in lakes and reservoirs, water quality issues such as algal blooms often result. Because agriculture has been identified as a source of non-point phosphorous pollution, there has been a strong push to identify and manage farm sources of phosphorus runoff. On dairy farms, possible sources of this runoff include cropland, grazed pastures and outside cattle holding areas such as feedlots, barnyards and overwintering lots. In the United States, research on phosphorous loss due to runoff from grazed pastures has been limited.

    Physically monitoring phosphorous loss from farms is an expensive, lengthy process. Simulation models are potentially a more rapid, cost-effective way to estimate phosphorous loss from farms. Agriculture Research Service soil scientist Peter Vadas, who works at the U.S Dairy Forage Research Center in Madison, worked with a team of USDA scientists to develop the Annual Phosphorous Loss Estimator (APLE) spreadsheet, which predicts the phosphorous lost through runoff for diverse types of farms and field conditions. APLE is free to download at http://ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=21763.

    Building on this work, Vadas, along with Mark Powell and Geoff Brink from the Dairy Forage Research Center and Dennis Busch from UW-Platteville, monitored phosphorus loss in runoff from grazed pastures and used APLE to predict phosphorus runoff from grazing farms. This research took place from 2010-2012 at the UW-Platteville Pioneer Farm and four Wisconsin grazing farms, and was funded by the WI DATCP Grazing Lands Conservation Initiative (GLCI). The researchers monitored phosphorous loss due to runoff from beef and dairy grazed pastures at the Pioneer Farm. They used this data to validate that APLE can reliably predict phosphorus loss from grazed pastures. They then used APLE to simulate phosphorous loss from the four farms, all of which use managed grazing. The focus of this brief is on the modeling results from these farms.

    The researchers visited each farm three times in January, June and November 2011 to gather seasonal information about farm management. Questionnaires completed by each farm provided snapshot assessments of cattle, feed, fertilizer, manure and cropping management. Using this information, the researchers modeled year-round, whole-farm phosphorus losses under typical management for each farm.

    USDA-Agricultural Research Service
    Monitoring and Predicting Phosphorus Loss from Wisconsin Dairy Grazing Farms
    manure and fertilizer
  • Alfalfa Winterkill

    Author
    Dan Undersander
    Year
    2014
    UW-Madison
    Alfalfa Winterkill
    forages
  • Reduced Lignin Alfalfa Technology Update

    Author
    Jeremy Hayward
    Year
    2014

     Forage Genetics International, the Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation and the U.S. Dairy Forage Research Center began working together in 2000 to produce transgenic alfalfa plants with reduced lignin content and improved fiber digestibility. This team of ~ 12 scientists collaborated in using gene silencing technology to systematically “knock out” each of the twelve genes in the lignin biosynthetic pathway and to compare the effect of these individual gene knockouts on alfalfa forage composition, fiber digestibility (NDFD) and agronomic performance. We were able to develop a gene knockout that gave the desired improvement in forage quality, without any negative impact on forage yield and standability. Multiple transgenic events were created containing this commercial gene silencing construct, and in 2009 a single commercial event was selected after extensive field and laboratory testing.

    This commercial transgenic event has been introgressed into a wide variety of FGI germplasm to produce Reduced Lignin (RL) alfalfa. RL alfalfa has now been tested in multiple genetic backgrounds for multiple years and in multiple locations. When compared both to the non-transgenic control and to appropriate commercial check cultivars, RL alfalfa has consistently shown a ~15% reduction in whole plant lignin content and a 10 to 15% increase in NDFD and RFQ. In current trials, forage yield potential of current RL alfalfa experimentals is similar to appropriate commercial check cultivars. There is no difference in incidence of lodging of RL alfalfa compared to the non-transgenic control or conventional commercial varieties.

    In cutting management trials the decreased lignin content of RL alfalfa has resulted in increased flexibility in harvest timing. A 2011 trial (Fig. 1) compared performance of a RL alfalfa breeding population to two commercial check cultivars, under two harvest treatments: 3 cuts/yr (harvest interval ~38 days) and 4 cuts/yr (harvest interval ~31 days). In this trial, and in similar trials designed to look at changes in forage quality associated with increased physiological maturity, NDFD in RL alfalfa was equal to or higher than NDFD in conventional alfalfa harvested 7-10 days earlier.

    WL Alfalfa
    Reduced Lignin Alfalfa Technology Update
    forages
    alfalfa
  • Alternative Forages: When and How to Utilize Them

    Author
    Dan Undersander
    Year
    2014
    UW-Madison
    Alternative Forages: When and How to Utilize Them
    forages
    alfalfa
  •  Corn silage is commonly fed to dairy cattle and other types of ruminant livestock, but its production can leave cropland vulnerable to nitrate leaching and runoff of nutrients and sediment. As result, a wide variety of cover crops or living mulches (collectively referred to here as “companion crops”) have been developed and promoted to mitigate the adverse environmental impacts of corn production and to improve crop yields, nutrient cycling, and soil quality. Based on a review of the literature, a few of the more promising companion crops for corn in north-central states such as Wisconsin include winter rye, Italian ryegrass, red clover, alfalfa, and kura clover.

    Winter rye is commonly seeded in the fall after corn harvest. Although it often provides little ground cover in the fall and winter, fall-seeded rye grows vigorously during the spring to protect soil and remove residual soil nitrate. Rye can be grazed or harvested for forage prior to a late planting of corn, but earlier spring termination is often used because more mature rye can in some cases deplete soil moisture, immobilize nitrogen, and depress corn yields.

    Italian ryegrass is usually interseeded in June about 4 to 6 weeks after corn planting to permit establishment without excessive competition with corn. In the fall, interseeded ryegrass usually provides greater ground cover and soil nitrate scavenging than fall-seeded rye and it can be grazed or harvested for forage. Ryegrass often winterkills to provide short-lived mulch for spring-seeded crops such as corn and it tends to have a neutral effect on corn yields unless its growth and uptake of soil nitrate are too vigorous.

    Red clover or alfalfa are also typically interseeded in June to prevent excessive competition with corn, but such seedings are prone to fail during dry summer conditions or if corn growth is especially vigorous. If successfully established, interseeded red clover or alfalfa will normally overwinter to provide moderate ground cover and uptake of soil nitrate during both the fall and spring. Red clover and alfalfa cover crops supply nitrogen and often boost yields of subsequent corn crops. A seemingly overlooked option would be to keep interseeded red clover or alfalfa in production for at least one year after corn to provide high quality forage and to further boost subsequent corn yields through greater nitrogen and non-nitrogen rotational effects. This system would be most workable if forage legumes could be interseeded immediately after corn planting, but new approaches are needed to lessen yield-killing competition between the co-planted crops.

