Crop Management Conference

The Wisconsin Agribusiness Classic -“the Classic” (formerly the Wisconsin Crop Management Conference) is the Midwest’s premier agronomic inputs industry event. This conference encompasses three days of educational sessions and two days of agriculture industry trade show exhibits. The 2018 event is set for January 9-11.

List of Proceedings
  • Authors:  J. Mark Powell

    Improving nitrogen (N) use on dairy farms provides both economic and environmental benefits. The goal is to have more N recycled on the farm (from crops to cows to manure used as fertilizer), which results in fewer N inputs purchased and brought Read more…

    Improving nitrogen (N) use on dairy farms provides both economic and environmental benefits. The goal is to have more N recycled on the farm (from crops to cows to manure used as fertilizer), which results in fewer N inputs purchased and brought onto the farm and less N lost to the environment. But because N cycles through the whole farm system, positive changes in one part of the N cycle might create negative tradeoffs in another part of the N cycle. Two emerging dairy industry trends are used to elaborate the complexity of N use and N loss from dairy production systems (1) feeding less protein to reduce both feed costs and emissions of ammonia and nitrous oxide (the most potent agricultural greenhouse gas) from the farm, and (2) feeding more corns silage and less alfalfa silage to feed more cows and reduce feed costs.

  • Authors:  Meaghan J.B. Anderson, Bob Hartzler

    Palmer amaranth was initially discovered in Harrison County, Iowa in August 2013 in a fallow crop field. Following that discovery, five more infestations were discovered in Page, Fremont, Muscatine, and Lee counties in 2013 and 2014. In July 2016, two Read more…

    Palmer amaranth was initially discovered in Harrison County, Iowa in August 2013 in a fallow crop field. Following that discovery, five more infestations were discovered in Page, Fremont, Muscatine, and Lee counties in 2013 and 2014. In July 2016, two landowners, both professional agronomists, detected Palmer amaranth in fields planted this spring to native seed mixes for conservation purposes. One discovery was in a quail habitat (CP 33) conservation planting in Muscatine County and the other was in a pollinator habitat (CP 42) conservation planting in Madison County. Since those initial discoveries in conservation plantings, Palmer amaranth was confirmed in an additional 41 Iowa counties in 2016 (Fig. 1). At least 35 of those counties are on the map as a result of the unintentional seeding of Palmer amaranth with native seed for conservation purposes.

  • Authors:  Francisco J. Arriaga

    The 4R concept (right source, right rate, right time and right place) provides a useful structure to achieve increased crop production, improved farm profitability, greater environmental protection and better sustainability. However, crop nutrient management should go beyond the 4Rs of Read more…

    The 4R concept (right source, right rate, right time and right place) provides a useful structure to achieve increased crop production, improved farm profitability, greater environmental protection and better sustainability. However, crop nutrient management should go beyond the 4Rs of fertilizer and manure stewardship. Other soil management factors that affect crop productivity, farm profitability, the environment, and sustainability should be considered when thinking about crop nutrient management. While fertilizer and manure applications affect nutrient availability to crops short-term (e.g., current growing season or following year), other soil management factors affect nutrient availability longterm. More specifically, factors that affect crop residues after harvest and soil structure/ aggregation affect the availability of nutrients in future years. One such soil property is soil organic matter content.

  • Authors:  Francisco J. Arriaga, Richard P. Wolkowski

    Gypsum is a mineral whose chemical structure consists of calcium sulfate with two water molecules in its structure (CaSO4 ⸳ 2H2O). This mineral has been used in agriculture as a fertilizer for centuries, mainly as a source of calcium and Read more…

    Gypsum is a mineral whose chemical structure consists of calcium sulfate with two water molecules in its structure (CaSO4 2H2O). This mineral has been used in agriculture as a fertilizer for centuries, mainly as a source of calcium and sulfur. There are three main sources of gypsum available today for agricultural use: mined, recycled wallboard, and flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum. Chemically these sources are identical, with the exception of recycled wallboard gypsum, which might contain pieces of paper within the material. Currently there is considerable interest in FGD gypsum for agricultural use as it is readily available. Flue-gas desulfurization gypsum is generated in air scrubbers engineered to remove sulfur from exhaust gases in coal-burning electric power plants. This type of gypsum typically has a smaller particle size than mined sources; thus it dissolves and reacts more readily.

  • Authors:  Mark A. Borchardt, Tucker R. Burch

    Application of liquid dairy manure by traveling gun or center pivot irrigation systems is becoming more common because it offers several potential benefits: reduced road impacts from hauling, optimal timing for crop nutrient uptake, and reduced risks of manure runoff Read more…

    Application of liquid dairy manure by traveling gun or center pivot irrigation systems is becoming more common because it offers several potential benefits: reduced road impacts from hauling, optimal timing for crop nutrient uptake, and reduced risks of manure runoff and groundwater contamination.

  • Authors:  Jed Colquhoun, Daniel Heider, Richard Rittmeyer

    While weed management across the Wisconsin vegetable acreage was generally quite good in the 2016 season, regulatory and resistance issues continue to loom and threaten management options in the very near future.

    While weed management across the Wisconsin vegetable acreage was generally quite good in the 2016 season, regulatory and resistance issues continue to loom and threaten management options in the very near future.

  • Authors:  Richard Cruse

    As the world population continues to grow, and the environmental uncertainty of a less stable climate becomes more manifest, the importance of our soil resources will only increase. The goal of this presentation is to synthesize the catalysts of soil Read more…

    As the world population continues to grow, and the environmental uncertainty of a less stable climate becomes more manifest, the importance of our soil resources will only increase. The goal of this presentation is to synthesize the catalysts of soil degradation, to highlight the interconnected nature of the social and economic causes of soil degradation, and articulate why maintaining or improving Wisconsin’s soil and water resources is imperative. An expected three billion people will enter the middle class in the next 20 years; this will lead to an increased demand for meat, dairy products, and consequently grain. As populations rise so do the economic incentives to convert farmland to other purposes. With the intensity and frequency of droughts and flooding increasing, consumer confidence and the ability of crops to reach yield goals are also threatened. In a time of uncertainty, conservation measures are often the first to be sacrificed. In short, we are too often compromising our soil resources when we need them the most.

