Wisconsin is one of the leading producers of vegetable crops for processing in the United States. Wisconsin ranks third nationally in potato production, first in snap bean production, and third in sweet corn production, and result in $304 million in gate receipts for Wisconsin framers. Proper nitrogen supply is critical to all crop growth, but is particularly important in high input vegetable systems due to a shortened season for snap bean and sweet corn and a lower rate of return on investment relative to potatoes. Nitrogen is also a problem in much of the vegetable production areas due to its susceptibility to leaching rains resulting in groundwater contamination by nitrates. The price of nitrogen has been extremely volatile in recent years and producers have searched for alternative management strategies to reduce their reliance on fertilizer nitrogen.