    Kura clover may also serve as a dual-purpose crop that can be used one year as a living mulch for corn and then kept in production in following years as a forage crop. Corn grown in kura clover can produce yields comparable to corn grown after killed kura clover, but excessive competition from the living mulch can depress corn yields. Following corn production, kura clover living mulch can recover to full forage production by midsummer of the following year. The performance of the kura-corn system has not, however, been directly compared to other companion crop systems for corn.

    USDA-Agricultural Research Service
    Alfalfa, Clovers, and Grasses as Companion Crops for Silage Corn
    forages
    alfalfa
  • Aphanomyces Root Rot Management in Alfalfa

    Author
    Damon Smith
    Author
    Quinn Watson
    Year
    2014

     Alfalfa is an important crop for Wisconsin and the Midwestern, United States. Commodity records, as of February 1, 2013 report alfalfa prices reaching $265 per ton for hay (1). Nationwide, alfalfa was planted across 55.6 million acres in 2012, the 3rd field crop in terms of acreage after corn and soybean, and has an $8 billion dollar production value (15). Furthermore, alfalfa is the single largest source of protein for livestock, especially for the dairy industry (13). Wisconsin is the second largest producer of dairy in the United States, and since dairy feed is the single largest cost to the milk producer, the yield and consequent price of alfalfa is understandably important to the Wisconsin dairy industry (16).

    Aphanomyces euteiches is a soil-borne oomycete that causes the disease, Aphanomyces root rot. A. euteiches can infect a variety of field crops worldwide, but in Wisconsin, the most important commodity is alfalfa. A. euteiches is most threatening in poorly drained soil conditions because it proliferates with water-motile zoospores. A. euteiches germinates in response to chemical signals from its host’s roots during early seeding, penetrates its host, and causes stunted, chlorotic hypocotyls and cotyledons due to necrosis of the roots early after emergence (12, 13). Although this disease does not cause immediate damping off, the pathogen stunts growth and reduces alfalfa’s ability to compete with weeds. This monocyclic oomycete is persistent and it is suspected that its oospores can survive as many as 30 years in soil that has not been planted with alfalfa. This suggests that A. euteiches can parasitize other hosts. Furthermore, A. euteiches has adapted to have increasingly more virulent phenotypes, beginning with race 1, race 2, and possibly now the most virulent race, race 3 (6, 12).

    Currently, there exists no chemical treatment to manage A. euteiches infestations in alfalfa. The fungicide metalaxyl has been found ineffective against A. euteiches even though it effectively inhibits Phytophthora medicaginis, a second oomycete pathogen that frequently occurs in alfalfa fields (9). Farmers are left two management options for Aphanomyces root rot; crop rotations and planting with alfalfa cultivars that are selectively bred for resistance to specific races of A. euteiches. Currently, the commercial cultivar with the highest resistance available is only against race 2, which will be ineffective in prevention of A. euteiches of the putative race 3. Selectively breeding resistance to A. euteiches in alfalfa has aided in increased alfalfa yields; however breeding is a slow and costly process, especially since more virulent phenotypes than race 2 are predicted to exist (6). In addition, interest has peaked into using alfalfa varieties with the Roundup Ready trait. Anecdotal reports suggest that these Roundup Ready varieties lack the level of resistance to A. euteiches race 2 that exists in conventional varieties. This should be investigated further.

    UW-Madison Plant Pathology
    Aphanomyces Root Rot Management in Alfalfa
    forages
    alfalfa
  • Thrips Dispersal and Soybean Vein Necrosis Virus (SVNV) in Wisconsin Soybean

    Author
    Chris Bloomingdale
    Author
    Damon Smith
    Author
    Russell Groves
    Year
    2014

     Soybean Vein Necrosis Virus (SVNV) is a Tospovirus that was first described in 2008 (Zhou et al., 2011) and first reported in Wisconsin in 2012 (Smith et al., 2013). SVNV symptoms include yellowing and clearing of the veins which eventually lead to necrosis of both the vein and leaf tissue. Soybean thrips, Neohydatothrips variabilis (Beach), have been identified as a principal vector of this virus (Zhou and Tzanetakis, 2013) making SVNV the first known virus to be transmitted by soybean thrips.

    Since SVNV is new to Wisconsin, it is important to understand the timing of thrips movement and virus spread as well as the associated impacts the viral infection may have on soybean. The objective of this research was to establish field trials to investigate the species composition and timing of arrival of thrips in Wisconsin soybean fields, as this information might be important for developing management strategies to reduce the damage caused by SVNV.

    UW-Madison
    Thrips Dispersal and Soybean Vein Necrosis Virus (SVNV) in Wisconsin Soybean
    insects and disease
  •  Insect – Scientific name- Origin- First US record,-First WI Record

    ALAFALFA

    Pea aphid- Acyrthosiphon pisum- Europe or Asia – first record 1878 US

    Cow pea AphidAphis craccivora- found worldwide- problem in WI in 2003

    Spotted alfalfa aphid Therioaphis maculata– Middle East –New Mexico 1954 WI 1957

    Alfalfa Plant bug –Adelphocoris lineolatus – Palaeartic- Iowa 1929

    Alfalfa weevil– Hypera postica North Africa –Maryland 1951 WI 1966

    Clover leaf weevil – Hypera punctata– Europe 1875 –

    Clover Root Curcurlio- Sitona sp.- Europe

    Alfalfa Blotch leafminer Agromyza frontella– Mass 1968 WI 1994

    CORN

    Corn leaf aphid Rhopalosiphum maidis– Asian?- worldwide

    European Corn Borer- Ostrina nubalis- Europe – 1917 US -1938 WI

    Western Bean Cutworm –Richia albicosta -WI 2005

    Potato Stem Borer Europe –Hydrecia micacea– 1908 US -1970 WI

    Western corn rootworm – Diabroticaa virgifera – Native -Colorado 1909

    Northern corn rootworm –Native- Diabrotica barberi- Colorado

    WHEAT

    Cereal leaf beetle- Oulema melanopus Europe -1962 US- -1971 WI

    SOYBEAN

    Soybean aphid Aphis glycines -Asia – WI and US JULY 2000

    Mexican Bean beetle-Epilachna varivestis, – 1970’s WI

    Japanese Beetle –Popilia japonica – Japan -New Jersey 1912- 1990’s WI

    Brown Marmorated Stink Bug – Halyomorpha halys -Asian US 1988-2011 WI

    OTHER NOTABLES

    Spotted wing Drosophila- Drosophila suzuchii- 2008 US 2010 WI

    European earwigs- Forficula auricularia Europe- 1907 US-WI 1970??