  • Authors:  Rick Cruse, Brian Gelder, David James, Daryl Herzmann

    Soil erosion and water runoff drive water quality degradation and are liabilities to crop production, yet their magnitude is neither quantified nor inventoried for US agricultural areas. This project’s goals are to: (1) estimate soil erosion and surface runoff across Read more…

    Soil erosion and water runoff drive water quality degradation and are liabilities to crop production, yet their magnitude is neither quantified nor inventoried for US agricultural areas. This project’s goals are to: (1) estimate soil erosion and surface runoff across the Upper Midwest as contributors to soil and water degradation and (2) inventory these quantities for the next several years.

    The newly released Daily Erosion Project (DEP) gives daily estimates of water runoff and sheet and rill erosion for each of Iowa’s 1,647 HUC 12 agricultural watersheds (HUC 12 average area is approximately 35 square miles). For each watershed, water runoff and soil erosion is recorded over time, allowing for a spatial and temporal inventory of runoff and soil erosion for identification of soil degraded areas as well as water quality impairment source areas. These estimates are made publicly available on a daily basis from an open access interactive website.This data, as well as all input data, is publicly available through this website. We are currently in the process of expanding the use of this tool from Iowa only to other states in the Midwest. This includes all or parts of Minnesota, Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, and Wisconsin. Results for Iowa will be exemplified as work in Wisconsin is not yet complete.

  • Authors:  Nathan Drewitz, Devin Hammer, Shawn Conley, Dave Stoltenberg

    The spread of common waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis) and Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) has become an increasing concern in Wisconsin (Hammer et al. 2016b). Both species are well-known for their competitive ability, abundant seed production, and propensity for developing herbicide resistance. Read more…

    The spread of common waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis) and Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) has become an increasing concern in Wisconsin (Hammer et al. 2016b). Both species are well-known for their competitive ability, abundant seed production, and propensity for developing herbicide resistance. Herbicide-resistant common waterhemp was first confirmed in Wisconsin in 1999, when a population was found to be resistant to ALS-inhibitors. More recently, glyphosate resistance was confirmed in two waterhemp populations in west-central Wisconsin (Butts and Davis 2015a).

    The first occurrence of Palmer amaranth in Wisconsin was documented in 2013 (Davis and Recker 2014). This population was subsequently confirmed to be resistant to glyphosate (Butts and Davis 2015b). Since that time, Palmer amaranth has been found in three additional counties in Wisconsin. Responding to the increasing concern of Wisconsin growers, we have investigated several instances of suspected herbicide-resistant common waterhemp and Palmer amaranth. Our methods and findings are described.

  • Authors:  Mark Eich

    Hackers have learned to profit from their activities. While breaches at large companies like Target, Home Depot and Sony dominate the news this threat is significant for the small business as well. Virtually every industry segment is affected, indeed, any Read more…

    Hackers have learned to profit from their activities. While breaches at large companies like Target, Home Depot and Sony dominate the news this threat is significant for the small business as well. Virtually every industry segment is affected, indeed, any business that stores personal financial information on the network or conducts online cash management is a potential target. Payment fraud targeting wire transfers, automatic clearing house payments, and credit cards is increasing at an alarming rate. Historically, hacking has been a high risk issue only for banks, but attackers are now targeting all businesses in an effort to access bank funds via online payment methods.

    This session will describe the threat landscape, discuss regulatory efforts to address the threat, and provide insight on how business leaders can effectively address this emerging threat.

  • Authors:  Adam P. Gaspar, Carrie A.M. Laboski, Seth L. Naeve, Shawn P. Conley

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] nutrient uptake and partitioning models are primarily built from work conducted in the early 1960s. Since the 1960s, yields have nearly doubled to 47.5 bu acre-1 in 2014 and soybean physiology has been altered with Read more…

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] nutrient uptake and partitioning models are primarily built from work conducted in the early 1960s. Since the 1960s, yields have nearly doubled to 47.5 bu acre-1 in 2014 and soybean physiology has been altered with approximately one more week of reproductive growth and greater harvest index’s for currently cultivated varieties. These changes in soybean development along with new production practices warrant re-evaluating soybean nutrient uptake, partitioning. This study’s objective was to re-evaluate these factors across a wide yield range of 40 to 90 bu acre-1. Trials were conducted at three locations (Arlington and Hancock, WI and St. Paul, MN) during 2014 and 2015. Plant samples were taken at the V4, R1, R4, R5.5, R6.5, and R8 growth stage and partitioned into stems, petioles, leaves, pods, seeds, fallen leaves, and fallen petioles, totaling about 7,000 samples annually. Results indicate that dry matter accumulation at R6.5 was only 84% of the total and that as yield increased the harvest index by 0.2% per bushel. Nutrient uptake for N, P2O5, and K2O was 227, 55, and 153 lb a-1, respectively and crop removal was 188, 44, and 74 lbs. a-1, respectively at a yield level of 60 bu acre-1. Data showed that the extended reproductive growth phase (~7 days), greater nutrient remobilization efficiencies (>70%) and higher nutrient harvest index with increasing yields helped contribute to higher yields without greatly increasing total nutrient uptake.

  • Authors:  John H. Grabber, Mark J. Renz, Heathcliffe Riday, William R. Osterholz, Joseph G. Lauer, Peter A. Vadas

    According to recent agricultural statistics, alfalfa was planted on 0.44 million acres and harvested from 2.2 million acres and corn silage was planted and harvested from 1.0 m million acres per year in Wisconsin. Because both crops are often grown Read more…

    According to recent agricultural statistics, alfalfa was planted on 0.44 million acres and harvested from 2.2 million acres and corn silage was planted and harvested from 1.0 m million acres per year in Wisconsin. Because both crops are often grown in rotation, alfalfa could be interseeded at corn planting to serve as a dual-purpose crop for providing groundcover during corn silage production and forage during subsequent growing seasons. Unfortunately, this system has been unworkable because competition between the co-planted crops often leads to stand failure of interseeded alfalfa. Recent Wisconsin studies demonstrated that properly timed foliar applications of prohexadione-calcium on appropriate alfalfa varieties increased plant survival of interseeded alfalfa by up to 300%. When successfully established, first year dry matter yield of interseeded alfalfa was two-fold greater than conventionally spring-seeded alfalfa. Other studies revealed that interseeded alfalfa reduced fall and spring runoff of water and phosphorus by 60% and soil erosion by 80% compared to cropland containing only corn silage residues and weeds. Once established, alfalfa is also known to be highly effective for reducing nitrate leaching into groundwater. Assuming an average establishment success rate of 80%, a 5% reduction in corn silage yield, and a prohexadione application cost of $40 per acre, a preliminary economic analysis suggests alfalfa establishment by interseeding followed by full alfalfa production the following year could improve net returns of producers by about 30% ($130 per acre) compared to alfalfa conventionally spring seeded after corn silage. These improvements in crop yields and profitability and in soil and water conservation are powerful incentives for continuing work to develop reliable and workable corn-interseeded alfalfa production systems for use on farms in Wisconsin and other northern states where alfalfa cannot be successfully established in the fall after corn silage harvest.

  • Authors:  Russell L Groves, Kathryn J. Prince, Benjamin Z. Bradford

    Production and processing of specialty crops in Wisconsin are very important to both state and national agricultural industries. And key among these processing crops in Wisconsin include sweet corn, succulent snap beans, field peas and potatoes. In addition, the vast majority Read more…

    Production and processing of specialty crops in Wisconsin are very important to both state and national agricultural industries. And key among these processing crops in Wisconsin include sweet corn, succulent snap beans, field peas and potatoes. In addition, the vast majority of these commercial, contract acres receive an at-plant in-furrow, or seed treatment of a Group 4A insecticide (neonicotinoid). Increasingly, producers rely heavily on this single class of insecticides for control of early season pests including Colorado potato beetle, seed maggots, potato leafhopper, and bean leaf beetles (NASS 2006). Reported at-plant applications of these neonicotinoid seed treatments have occurred on nearly 90% of all acres reported and reflect statewide use rates in many other grain crops. In the 2014 and 2015 growing season, the in-plant concentrations of thiamethoxam (Cruiser® 5FS) were monitored using an ultra-performance liquid chromatographic mass spectrometry procedure in both leaf and floral tissues at varying stages after emergence from the soil.

  • Authors:  Jennifer Hamill, Lisa Ashenbrenner Hunt, Renee Lesjak Basheli

    Environmental matters for any small business including grain elevators can be complex. Fortunately, the Department of Natural Resources’ (DNR) Small Business Environmental Assistance Program (SBEAP) is here to help. SBEAP offers free, non-regulatory assistance to small businesses to help owners Read more…

    Environmental matters for any small business including grain elevators can be complex. Fortunately, the Department of Natural Resources’ (DNR) Small Business Environmental Assistance Program (SBEAP) is here to help. SBEAP offers free, non-regulatory assistance to small businesses to help owners understand their state and federal environmental responsibilities. The program provides “plain language” resources, answers compliance questions and directs businesses to other appropriate assistance providers and relevant DNR staff.

  • Authors:  Krista L. Hamilton

    An increase in conventional corn acreage due to lower commodity prices apparently favored larval populations this fall. The 75th annual survey in September and October found a state average of 0.11 borer per plant, an increase from last year’s historical Read more…

    An increase in conventional corn acreage due to lower commodity prices apparently favored larval populations this fall. The 75th annual survey in September and October found a state average of 0.11 borer per plant, an increase from last year’s historical low of 0.02 borer per plant. Minor population increases from 2015 were documented in seven of the nine crop districts, except in the east-central and northeast regions. Larval densities in the central area rose to 0.24 borer per plant, or 24 per 100 plants, the highest average recorded in that area since 2007. Although more sites had economic averages above 1.0 larva per plant than in recent years, and second-generation larvae were detected in 49 of the 229 fields (21%) surveyed compared to14% in 2015, the very low state average of 0.11 borer per plant indicates that Bt corn continues to suppress corn borer populations and reduce the pest status of this insect in Wisconsin.

  • Authors:  Scott Hansen

    Can effective Grain Origination be taught? Can it be developed into a system – with every team member speaking in one voice? Can you get your grain origination program more efficient? Build your loyal tribe of farmers. What creates loyalty Read more…

    Can effective Grain Origination be taught?

    Can it be developed into a system – with every team member speaking in one voice?

    Can you get your grain origination program more efficient?

    Build your loyal tribe of farmers. What creates loyalty with your farmers? A consistent professional message goes a long way.

  • Authors:  Daniel Heider

    Although it happened many years ago, I remember my first experience with spray tank contamination as if it happened this past season. The year was 1991 and nearly constant rains had us moving from site to site in search of Read more…

    Although it happened many years ago, I remember my first experience with spray tank contamination as if it happened this past season. The year was 1991 and nearly constant rains had us moving from site to site in search of “dry” ground to drive on. Rigs buried in mud and partial loads left in tanks overnight were the norm. The rig was a Spray Coupe with a massive 40 foot boom. The culprit was a plant growth regulator based herbicide presumed to have been completely cleaned out prior to switching to soybeans. The proof that it was not completely cleaned out showed up 4-5 days later when the headlands and first pass were obviously injured – injured enough to be noticed in a windshield survey at 50 mph! Fast forward to 2016. The equipment is larger. Pesticide labels now provide very specific cleanout procedures. And yet as I drive this state traveling between research trials, it seems that herbicide injury is just as prevalent as ever. Although spray drift can be blamed for some of the incidents, tank contamination with its classic appearance of straight lines and inverted-V shaped symptoms appears to be responsible for many of the cases. Applicator understanding of pesticide chemistry, formulation and herbicide injury symptoms is critical for proper sprayer cleanout and avoidance of these costly mistakes.