    Multicolored Asian Lady beetle – Harmonia axyrdis – Asian/Japan-1988 US- 1993 WI

    UW-Madison
    Bugs: The More Things Change, The More They Stay The Same
    insects and disease
  •  Moths began arriving in the state on April 15, first appearing near Janesville in Rock County. The first significant flight was registered in Dodge and Grant counties from May 6-7 and the primary cutting period was predicted to start by May 28. Spring planting delays and rampant weed infestations created very favorable outbreak conditions this year, but widespread cutworm problems failed to develop. The spring migration of 577 moths collected from April 16-June 5 was much smaller than last year’s flight of 2,601 moths and damage to emerging corn was not as prevalent or severe as expected.

    Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade, and Consumer Protection
    Wisconsin Insect Survey Results 2013 and Outlook for 2014
    insects and disease
    insects
  •  Transgenic Bt corn hybrids that produce insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner have become the standard insect management tactic across the U.S. Corn Belt. Widespread planting of Bt corn places intense selection pressure on target insects to develop resistance, and evolution of resistance threatens to erode benefits associated with Bt corn, such as reduced reliance on conventional insecticides. Recognizing the threat of resistance, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency requires seed companies to include an insect resistance management (IRM) plan when registering a Bt trait. The goal of IRM plans is to delay Bt resistance in populations of target insects. One element of IRM is the presence of a non-Bt refuge to maintain Bt-susceptible individuals within a population, and growers are required to implement IRM on-farm by planting a refuge. Field-evolved resistance has not been detected for the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), even though this species has been exposed to Bt proteins common in U.S. corn hybrids since 1996. The IRM situation is unfolding differently for Bt corn targeting the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte. In this article, we examine the scientific evidence for D. v. virgifera resistance to Bt rootworm traits and the cropping system practices that have contributed to the first reports of field-evolved resistance to a Bt toxin by D. v. virgifera. We explain why this issue has developed, and emphasize the necessity of an integrated pest management approach to address the issue.

    UW-Madison
    Resistance to BT Corn by Western Corn Rootworm in the U.S. Corn Belt
    insects and disease
    insects
  • Soil Applied Corn Rootworm Insecticides 101

    Author
    Bryan Jensen
    Year
    2014

     Using soil insecticides for control of corn rootworm larvae have been a common practice on continuous corn since the 1950s. However, the development of Bt CRW hybrids has raised concerns regarding use, efficacy and resistance. Particularly with newer crop advisors that are unaccustomed with their use.

    UW Madison
    Soil Applied Corn Rootworm Insecticides 101
    insects and disease
    corn
    insects
  •  Methodologies to Value the Company

    There are three basic approaches to value a company: 1) the Asset approach; 2) the Income approach; and 3) the Market approach.  These approaches are discussed.

    CliftonLarsonAllen
    Grain Elevator and Feed Mill Asset Valuations - What is My Business Worth
    grain and feed marketing
  • Distribution & Character of Cucurbit Downy Mildew and Potato and Tomato Late Blight in 2013

    Author
    Amanda Gevens
    Author
    Anna Seidl
    Author
    Amilcar Sanchez Perez
    Year
    2014

     On vegetable and potato crops, the water molds, or fungus-like, oomycetous plant pathogens, which threaten the greatest crop losses include Pseudoperonospora cubensis (causal agent of downy mildew on cucumbers), and Phytophthora infestans (causal agent of late blight on potatoes and tomatoes). Downy mildew and late blight can both be aerially dispersed over long distances and genotypes identified in the region are not known to be soilborne at this time (1, 2). Initial inoculum and infection occurs as the result of movement of spores in the air from diseased fields to healthy, infected seed or transplants, or by overwintering plant tissues harboring the pathogen from the previous year (e.g. volunteers, cull piles, compost piles). In Wisconsin in 2013, both diseases were detected in vegetable crops.

    UW-Madison
    Distribution & Character of Cucurbit Downy Mildew and Potato and Tomato Late Blight in 2013
    vegetable topics
  •  Foodborne infectious disease transmission of 31 pathogen types is estimated to account for 9.4 million illnesses, 56,000 hospitalizations, and 1,300 deaths in the United States annually (Scallan et al. 2011). The economic costs from foodborne illness in the United States are more than $50 billion per year (Scharff 2012). The Food Safety Modernization Act of 2011 recognizes agricultural water is a source of pathogen contamination of fresh produce and monitoring strategies are being proposed to assess the sanitary quality of water used for food production and processing. Nonetheless, one lesson learned from foodborne outbreaks the past several years is that the events and pathogen movement routes leading to contamination are often surprising. Food producers need to be constantly vigilant for previously unanticipated contamination routes.

    This presentation tells three stories about three studies, highlighting the potential for human pathogens to travel unusual routes and end up in surprising places. Insofar as these routes and places intersect with food, foodborne illness can result.

    USDA-Agricultural Research Service
    From the Ground Up: Groundwater, Surface Water Runoff, and Air as Pathogen Routes for Food Contamination
    vegetable topics
    environment
  • Nitrogen Fertilization Decisions: Can We Do Better

    Author
    James Camberato
    Year
    2014

     Nitrogen (N) fertilization recommendations for corn in several states in the Midwest (including WI and IN) are based on the results of many N response trials conducted over a number of years, locations, soil types, and hybrids. The maximum return to N (MRTN) is calculated based on the yield response to applied N derived from the analysis of these trials and the price of grain and N fertilizer (Sawyer and Nafziger, 2006). The recommended fertilizer rate represents the point at which no further profit is realized by the application of additional N. All states using the MRTN approach consider crop rotation an important factor in determining the N recommendation and several include soil type, soil productivity, or region of the state as well (http://extension.agron.iastate.edu/soilfertility/nrate.aspx).

    Purdue University
    Nitrogen Fertilization Decisions: Can We Do Better
    nutrient management
    nitrogen
  • Corn Stover Removal and Soil Fertility

    Author
    Matt Ruark
    Year
    2014

     With cellulosic ethanol production on its way to becoming a reality, the effects of stover removal on the landscape have not been fully examined and efficient agricultural management practices for biofuel production systems have not been developed. The current UW recommendations (e.g., UWEX A2809) do not recommend changes to nutrient management plans based on biomass removal (i.e., when corn is grown for silage). Data sets which evaluate the short- or long-term effects of biomass removal on optimum N fertilization rates for continuous corn in Wisconsin do not exist. Long-term field research (30+ years) in Wisconsin has shown that continuous corn rotations maintain and often increase corn yields and NUE over time when N is fertilized at UW recommended rates (Bundy et al., 2011); SOC and soil N supplying capability also have been shown to increase. These results indicate that with proper N fertilization and stover additions to the soil, the capacity of the soil to supply N for crop production can be maintained. An increase in biomass removal may jeopardize the sustainability of these agricultural systems. Future research in this area should focus how stover removal affects optimum N fertilization rates. However, the quantity of studies which evaluate the value of crop residue related to N fertilization rates are lacking.