  • Authors:  Bryan Jensen

    Recently, there has been interest in using conventional corn hybrids (non-GMO) to cut input costs because of low commodity prices. However, using conventional corn can also be considered part of an overall IPM plan that diversifies management tactics to increase Read more…

    Recently, there has been interest in using conventional corn hybrids (non-GMO) to cut input costs because of low commodity prices. However, using conventional corn can also be considered part of an overall IPM plan that diversifies management tactics to increase profitability and avoid resistance.

    Using corn hybrids without below ground traits can fit into an IPM program because beetle monitoring is completed prior to making seed purchases. However, you are substituting the convenience of prophylactic treatments (traited corn) for increased labor costs (field scouting). Also, in the absence of below ground traits, at-plant, preventive treatments are available for corn rootworm which are efficacious and have had a history of successful use. Furthermore, field scouting will provide the added value of supportive information that you can use to select field specific management practices that can be used to diversify corn rootworm treatment. Thereby reducing the reliance on a single tactic and delay resistance to Bt hybrids.

    Conversely, using corn hybrids with above ground traits does not fit into an IPM approach. Seed purchases are made well in advance of the time period you should scout to determine if control is needed. Fortunately, the insects which are targeted by the above ground Bt traits have scouting procedures, economic thresholds and rescue treatment available if you forgo hybrids with the above-ground traits.

  • Authors:  Carrie A.M. Laboski

    A nitrification inhibitor temporarily delays the conversion of ammonium to nitrate. It is used to prevent nitrate losses should weather conditions conducive to N loss occur. Therefore, a nitrification inhibitor should be considering a risk management tool, not a yield Read more…

    A nitrification inhibitor temporarily delays the conversion of ammonium to nitrate. It is used to prevent nitrate losses should weather conditions conducive to N loss occur. Therefore, a nitrification inhibitor should be considering a risk management tool, not a yield enhancement tool. Several recent studies in Wisconsin have evaluated the nitrification inhibitor Instinct or Instinct II with spring or fall applied manure.

  • Authors:  Carrie A.M. Laboski, Todd W. Andraski

    Current UWEX fertilizer recommendations and plant analysis interpretation guidelines were developed prior to the release of GMO corn. There is some concern amongst University soil fertility specialists and industry agronomists that corn and soybean response to P and K fertilizer Read more…

    Current UWEX fertilizer recommendations and plant analysis interpretation guidelines were developed prior to the release of GMO corn. There is some concern amongst University soil fertility specialists and industry agronomists that corn and soybean response to P and K fertilizer applications may be different with modern corn hybrids and soybean varieties. In addition, in the UW recommendation system, an estimate of the amount of nutrients removed in the harvested portion of the crop is used to determine the fertilizer recommendations based on soil test levels (Laboski and Peters, 2012). If crop removal rates have changed in modern hybrids is it essential to determine current removal rates and use those numbers in fertilizer recommendations.

  • Authors:  Edward LaPreze

    Proactive maintenance programs need to become a culture. What are the different types of maintenance? How can we move from a reactive program to a proactive program? What tools are available for a proactive maintenance program? Using tools like Infrared, Read more…

    Proactive maintenance programs need to become a culture. What are the different types of maintenance? How can we move from a reactive program to a proactive program? What tools are available for a proactive maintenance program? Using tools like Infrared, Vibration Analysis, and Precision Alignment will provide early warning of a failure. This early warning will enable repairs to be accomplished in a planned time instead of reacting to a breakdown. Most commonly, reactive breakdowns are during our busiest times.

  • Authors:  Becky Larson, Ken Genskow

    The Wisconsin Manure Irrigation Workgroup was convened in Spring 2013 by University of Wisconsin-Extension (UWEX) and University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW-Madison) College of Agricultural and Life Sciences at the request of Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) and Wisconsin Department of Read more…

    The Wisconsin Manure Irrigation Workgroup was convened in Spring 2013 by University of Wisconsin-Extension (UWEX) and University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW-Madison) College of Agricultural and Life Sciences at the request of Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) and Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection (WDATCP). The workgroup was asked to review a broad set of issues associated with manure irrigation and to develop guidance and recommendations for state agencies, local governments, and citizens seeking to understand this expanding technology. The workgroup has no formal authority and expects that any public policy action by local or state governments related to workgroup recommendations would involve appropriate public participation and input.

  • Authors:  Becky Larson, Eric Cooley
  • Authors:  Joe Lauer

    The 2016 corn production year was the best on record in Wisconsin. On November 10, 2016, the Wisconsin Agricultural Statistics Service projected corn to be harvested from 3.1 million acres with an average yield of 180 bushels per acre and Read more…

    The 2016 corn production year was the best on record in Wisconsin. On November 10, 2016, the Wisconsin Agricultural Statistics Service projected corn to be harvested from 3.1 million acres with an average yield of 180 bushels per acre and total production of 558 million bushels. Final estimates will be released in January of 2017.

  • Authors:  PJ Liesch, Bryan Jensen

    Basics of Pollinator Biology: • Pollinators include bees, but also various other insects (wasps, beetles, moths, flies, etc.) and other animals (hummingbirds, bats, small mammals); any creature that visits a flower could be a pollinator to some extent! -Of these Read more…

    Basics of Pollinator Biology:

    Pollinators include bees, but also various other insects (wasps, beetles, moths, flies, etc.) and other animals (hummingbirds, bats, small mammals); any creature that visits a flower could be a pollinator to some extent!

    -Of these creatures, bees are amongst our best and most important pollinators.