    UW-Madison
    Corn Stover Removal and Soil Fertility
    nutrient management
    corn
    quality
    Soil
  • Relationship Between SDS and SCN in Commercial Soybean Fields in Wisconsin

    Author
    David Marburger
    Author
    John Gaska
    Author
    Shawn Conley
    Year
    2014

    Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN) is an economically important disease of soybean in Wisconsin. It was first discovered in the southeastern part of the state in 1981 and now is found in over 90% of the state’s soybean acres (Fig. 1). It is caused by the soybean cyst nematode, a non-segmented roundworm that inhabits the soil. More recently, another economically important disease of soybean, Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS), was first found in southeastern WI in 2006. A fungus found in the soil called Fusarium virguliforme is the causal agent of SDS.

    UW-Madison
    Relationship Between SDS and SCN in Commercial Soybean Fields in Wisconsin
    insects and disease
    Soybean
  • 2013 Wisconsin Crop Disease Survey Results

    Author
    Adrian Barta
    Author
    Anette Phibbs
    Author
    Susan Lueloff
    Year
    2014

    Continuing survey work for soybean seedling root rots again found Phytophthora sansomeana along with the endemic Phytophthora sojae. P. sansomeana was first detected in Wisconsin in 2012; results from the 2013 survey of 50 randomly-selected soybean fields and two corn fields showed soybean roots from four soybean fields and corn roots from one corn field were infected. Survey staff re-sampled the three fields in 2013 that tested positive for P. sansomeana in 2012, including two fields that had been rotated to corn. Fields were sampled between June 17 and July 18. While the significance of this P. sansomeana find is being investigated, it is the host range that raises concern about this organism. With both corn and soybeans being susceptible to infection (though the development of disease on corn has not been documented in Wisconsin to date), the potential for increases in inoculum is significant, given the widespread use of corn/soybean rotations.

    Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade, and Consumer Protection
    2013 Wisconsin Crop Disease Survey Results
    insects and disease
  • Sclerotinia stem rot (SSR) or white mold of soybean is caused by the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Grau and Hartman, 1999). In the temperate north central soybean production areas of the United States, SSR can be a significant yield limiting disease. In seven growing seasons between 1996 and 2009, yield losses as a result of SSR where greater than 10 million bushels (270 million kg) per year (Peltier et al., 2012). Yield can be reduced 2-5 bushels per acre (133-333 kg/ha) for every 10% increment increase in SSR incidence in soybeans at the R7 growth stage (Peltier et al., 2012). These impacts on yield are significant and make SSR one of the most important diseases of soybean in the North Central U.S.

    UW-Madison
    White Mold Management in 2013: Was It Product or Timing
    disease management
  • The Impact of Soil Health on Crop Production

    Author
    Francisco Arriaga
    Year
    2014

    Soil health can be defined as the capacity of a specific soil to function in a natural or managed system to sustain plant and animal productivity, maintain environmental quality, and promote plant and animal health (SSSA, 2013). Soil organic matter (SOM) is a key component in soil health as it affects soil chemical, physical, and biological properties. It is commonly accepted that SOM enhances fertility, improves physical properties (such as, infiltration and water retention), and enhances overall soil health. Although improvements in crop varieties/hybrids and innovation in fertilizers continue to boost average yields, proper soil health is important for sustaining productivity. Crop and soil management are key to increasing SOM and improving soil health.

    UW-Madison Soil Science
    The Impact of Soil Health on Crop Production
    economics, transportation and soil health
    soil management
  • Discussion related to the benefits of the integration of cover crops and improvement of soil health as part of crop management practices has increased over the past several years. A recent survey conducted by the Conservation Technology Information Center reported that 2012 harvested yields from corn fields following a cover crop were 9.6% greater than side-by-side fields with no cover crops, and soybean yields improved 11.6% following cover crops. Yield differences were even greater in regions most impacted by the 2012 drought, with corn yielding 11% greater and soybeans yielded 14.3% greater than those grown in fields with no cover crops.

    UW-Madison
    Crop Rotation and Cover Cropping Impacts on Soil Health
    economics, transportation and soil health
  • UW Madison
    A Practical Sustainability Assessment Program: Processing Vegetable Results
    vegetable topics
    sustainability
  • Evaluation of potential new herbicides in garden beets

    Author
    Jed Colquhoun
    Author
    Dan Heider
    Author
    Richard Rittmeyer
    Year
    2014

    Weed management options in garden beets have become limited in recent years,
    particularly after the introduction of glyphosate-resistant sugar beets and subsequent loss of
    herbicide registrations. The primary objective of this project was to evaluate registered and nonregistered
    herbicides as part of pre- and post-emergent programs in an effort to achieve seasonlong
    weed control. Studies were conducted in 2013 at two locations (Arlington and Plover, WI).
    A total of 12 weed management programs were evaluated. Four garden beet varieties were
    included: ‘Ruby Queen’, ‘Detroit Supreme’, ‘Red Ace’ and ‘Red Titan’. This study will be
    repeated in the 2014 growing season at both locations.

    UW-Madison
    Evaluation of potential new herbicides in garden beets
    vegetable topics
    beets
  • Wisconsin has a long history of collaboration and partnerships around issues of nutrients and water quality. Over the course of 2012-2013, Wisconsin developed a statewide “Nutrient Reduction Strategy” document in response to a request from USEPA to all states in the Mississippi River Basin. Although based on multi-state interest in reducing nutrients to the Gulf of Mexico, Wisconsin’s strategy includes information for the Great Lakes and also Wisconsin’s groundwater. The strategy document was developed through DNR leadership in partnership with University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin’s federal, state and local conservation agencies, and others. It was reviewed by agency staff, agency leadership, broader stakeholder interests, as well as the Natural Resources Board and the ATCP Board.

    UW-Madison
    Wisconsin's Nutrient Reduction Strategy for Water Quality
    watershed studies and ag technology
  • Social Media in Agriculture

    Author
    Don Stanley
    Year
    2014

    Whether or not we like it or we use it, it is clear social media has transformed our world. Social media has created dramatic shifts in how people seek information, how they share information, how they learn, how they socialize, and how they interact with organizations and businesses alike. In this session, we will provide a broad overview of the tools most commonly used today, discuss how they are used by consumers and organizations alike and then share best practices for getting started or improve your use of social media.

    3Rhino Media
    Social Media in Agriculture
    agriculture business
  • Monitoring for Manure Management

    Author
    John Panuska
    Year
    2014
    UW-Madison Biological Systems Engineering
    Monitoring for Manure Management
    manure and fertilizer
  • Nitrogen (N) fertilization recommendations for corn in several states in the Midwest (including WI and IN) are based on the results of many N response trials conducted over a number of years, locations, soil types, and hybrids. The maximum return to N (MRTN) is calculated based on the yield response to applied N derived from the analysis of these trials and the price of grain and N fertilizer (Sawyer and Nafziger, 2006). The recommended fertilizer rate represents the point at which no further profit is realized by the application of additional N. All states using the MRTN approach consider crop rotation an important factor in determining the N recommendation and several include soil type, soil productivity, or region of the state as well (http://extension.agron.iastate.edu/soilfertility/nrate.aspx).

    Purdue University- Agronomy
    Nitrogen Fertilization Decisions: Can we do better with adaptive N management
    nutrient management
    management
    nitrogen
  • Wisconsin NRCS Update

    Author
    Pat Murphy
    Year
    2014
    NRCS
    Wisconsin NRCS Update
    nutrient management
  • NM Panel-DATCP Updates

    Author
    Sara Walling
    Year
    2014
    Wisconsin Department of Agriculture Trade and Consumer Protection
    NM Panel-DATCP Updates
    nutrient management
    environment
    management
  • WisCALM

    Author
    Andrew Craig
    Year
    2014
    Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources
    WisCALM
    manure and fertilizer
    management
    nutrient
  • Implementing on-farm research

    Author
    James Camberato
    Year
    2014

    Agricultural production advances occur incessantly. Constant development and marketing of a myriad of crop genetics, equipment, fertilizers, pesticides, and management practices require evaluation via research to enable the wise adoption of beneficial products and practices. Research conducted on farmer’s fields by farmers themselves or in cooperation with industry or university partners is a useful approach to comparing the new to the old and facilitate decisions to embrace change. Field-scale research is more realistic and believable to farmers and the agricultural industry thus encourages the adoption of proven products and practices. Better yet, a well designed field-scale research study is superior to traditional small plot research in detecting grain yield differences!

    Purdue University- Agronomy
    Implementing on-farm research
    nutrient management
  • The REAL story behind SDS-glyphosate interactions

    Author
    Kiersten Wise
    Year
    2014
    The REAL story behind SDS-glyphosate interactions
    weed management
    glyphosate
    herbicide
  • Purdue University- Agronomy
    Pre- and Post-tassel Fungicides in Field corn: What the Data Tells Us
    nutrient management
    corn
  • CME Group
    Issues and Happenings at the Chicago Board of Trade
    agriculture business
  • USDA crop reporting process- where do the numbers come from?
    agriculture business
  • CHS Hedging Inc
    Wisconsin Crop Management Conference- Commodity Markets Update
    agriculture business
    management
  • Fertilizer Industry Update 2013

    Author
    Lara Moody
    Year
    2014
    The Fertilizer Institute
    Fertilizer Industry Update 2013
    manure and fertilizer
    fertilizer
  • Deficit Irrigation Management

    Author
    AJ Bussan
    Year
    2014
    Deficit Irrigation Management
    water and soil management
    management
  • Manure Application Using Irrigation Equipment

    Author
    Zach Zopp
    Author
    Rebecca Larson
    Year
    2014
    UW-Madison Biological Systems Engineering
    Manure Application Using Irrigation Equipment
    watershed studies and ag technology
    manure
  • Do Weeds Reduce Forage Quality

    Author
    Mark Renz
    Year
    2014
    UW-Madison Agronomy
    Do Weeds Reduce Forage Quality
    forages
  • The Value of Yield Maps and Predicting Future Management

    Author
    Bill Schaumberg
    Author
    Mike Cerny
    Author
    Nick Goeser
    Year
    2014
    Polenske Agronomic Consulting
    The Value of Yield Maps and Predicting Future Management
    seeds and traits
  • UW-Madison Agronomy
    Options for Corn when Flooding, Drought, Late-planting, and Early Frost are Conspiring Against You
    seeds and traits
    corn
  • UW-Madison Agronomy
    80 Years of Breeding by Agronomy Interactions in 30 Minutes or Less
    nutrient management
    grain
    Soybean
  • UW-Madison Entomology
    Neonic Insecticides and the Current State of Soybean Aphid in Wisconsin
    insects and disease
    insecticides
  • UW-Madison Entomology
    Bugs: The More Things Change the More They Stay the Same
    insects and disease
    insects
  • UW-Madison Agronomy
    Not Just Glyphosate: Alternative Programs Approach to Weed Management
    weed management
  • UW-Madison Ag & Applied Economics
    What Do Wisconsin's Atrazine Prohibition Areas Tell Us About Weed Management?
    weed management
    herbicide
  • Big Equipment and Sprayer Technology

    Author
    Greg Kruger
    Year
    2014
    University of Nebraska- Lincoln Dept. of Agronomy
    Big Equipment and Sprayer Technology
    weed management
  • Harvest 2013 Grain Quality Issues

    Author
    Bob Marlow
    Year
    2014
    The Anderson Inc
    Harvest 2013 Grain Quality Issues
    nutrient management
    grain
  • Grain and Warehousing Updates

    Author
    Eric Hanson
    Year
    2014
    Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade, and Consumer Protection
    Grain and Warehousing Updates
    grain and feed legislation and regulatory topics
    grain
  • Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade, and Consumer Protection
    OSHA Issues New Sweep Auger Interpretation Policy Memo
    grain and feed legislation and regulatory topics
    grain
  • Pfaff Public Affairs
    Legislative Updates on Issues Important to Agriculture
    grain and feed legislation and regulatory topics
    management
  • Importance of Potassium for Wisconsin Cropping Systems

    Author
    Carrie A.M. Laboski
    Year
    2014

    Potassium is important for crop production in Wisconsin particularly in rotations with alfalfa and corn silage. Unfortunately when potash prices increased dramatically in 2008 many growers chose not to apply potash or apply less than recommended rates. Recently, soil test K levels have been decreasing throughout much of Wisconsin even before potash prices increased (Fig. 1). Though changes in soil test K over time vary by county (Fig. 2).

    UW-Madison, Soil Science
    Importance of Potassium for Wisconsin Cropping Systems
    nutrient management
  • Plant Tissue Testing in Wisconsin: What’s New?

    Author
    John Peters
    Author
    Carrie A.M. Laboski
    Year
    2014

    Interest in plant tissue testing as a tool to help diagnose the plant nutrient status of crops has increased greatly in the past few years. Results of tissue testing along with a soil test can provide a valuable guide to more efficient crop production. Soil tests provide a good estimate of lime and general fertilizer needs. By adding tissue analysis data, the user is able to better evaluate fertilizer and management practices more accurately by providing a thorough nutritional view of the crop. Several key uses of plant analysis include: evaluation of fertilizer efficiency, determination of availability of elements for which reliable soil tests are not available, and the ability to evaluate the interaction among plant nutrients.