    The US is home to ~4,000 bee species; Wisconsin is home to ~400 bee species

    – Honey Bee (1 sp.) social, live as colony year round

    – Bumble Bees (~20 sp.) social, seasonal colonies

    – Wild Bees (~400 sp. in several families) solitary, biology varies for each type

    Bees pollinate ~80% of flowering plants (~250,000 flowering plants known)

    -Roughly 1 out of every 3 bites of food due to pollinators

    Bees have two main needs: food sources (i.e., flowers) and shelter (i.e., nesting habitat)

    – Other than cuckoo bees, all bees collect pollen and nectar to feed their young

    – Solitary bees use provisioning to stockpile food for their developing young

    – Three main types of nesting sites:

    A) Ground nesters [~70 % of bees]

    B) Hole Nesters (use preexisting tunnels in most cases) [~30 % of bees]

    C) Cavity nesters (bumble bees, feral honeybees) [<1% of bees]

  • Authors:  Brian D. Luck

    Management of vehicle fleets is a complex task. Interactions between a harvesting machine, transport vehicles, and a storage site provides the opportunity for introduction of inefficiencies in the harvest process. These inefficiencies translate to an increased cost of harvest. at Read more…

    Management of vehicle fleets is a complex task. Interactions between a harvesting machine, transport vehicles, and a storage site provides the opportunity for introduction of inefficiencies in the harvest process. These inefficiencies translate to an increased cost of harvest. at best. and possibly a reduction in feed quality. Even when ignoring uncontrollable aspects of machinery, such as break-downs, there still exists idle time during the harvest process that can be minimized to improve harvest efficiency. In 2015 the entire forage harvest process on a commercial dairy was recorded using low-cost GPS data loggers. Controller Area Network (CAN) data were also collected on machines that had the data available. Machine working states were defined based on the GPS and CAN data to determine the time each machine spent doing a certain task. Idle time was defined for the harvesting equipment during alfalfa and corn harvest for silage production.

  • Authors:  Ann MacGuidwin, Kanan Kutsuwa

    The Root Lesion nematode, Pratylenchus spp., is very common in the north central United States, ranking first or second for incidence among pest nematodes in Illinois (Mekete et al., 2011), Iowa (Tylka et al. 2011), and Minnesota(Chen et al., 2012). Read more…

    The Root Lesion nematode, Pratylenchus spp., is very common in the north central United States, ranking first or second for incidence among pest nematodes in Illinois (Mekete et al., 2011), Iowa (Tylka et al. 2011), and Minnesota(Chen et al., 2012). It is the most common pest nematode recovered from samples sent to the UW Nematode Diagnostic Service in Wisconsin. The percentage of samples positive for Root Lesion ranged from 90 to 95% for 2013 to 2016 and represented the majority of the counties with corn and soybean production.

  • Authors:  Mark McCloskey

    MOST COMMON VIOLATIONS OF COMMERCIAL PESTICIDE APPLICATORS (1) Obtaining and maintaining individual certification and license. (2) Use of a pesticide that results in significant drift or overspray. (3) Incomplete application records. (4) Use of a pesticide in a manner inconsistent with Read more…

    MOST COMMON VIOLATIONS OF COMMERCIAL PESTICIDE APPLICATORS

    (1) Obtaining and maintaining individual certification and license.

    (2) Use of a pesticide that results in significant drift or overspray.

    (3) Incomplete application records.

    (4) Use of a pesticide in a manner inconsistent with the pesticide label.

    (5) Use of atrazine in atrazine prohibition areas

    ____________________

  • Authors:  Paul Mitchell, Deana Knuteson

    Agricultural sustainability means different things to different people. In reality, it is only in hindsight that we can know what is actually sustainable. How can anyone really know how we should farm today to ensure that we will be able to still Read more…

    Agricultural sustainability means different things to different people. In reality, it is only in hindsight that we can know what is actually sustainable. How can anyone really know how we should farm today to ensure that we will be able to still be farming 100 or more years from now? Differences in strategies for dealing with this uncertainty are at the root of much of the debate and disagreement surrounding agricultural sustainability. Here we are not going to overview or summarize this debate and some of the main strategies, but rather focus on results – what have we accomplished at UW and in Wisconsin for research and related activities. First, we briefly describe the conceptual framework we use for agricultural sustainability assessment. Second, we present specific results for Wisconsin potato growers and Midwestern processing green bean and sweet corn growers. Finally, we overview some research in progress.

  • Authors:  Katie J. Mrdutt

    The Veterinary Feed Directive (VFD), now in effect as of January 1st, 2017, is a major change within animal agriculture. As part of the FDA’s larger initiative against antibiotic resistance, the VFD aims to bring all feed medications containing medically important antibiotics Read more…

    The Veterinary Feed Directive (VFD), now in effect as of January 1st, 2017, is a major change within animal agriculture. As part of the FDA’s larger initiative against antibiotic resistance, the VFD aims to bring all feed medications containing medically important antibiotics under the oversight and supervision of a licensed veterinarian. With the growing demand for transparency of animal care and antibiotic stewardship in animal agriculture, the VFD is a necessary next step to meet the demands of consumers. “The actions the FDA has taken to date represent important steps toward a fundamental change in how antimicrobials can be legally used in food producing animals,” said Michael R. Taylor, FDA deputy commissioner for foods. “The VFD final rule takes another important step by facilitating veterinary oversight in a way that allows for the flexibility needed to accommodate the diversity of circumstances that veterinarians encounter, while ensuring such oversight is conducted in accordance with nationally consistent principles.”

  • Authors:  Brian Mueller, Scott Chapman, Shawn Conley, Damon Smith

    Wheat stripe rust, caused by the fungal plant pathogen Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, has been an increasing problem in the central Great Plains and areas of the upper Midwest due to milder winters (Chen, 2005). Since 2000, stripe rust has become Read more…

    Wheat stripe rust, caused by the fungal plant pathogen Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, has been an increasing problem in the central Great Plains and areas of the upper Midwest due to milder winters (Chen, 2005). Since 2000, stripe rust has become an increasing concern on winter wheat in the Midwest. In Wisconsin over the last four seasons, we have observed consistent stripe rust pressure on some varieties throughout the wheat production area of the state. In 2016, some cultivars were hit very hard by this disease. Because of the consistent occurrence of stripe rust over the last few seasons, it is reasonable to expect continued pressure from this disease in 2017.