    UW Madison, Soil Science
    Plant Tissue Testing in Wisconsin: What's New?
    nutrient management
  • Green Bay is the largest freshwater estuary in the world. All the waters within the Lower Fox River Basin drain to Green Bay. However, there are waters within the Lower Fox River Basin that are impaired due to high levels of sediment and phosphorus entering the waters. Impaired waters need to be corrected – – restored to fishable, swimmable, and designated use conditions as required by the U.S. EPA in the Clean Water Act.

    WI DNR
    After TMDL approval: the net steps in the Lower Fox River watershed
    watershed studies and ag technology
  • Managing Nutrients After a Drought

    Author
    Carrie A.M. Laboski
    Year
    2013

    There is a strong possibility that there will excess (carryover or residual) N in the soil profile after the 2012 corn crop is harvested because the corn was too affected by drought to use all of the applied N. If soybean is the previous crop, there is a low likelihood of excess N remaining in the soil profile. Regardless of previous crop, some of the P and K applied last year will be available for the 2013 crop if the field was impacted by drought.

    UW Madison, Soil Science Department
    Managing Nutrients After a Drought
    nutrient management
  • A variety of research has been conducted to assess the efficacy of the nitrification inhibitor Instinct in Wisconsin from 2008 through 2012. Several studies have focused on the use of Instinct with UAN and urea as well as dairy manure. Initial research with UAN applied preplant with and without Instinct on a deep well drained silt loam, found a 5 bu/a yield increase, which was not significant, in two of three years. In both of these years, there was excessive rainfall that resulted in 30 to 40 lb/a of N loss from preplant applied N. In another study, Instinct applied with urea significantly increased corn grain and silage yield when applied in fall and spring. However, application of Instinct with liquid dairy manure did not increase grain yield, but did result in significantly greater silage yield. In general, measurement of nitrate and ammonium concentrations in soil demonstrate that ammonium N concentrations are greater and nitrate N concentrations are lower where Instinct was applied compared to where it wasn’t. This suggests a lower likelihood of N loss from leaching or denitrification where Instinct was applied, even though it didn’t always translate into greater yield.

    UW Madison, Soil Science
    Efficacy of Instinct to Improve Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Manure and Fertilizer
    nutrient management
  • Dairy Manure Application Methods: N Credits, Gaseous N Losses, and Corn Yield

    Author
    Carrie A.M. Laboski
    Author
    William Jokela
    Author
    T.W. Andraski
    Year
    2013

    Ammonia (NH3) nitrogen (N) losses from surface-applied manure can be large, reducing the amount of N available to the crop and, therefore, the economic value as a fertilizer N credit. Ammonia emission into the atmosphere can also contribute to environmental problems. Ammonia emission can contribute to eutrophication of surface waters (especially marine and estuarine) via atmospheric deposition. The decreased amount of available N in manure reduces the N:P ratio and leads to a more rapid build-up of P in the soil for a given amount available N. And ammonia in the atmosphere can combine with fine particulates to lower air quality.

    UW Madison, Soil Science
    Dairy Manure Application Methods: N Credits, Gaseous N Losses, and Corn Yield
    nutrient management
  • Effect of Soybean Variety, Glyphosate Use and Manganese Application on Soybean Yield

    Author
    Carrie A.M. Laboski
    Author
    Todd Andraski
    Author
    Shawn Conley
    Year
    2012

    Manganese (Mn) deficiency in crops has occasionally been noted in Wisconsin and is most common on soils with high pH (>7.0) and/or high organic matter (>6.0 %). Soils that meet these criteria are typically, but not exclusively, found in Eastern Wisconsin. Soybean has a relatively high requirement for Mn. Current University of Wisconsin nutrient application guidelines (Laboski et al., 2006) for Mn are based on research conducted in the early 1970s (Randall et al., 1975) when soybean was gaining popularity as a crop in Wisconsin. These guidelines indicate that for soils with OM ≤ 6.0% a soil test for Mn coupled with the relative crop need for Mn should be considered to determine fertilizer Mn needs. For crops with a high relative need for Mn, like soybean, grown on soils with OM > 6.0%, starter fertilizer containing Mn or foliar Mn application is recommended.

    UW Madison, Soil Science
    Effect of Soybean Variety, Glyphosate Use and Manganese Application on Soybean Yield
    nutrient management
  • Dairy Manure Treatment Effects on Soil Test Phosphorus

    Author
    Carrie A.M. Laboski
    Author
    Paulo Pagliari
    Year
    2012

    Because of increasing environmental concerns related to manure disposal, some farms are adopting manure handling systems that diminish the potential environmental problems associated with the large amount of manure produced in relatively small areas. For example, in Wisconsin as of 2007, there were 20 farms with fully operational anaerobic manure digesters with an average of 1,474 cows in each farm (USDA, 2010). Manure liquid-solid separation is another alternative option to manure handling. The separated liquid can be reused in barns as flush water, a crop nutrient source, or irrigation water; whereas, the separated solids can be recycled as bedding, used as nutrient source for crop production, or sold off farm as a horticultural amendment (personal communication with farmers). Manure composting has been used as an alternate manure handling process. Composting decreases the total amount of manure through water loss and also eliminates most of the pathogens in manures (Rynk et al., 1992). In-barn composted bedded packs are an alternative option to complete composting and consist of bedding layers (e.g., saw dust) that are constantly added to the barn floor without removal of the older layer. The bedded pack is aerated daily to stimulate microbial decomposition.

    UW Madison, Soil Science
    Dairy Manure Treatment Effects on Soil Test Phosphorus
    nutrient management
  • Do Corn Hybrid Traits Affect Nitrogen Use Efficiency

    Author
    Carrie A.M. Laboski
    Author
    Todd Andraski
    Author
    Joe Lauer
    Year
    2011

    The number of acres planted to corn rootworm (Diabrotica spp.) (CRW) resistant corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids have increased in recent years. The CRW resistant corn hybrids may have a greater yield potential because of reduced stress from CRW larval feeding resulting in larger root systems. Many agronomists believe higher N rates are needed to achieve the greater yield potential associated with these hybrids. However, larger root systems of CRW resistant hybrids could result in greater N use efficiency and perhaps a reduced N fertilizer need compared to non-CRW resistant hybrids.

    UW Madison, Soil Science
    Do Corn Hybrid Traits Affect Nitrogen Use Efficiency
    nutrient management
  • UW Madison, Soil Science
    The More Things Change, the More They Stay the Same: Advances in Soils and Agronomy over 50 Years
    nutrient management
  • The Most Important Tool in the Nitrogen Management Toolbox

    Author
    Carrie A.M. Laboski
    Year
    2011

    Nitrogen management continues to be one of the biggest challenges facing crop managers. High fertilizer prices, confusion about fertilizer technologies, and weather uncertainties are just a few of the issues encountered when trying to balance economic and environmental sustainability. The purpose of this paper is to outline how understanding the N cycle is the most important tool that you can use to make profitable N management decisions.

    UW Madison, Soil Science
    The Most Important Tool in the Nitrogen Management Toolbox
    nutrient management
  • Troubleshooting Fields Using Plant Analysis

    Author
    Carrie A.M. Laboski
    Year
    2010

    Plant analysis can be a useful tool for troubleshooting plant nutrition related crop production problems during the growing season. From a troubleshooting standpoint, plant  analysis can confirm visual symptomology of nutrient deficiencies or toxicities, reveal early stages of nutrient deficiencies, and determine the availability of nutrients for which a reliable soil test does not exist or soil test calibration has not been completed. Plant analysis can also be used to assess a crop’s response to applied nutrients, particularly where different treatments may have been applied in the same field (e.g., strips with and without sulfur addition).

    UW Madison, Soil Science
    Troubleshooting Fields Using Plant Analysis
    nutrient management
  • 2010 Nutrient Watch List

    Author
    Carrie A.M. Laboski
    Year
    2010

    Nitrogen is a very important nutrient for corn production and agronomists invest a lot of time in determining an appropriate application rate/time, assessing N credits from manure and legumes, and worrying about N losses. All aspects of N management impact profitability and environmental quality. Phosphorus is another agronomically important nutrient, which, in recent years, has become a driving force in nutrient management plans. So much focus is placed on N and P, that at times, other nutrients may not be given adequate attention. The goal of this paper is to highlight two nutrients, which will likely have increasing agronomic importance in Wisconsin cropping systems.

    UW Madison, Soil Science
    2010 Nutrient Watch List
    nutrient management
  • Effect of Sampling Time on Soil Test Potassium Levels

    Author
    Lauren F. Vitko
    Author
    Carrie A.M. Laboski
    Author
    Todd W. Andraski
    Year
    2010

    Soil tests are an important tool to guide farmers in determining an appropriate fertilizer application rate. The interpretation of K soil test results are complicated by the fact that STK levels are known to fluctuate throughout the year (Blakemore, 1966; Childs and Jencks, 1967; Liebhardt and Teel, 1977). Therefore, the time of soil sampling may impact fertilizer recommendations. Fluctuations in soil test K (STK) have been attributed to clay mineralogy and environmental conditions, like soil moisture status, wetting and drying cycles, and freezing and thawing cycles (Childs and Jencks, 1967).

    UW Madison, Soil Science
    Effect of Sampling Time on Soil Test Potassium Levels
    nutrient management
  • Fertilizer Management: New Economics, New Practices

    Author
    Carrie A.M. Laboski
    Year
    2009

    Fertilizer prices are at or near record highs. In addition, prices, particularly for nitrogen (N), will likely be volatile through spring. In the current high cost environment, how can, or should, fertilizer management be changed to maximize economic returns? The objective of this paper is to briefly outline how to assess fertilizer management practices to ensure profitability.

    UW Madison, Soil Science
    Fertilizer Management: New Economics, New Practices
    nutrient management
  • Nitrogen Availability of Treated and Raw Dairy Manure

    Author
    Shannon Earhart
    Author
    Carrie A.M. Laboski
    Author
    Christopher Baxter
    Year
    2009

    There is minimal information on the nitrogen (N) availability and composition of treated manures. Knowing how N availability differs with manure treatment will result in better N crediting guidelines. Raw dairy manure and anaerobically digested manure were incubated with five typical Wisconsin soils for 112 d. Net N mineralized from the different N sources were compared. Nitrogen mineralization differed by manure type and also by soil. Overall, the digested slurry and the digested separated liquid mineralized more N than the raw slurry. The digested separated solid mineralized significantly less N than the other manures. Net N mineralization as a percent of total N applied was 39, 58, 49, and 17% for raw, digested slurry, digested separated liquid, and digested separated solids, respectively, when averaged over all soils. C:N ratio of manure was found to be the most useful predictor of manure N mineralization.

    UW Madison, Soil Science
    Nitrogen Availability of Treated and Raw Dairy Manure
    nutrient management
  • Understanding Salt Index of Fertilizers

    Author
    Carrie A.M. Laboski
    Year
    2008

    Most fertilizer materials are highly soluble salts, which dissociate in the soil solution following application. Almost every spring there are reports of fertilizer burn somewhere in Wisconsin. Seedling injury caused by fertilizer burn can result in minimal to extensive stand loss and can be extremely costly in high value vegetable crops. I have been asked recently to review several problem fields where liquid fertilizer was placed in-furrow with the seed both with and without Y-splitters or was dribbled above the row on the soil surface. Stands were significantly reduced in each field. It is important to understand salt index and factors which contribute to fertilizer burn in order to avoid fertilizer injury to seedlings.

    UW Madison, Soil Science
    Understanding Salt Index of Fertilizers
    nutrient management
  • Verifying Nitrogen Application Rates for Corn

    Author
    Carrie A.M. Laboski
    Author
    Todd Andraski
    Author
    Chris Boerboom
    Year
    2008

    The price of fertilizer nitrogen (N) has increased substantially over the past three months and ranges from $0.37 to 0.60/lb N with anhydrous ammonia at the lower end of the range and poly coated urea (ESN®) at the upper end of the range. Many dealerships are expecting the price of N fertilizer to increase as we move towards planting. With the increasing N prices, questions are being asked regarding how much N should be applied to maximize economic return in corn production. As of mid-December 2007, the price of corn was between $3.80 to $4.25/bu depending on contract, location, etc. Thus, the N:corn price ratio varies from 0.09 to 0.16. These price ratios do not differ substantially from the price ratios that were prevalent in winter 2005/2006.

    UW Madison, Soil Science
    Verifying Nitrogen Application Rates for Corn
    nutrient management
  • Effectiveness of Avail for Improving Potato Yield

    Author
    Matthew Repking
    Author
    Carrie A.M. Laboski
    Year
    2008

    Potato plants are very inefficient in their ability to utilize soil phosphorus (P) on some soils (Kelling et al., 1997). The optimum soil test P category for potato is more than three times greater than for other crops (Laboski et al., 2006). Being a high value crop, potato growers generally tend to apply more P fertilizer than recommended because it is inexpensive insurance if a yield response to applied P would occur. State nutrient management regulation requires growers to write and follow a nutrient management plan. This regulation also requires that nutrient application rates should conform to University of Wisconsin Extension (UWEX) guidelines. The potato growers feel that UWEX fertilizer recommendations for P are too low and could potentially reduce potato yield and quality.