  • Authors:  Tristan Mueller

    Performance of foliar fungicides can be evaluated in field-scale on-farm replicated strip trials and in small-plot experiments. This presentation will present analyses of two datasets from Iowa to compare yield and yield response variability to fungicide applications in on-farm trials versus small-plot experiments. Read more…

    Performance of foliar fungicides can be evaluated in field-scale on-farm replicated strip trials and in small-plot experiments. This presentation will present analyses of two datasets from Iowa to compare yield and yield response variability to fungicide applications in on-farm trials versus small-plot experiments. An estimate number of locations, replications and years required to detect yield differences of interest will be covered. One dataset includes 123 on-farm trials evaluating Headline (BASF) foliar fungicide on soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr) in 2008 and 2009 across Iowa by farmers working with the Iowa Soybean Association On-Farm Network. The other dataset includes small-plot experiments conducted by university researches to evaluate the same fungicide during the same growing seasons at six Iowa State University Research and Demonstration Farms. On-farm trials were harvested by farmers’ combines equipped with yield monitors and GPS and small-plot experiments by small-plot combines. Variance component analysis was used to quantify the random sources of yield variation contributed by location and blocks nested within each location and conduct power analyses for multi-location trials. Disease ratings were done in all small-plot trials. While yield responses in the two types of trials were similar (about 125 kg ha-1), the residual random yield variation in on-farm trials tended to be smaller than that in small-plot trials but the random variation due to location effect was larger in on-farm trials. The presentation will show examples of power curves showing the numbers of trials, replications and years required to detect specific response, often <68 kg ha-1 . The results also suggest about the different utility of two methods for evaluating fungicides, specifically, the on-farm trials for answering the question “when, where and how likely” a given fungicide works while small-plot trials for comparing multiple chemistries at the same locations and quantifying the interactive effects of application timing.

     

  • Authors:  Joanna C. Newman

    Alfalfa has long been recognized as a forage crop with high nutritive value, digestibility, and intake potential to support high milk production. Because of this and many other  agronomic characteristics, such as tolerance to drought and nitrogen fixation, it has been quoted Read more…

    Alfalfa has long been recognized as a forage crop with high nutritive value, digestibility, and intake potential to support high milk production. Because of this and many other  agronomic characteristics, such as tolerance to drought and nitrogen fixation, it has been quoted as the ‘queen of forages’ and ‘dairy’s most nearly perfect feed’. As close as alfalfa is to a perfect forage, there is room for progress. Decades of breeders’ experience in traditional plant breeding and advances in biotechnology have allowed for new opportunities. The achievement of reduced lignin alfalfa is certainly one of the milestones in forage quality research. Significant advances have been reached in alfalfa production and forage quality by increasing forage digestibility through reduction, not elimination, of lignin in plant tissue. Given the relatively recent presence in the market and the ongoing incorporation of this trait into commercial varieties, only time will confirm the reach of this innovation whether through biotech or traditional breeding methods. This leads to a few questions: What have been the approaches to reducing lignin in germplasm? What is the difference between genetically modified (GMO) or biotech alfalfa, and non-GMO or non-biotech? Can these technologies co-exist? The information presented highlights the distinction between these two types, their applications, and importance.

  • Authors:  Wayne Nighorn

    Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) is based totally on preventative practices to help lessen the likely hood of a contaminated animal food product making its way into the market place. Most of you already have adopted practices and procedures that would put you Read more…

    Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) is based totally on preventative practices to help lessen the likely hood of a contaminated animal food product making its way into the market place. Most of you already have adopted practices and procedures that would put you in compliance with the CGMP’s. However, in most cases it is the record keeping that needs to be updated. Recently new guidance documents for compliance with the Current good manufacturing practices (CGMP) for FSMA have been released by the FDA. These guidance documents are not in final form but are in a draft for comment. There are two main sections for compliance with the new Food Safety Modernization Act the first and foremost would be compliance with the new CGMP’s.

  • Authors:  Wayne Nighorn

    This rule is one of seven foundational rules proposed since January 2013 to create a modern, risk-based framework for food safety. The goal of this rule is to prevent practices during transportation that create food safety risks, such as failure to properly Read more…

    This rule is one of seven foundational rules proposed since January 2013 to create a modern, risk-based framework for food safety. The goal of this rule is to prevent practices during transportation that create food safety risks, such as failure to properly refrigerate food, inadequate cleaning of vehicles between loads, and failure to properly protect food. The rule builds on safeguards envisioned in the 2005 Sanitary Food Transportation Act (SFTA). Because of illness outbreaks resulting from human and animal food contaminated during transportation, and incidents and reports of unsanitary transportation practices, there have long been concerns about the need for regulations to ensure that foods are being transported in a safe manner. The rule establishes requirements for shippers, loaders, carriers by motor or rail vehicle, and receivers involved in transporting human and animal food to use sanitary practices to ensure the safety of that food. The requirements do not apply to transportation by ship or air because of limitations in the law. Specifically, the FSMA rule establishes requirements for vehicles and transportation equipment, transportation operations, records, training and waivers

  • Authors:  Anette Phibbs, Susan Lueloff, Adrian Barta

    This survey was conducted to detect exotic cyst nematodes in cereal and corn producing fields of Wisconsin. The targeted nematodes were Heterodera filipjevi, the cereal cyst nematode; Heterodera latipons, the Mediterranean cereal cyst nematode; and Punctodera chalcoensis, the Mexican corn cyst nematode. Any Read more…

    This survey was conducted to detect exotic cyst nematodes in cereal and corn producing fields of Wisconsin. The targeted nematodes were Heterodera filipjevi, the cereal cyst nematode; Heterodera latipons, the Mediterranean cereal cyst nematode; and Punctodera chalcoensis, the Mexican corn cyst nematode. Any of these nematodes could potentially impact crop production, management practices and trade if they were accidentally introduced into this state. Sampling was conducted in counties that contain the majority of the wheat acreage in the state, (Brown, Calumet, Columbia, Dane, Dodge, Door, Fond du Lac, Green, Jefferson, Kewaunee, Manitowoc, Outagamie, Racine, Rock, Sheboygan and Walworth, Winnebago). Wheat is the main host for H. filipjevi and H. latipons. Corn, the host of P. chalcoensis is also grown in these counties.