    UW Madison, Soil Science
    Effectiveness of Avail for Improving Potato Yield
    nutrient management
  • Performance of New Corn Nitrogen Rate Guidelines

    Author
    Carrie A.M. Laboski
    Author
    Larry G. Bundy
    Author
    Todd W. Andraski
    Year
    2007

    In fall 2005 the Department of Soil Science unveiled a nitrogen (N) rate guideline tool to aid producers in determining a N fertilizer rate for corn that is appropriate for their economic situation. This tool is called the maximum return to nitrogen (MRTN) approach. MRTN will be described briefly; for more details please see Laboski et al. (2006) and Laboski (2006).

    The new N rate guidelines for Wisconsin are provided in Table 1. In order to determine the N application rate using this table, one must first know:

    • Soil yield potential. All soils in Wisconsin have been classified into yield potential categories based on the soil’s rooting depth, water holding capacity, drainage, and length of growing season. Soil yield potentials can be found in UWEX publication A2809 “Nutrient application guidelines for field, vegetable, and fruit crops in Wisconsin.”
    • Previous crop.
    • N:corn price ratio. This is the price of N per pound divided by the price of corn per bushel
    UW-Madison Soil Science
    Performance of New Corn Nitrogen Rate Guidelines
    nutrient management
  • Manure Phosphorus Source and Rate Effects on Soil Test Levels and Corn Growth

    Author
    Carrie A.M. Laboski
    Author
    Emily G. Sneller
    Year
    2007

    Nutrient management planning has become an important tool in an effort to improve water quality. In Wisconsin, nutrient management regulations are in the process of moving to a phosphorus (P) based standard. As such, P budgeting and the P index will greatly influence manure applications. Thus, there is a need to better understand how soil test P changes with respect to P based manure application.

    In Wisconsin, only 60% of the total P applied in manure is considered to be available to the crop during the first year after application (i.e. relative availability (RA) of 0.6). From a P budgeting standpoint, this means manure is 60% as effective at increasing soil test P as the same amount of total P applied as fertilizer.

    UW-Madison, Soil Science
    Manure Phosphorus Source and Rate Effects on Soil Test Levels and Corn Growth
    nutrient management
  • Does It Pay to Use Nitrification and Urease Inhibitors?

    Author
    Carrie A.M. Laboksi
    Year
    2006

    As nitrogen (N) prices have risen, corn growers are beginning to think about reducing N application rates. Growers are weighing decisions to reduce N rates along with the potential for N losses that may occur because of the form of N used, method of application, and weather conditions. In the past, growers may have increased N application rates to offset the potential for N loss and subsequent yield loss. This practice was considered to be cheap insurance largely because the cost of the extra N fertilizer was cheap. With today’s N and corn prices, this type of insurance may not be so cheap. Thus, revisiting the practices and economics of applying nitrification and urease inhibitors to protect against N loss is relevant.

    UW-Madison, Soil Science
    Does It Pay to Use Nitrification and Urease Inhibitors?
    nutrient management
  • Recently soil fertility specialists in Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, and Illinois have agreed to use the same philosophy to develop N rate guidelines for corn (grain). This new philosophy will reduce some of the differences in N rate recommendations between states and more importantly will provide for producer flexibility in setting a N rate that maximizes profitability. The approach used is data intensive (both research farm and grower fields) and is based on maximizing return to N fertilizer.

    UW-Madison, Soil Science
    Implementation of Regional Nitrogen Fertilization Guidelines for Corn in Wisconsin
    nutrient management
  • Can Foliar Fertilization Improve Crop Yield

    Author
    Carrie A.M.Laboski
    Year
    2005

    Can foliar fertilization improve crop yield where no signs of nutrient deficiency can be seen? This is an oft asked question which unfortunately does not have a black and white answer. The objective of this paper is to briefly highlight what is known about leaf functions and provide an overview of the performance of foliar fertilizers.

    UW-Madison, Soil Science
    Can Foliar Fertilization Improve Crop Yield
    nutrient management
  • Seasonal Variability in Soil Test Potassium

    Author
    Carrie A.M. Laboski
    Year
    2005

    There has been increased interest in understanding the variability one sees in soil test potassium (K) levels within a field. Of particular interest is why after 3 or 4 years the soil test K (STK) levels are less than or greater than expected based on prior STK levels and nutrient budgets for K additions (fertilizer and/or manure) and removals (crop removal of K). It must be remembered that K availability is assessed by chemical extractions (soil tests). And any soil test only measures a fraction of the K in soil, specifically soil solution K and exchangeable K. This paper will highlight factors that affect exchangeable K and subsequently STK levels.

    UW-Madison, Soil Science
    Seasonal Variability in Soil Test Potassium
    nutrient management
  • Michigan Prospects for Using the Illinois N Soil Test

    Author
    Carrie A.M. Laboski
    Year
    2004

    In Michigan the presidedress nitrate test (PSNT) (Magdoff et al., 1984) is used to adjust nitrogen (N) recommendations for corn and sometimes sugar beet. Many growers do not use the PSNT because the presidedress soil sampling time does not conveniently fit into their operation. Preplant nitrate tests do not provide a good estimate of plant available N because of the relatively wet weather conditions during Michigan springs. Another drawback to the PSNT is that it tends to recommend N on soils which have manure histories and are non-responsive to N fertilization.

    UW-Madison, Soil Science
    Michigan Prospects for Using the Illinois N Soil Test
    nutrient management
  • Phosphorus Availability from Swine and Dairy Slurries

    Author
    Carrie A.M. Laboski
    Year
    2004

    Compared to nitrogen (N), relatively little is known about the availability of phosphorus (P) from manure to crops. Many state extension bulletins recommend that 50-80% of total P in manure is available to crops the first year after application. This number is likely based on the fact that 35-90% of P in manures is in the inorganic form (Peperzak, et al., 1959; Barnett, 1994), which is immediately available to crops. The remaining P that is not credited in the first year is usually never credited. In addition, the same availability coefficient/index is usually given to all manure types, regardless of species, diets, or storage. Understanding manure P chemistry in soil and trying to predict P availability is an important component for making nutrient management plans that maximize economic benefits and minimize environmental risks.

    UW-Madison, Soil Science
    Phosphorus Availability from Swine and Dairy Slurries
    nutrient management
  •  A common progression for farmers in the Roundup Ready crop system has been to gradually increase the rate of glyphosate as inconsistent weed control is observed. Thus, previous failed applications of glyphosate are followed with higher rates of glyphosate in subsequent applica-tions. There are multiple concerns with this approach. First, the use of a single herbicide until failure allows weeds to continue growing with the crop which can reduce crop yields. Even if a successful rescue treatment controls all the surviving weeds the span of time for the failed glyphosate application to the rescue treatment is significant enough to reduce crop yields. Second, the use of glyphosate in this manner has been implicated in the evolution of glyphosate-resistant weed biotypes throughout the U.S., which ultimately results in the loss of the most effective herbicide available for control of our primary weed species. 

    Purdue University
    Uh oh...44 oz of glyphosate didn't touch it...what do I do now?
    weed management