  • Authors:  Mark J. Renz, Tracy Schilder

    Wisconsin is home to 13 species of Pigweeds (plants in the genus Amaranthus). Of these species, two (red-root pigweed and smooth pigweed) are widespread in Wisconsin and have historically plagued farmers as competitive weed species. With the rapid increase in herbicide resistance, concern exists Read more…

    Wisconsin is home to 13 species of Pigweeds (plants in the genus Amaranthus). Of these species, two (red-root pigweed and smooth pigweed) are widespread in Wisconsin and have historically plagued farmers as competitive weed species. With the rapid increase in herbicide resistance, concern exists with respect to the spread of two particular pigweeds that have historically been called uncommon: common/tall waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus) and Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri). These species are of higher priority to prevent spread compared to other pigweeds as they have been found to develop resistance to multiple herbicides and be more competitive.

  • Authors:  Matt Ruark, Jamie West

    Over 1 million acres of corn silage is grown in Wisconsin. When harvested in late summer, there is a clear opportunity for cover crops to be planted. In addition, it is likely that manure will be applied after corn silage harvest allowing Read more…

    Over 1 million acres of corn silage is grown in Wisconsin. When harvested in late summer, there is a clear opportunity for cover crops to be planted. In addition, it is likely that manure will be applied after corn silage harvest allowing cover crops to provide both soil and nutrient conservation benefits. However, growers in Wisconsin climates may have concerns about trade-offs with management such as extra field work in the spring, competition for soil water and nutrients, and other associated costs that can only be addressed through coordinated research and extension efforts across the state. The potential for yield loss is a real concern of Wisconsin farmers and there are quantified examples of corn yield reductions following a rye cover crop (e.g., 13 bu/ac decrease reported by Stute et al.,2009). The objectives of this study were to determine the performance of fall seeded cover crops in a corn silage/fall manure application production system in different regions of Wisconsin and to quantify effects (yield and optimal N rate) on subsequent corn crop yield. Two cover crops were evaluated winter rye (which required termination in the spring) and spring barley (which winterkills).

  • Authors:  Matt Ruark, Jamie West

    Current University of Wisconsin-Extension guidelines recommend 60 lb-N/ac for snap bean grown on soils less than 2% organic matter, which are most soils in the Central Sands of Wisconsin. However, the typical rate that snap bean growers apply is much greater than this Read more…

    Current University of Wisconsin-Extension guidelines recommend 60 lb-N/ac for snap bean grown on soils less than 2% organic matter, which are most soils in the Central Sands of Wisconsin. However, the typical rate that snap bean growers apply is much greater than this rate. In addition, it is possible that rates lower than 60 lb-N/ac may be economically optimal for some varieties. Snap beans are a legume and some, but not all, varieties nodulate, meaning they have the ability to fix nitrogen (N) from the atmosphere. This will result in different N response curves and perhaps different N recommendations for different snap bean varieties. It is often assumed that when we fertilize legumes with N, the added N replaces the amount of fixed N in a one-to-one manner – but this is rarely true. In fact, we know little about the tradeoffs between N application and nodulation in snap beans. The objectives of this paper are to review the state of knowledge of snap bean response to N fertilizer and evaluate the different ways nitrogen use efficiency can be determined.

  • Authors:  Matt Ruark, Mack Naber

    Polymer-coated urea (PCU) is a fertilizer product in which each urea prill is individually coated with a polymer (or plastic) coating. All PCUs are considered a slow or controlled release fertilizer, which is defined by the Association of American Plant Read more…

    Polymer-coated urea (PCU) is a fertilizer product in which each urea prill is individually coated with a polymer (or plastic) coating. All PCUs are considered a slow or controlled release fertilizer, which is defined by the Association of American Plant Food Control Officials as a fertilizer that contains plant nutrients in a form that extends its availability significantly longer than a reference fertilizer (in this case urea) (Slater, 2014). The way PCU works is that urea dissolves inside the coating and slowly diffuses into the soil over time. The mechanism for the nitrogen-release from PCU includes three phases: (1) lag phase, (2) constant release phase, and (3) release decay phase (Shaviv et al., 2003).

  • Authors:  John Shutske

    It’s a time of exponential change in our society and in the industries that heat and light our homes, transport us, entertain us, and feed our families. This is also true in agriculture and closely allied industries! What does exponential Read more…

    It’s a time of exponential change in our society and in the industries that heat and light our homes, transport us, entertain us, and feed our families. This is also true in agriculture and closely allied industries! What does exponential change and growth really mean? First, linear growth means adding a fixed amount of “something” every time period. Like a year. If I invest $10,000 in the stock market and it grows only by a fixed, linear rate of $1,000 a year, after 25 years, I will have $34,000. Not bad. But, if I invest that same $10,000 and grow the balance by 10% per year, compounding last year’s gain on top of this year’s, I will have $98,497 after 25 years. Compound interest is an example of exponential growth that we’re all familiar with.

    Technology and SPECIFICALLY, computing power, has been growing in this exponential way since the 1950s. But, computing power doesn’t grow by single digits as is the case with investing money in a savings account. “Moore’s Law,” named after an early computer pioneer, tells us that computing power doubles approximately every 12 to 18 months. That means the annual growth rate is close to 100%! We will talk about what this means for all of us in the conference session.

  • Authors:  Daniel H. Smith

    Wisconsin growers are increasingly interested in utilizing cover crops. Prior to cover crop establishment a plan to terminate the cover crop is necessary. Proper and timely termination should prevent competition to the following grain or forage crop. Proper and timely Read more…

    Wisconsin growers are increasingly interested in utilizing cover crops. Prior to cover crop establishment a plan to terminate the cover crop is necessary. Proper and timely termination should prevent competition to the following grain or forage crop. Proper and timely termination is dependent on the species of cover crop and the following crop to be grown. The species of the cover crop impacts ease of control, seed production potential, and growth rate. Termination can occur through environmental conditions such as frost or through a cultural, mechanical, or chemical method, such as tillage or herbicide application. The termination plan should meet the grower’s goals for the cover crop, crop rotation, and to prevent the cover crop from becoming a future weed problem.

  • Authors:  Damon Smith, Scott Chapman, Brian Mueller

    In 2015, an alfalfa research trial was established at the Arlington Agricultural Research Station in Arlington, WI. Two cultivars of alfalfa (DKA44-16RR – Conventional Roundup Ready®; HarvXtra – Reduced-lignin, Roundup Ready ®) were sprayed with seven fungicide treatments and compared Read more…

    In 2015, an alfalfa research trial was established at the Arlington Agricultural Research Station in Arlington, WI. Two cultivars of alfalfa (DKA44-16RR – Conventional Roundup Ready®; HarvXtra – Reduced-lignin, Roundup Ready ®) were sprayed with seven fungicide treatments and compared to a non-treated control. Yield, quality, and return on investment of the treatments were evaluated under two cutting duration schemes (30-day vs. 40-day) for both cultivars. Results of the entire study can be found at: http://fyi.uwex.edu/fieldcroppathology/files/2015/11/2015-DLS-MFA-FINAL-REPORT.pdf. In the 2015 study (seeding year), both cultivars responded to fungicide in a similar way (second crop specifically). In the 30-day cutting duration, fungicide application resulted in little discernable difference in disease level, defoliation, or quality compared to not treating with fungicide. Return on investment (ROI) calculations indicated that no positive return was achieved if the hay was sold, or was kept on the farm and fed to dairy cows, for the 30-day duration of cut. For the 40-day duration, significant differences in fungicide treatments were identified for disease levels, defoliation, and quality compared to the non-treated controls. These differences resulted in positive ROI (using the Milk 2006 model) for the second crop where the fungicides Headline® and Quadris® were used, under the scenario where hay would be kept on the farm and fed to dairy cows. If hay was sold, no positive ROI was identified for either treatment for this crop.

  • Authors:  Kelley J. Tilmon, Shawn P. Conley, J. Gaska, A. Roth, A. Gaspar, D. Marburger, E. Smidt, P. Esker, P. Mitchell, S. Mourtzinis

    The use of insecticidal seed treatments containing neonicotinoids has become extremely widespread in field crops. Often these products are used as a default at planting, without specific reference to an insect pest problem requiring management. This talk summarizes a two-year, Read more…

    The use of insecticidal seed treatments containing neonicotinoids has become extremely widespread in field crops. Often these products are used as a default at planting, without specific reference to an insect pest problem requiring management. This talk summarizes a two-year, checkoff-funded multistate study aimed at understanding the average value and return on investment of neonicotinoid seed treatment in soybean in the North Central Region, including a comparison to the return on investment with the classic Integrated Pest Management approach of scouting and applying a foliar product at pest threshold. In summary, IPM provides both a greater probability of a positive return on investment, and a larger average return.

  • Authors:  Kelley J. Tilmon

    Western bean cutworm, a native pest originally found in the western US, has become an increasingly common pest of corn in the North Central Region as its range spreads eastward. The Bt toxin Cry1F has been used to help manage Read more…

    Western bean cutworm, a native pest originally found in the western US, has become an increasingly common pest of corn in the North Central Region as its range spreads eastward. The Bt toxin Cry1F has been used to help manage this pest. However, there is increasing evidence that this toxin is no longer effective against western bean cutworm in many parts of its range. This talk summarizes the identification, biology, and damage from this pest, and discusses management including Bt and alternate management approaches. Scouting and insecticide are effective against western bean cutworm, but careful monitoring is necessary to get timing right.

  • Authors:  Dan Undersander, Ken Albrecht

    The GM reduced lignin trait has been released commercially in conjunction with Monsanto Company under the brand name of HarvXtra alfalfa. One study in Wisconsin and Pennsylvania evaluated the trait with and without grass. HarvXtra was seen to have higher Read more…

    The GM reduced lignin trait has been released commercially in conjunction with Monsanto Company under the brand name of HarvXtra alfalfa.

    One study in Wisconsin and Pennsylvania evaluated the trait with and without grass. HarvXtra was seen to have higher fiber digestibility than a conventional line in both the seeding year and the first production year. There was no yield drag due to the reduced lignin trait. Further, if the HarvXtra trait harvest was delayed 10 days to have similar quality to conventional varieties, the HarvXtra trait was always significantly higher in yield.

  • Authors:  Dan Undersander

    How was the quality of alfalfa you harvested this year? Weather often has a large impact. However, harvest management can have a huge effect of drying rate and quality of the harvested forage. Now is the time to evaluate how Read more…

    How was the quality of alfalfa you harvested this year? Weather often has a large impact. However, harvest management can have a huge effect of drying rate and quality of the harvested forage. Now is the time to evaluate how this year went and to plan for what changes might be implemented next year.

  • Authors:  Jaime Wilbur, Megan McCaghey, Scott Chapman, Medhi Kabbage, Damon L. Smith

    White mold (Sclerotinia stem rot) is caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and consistently ranks in the top ten diseases plaguing global soybean crops (Wrather et al., 2010). In 2009, United States soybean losses due to white mold reached almost 59 million Read more…

    White mold (Sclerotinia stem rot) is caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and consistently ranks in the top ten diseases plaguing global soybean crops (Wrather et al., 2010). In 2009, United States soybean losses due to white mold reached almost 59 million bushels and cost growers a corresponding ~$560 million (Koenning & Wrather, 2010; Peltier et al., 2012). Furthermore, according to a United Soybean Board report from 2011, white mold epidemics in the Great Lakes region alone were responsible for 94% of nationwide losses to the disease and cost regional growers ~$138 million (USDA-NASS 2015). White mold is infamously characterized by its challenging fungal promiscuity and longevity, and by the subsequently devastating crop losses; Wisconsin growers justifiably rank white mold management third in significance and concern.

  • Authors:  Chelsea Zegler, Mark Renz, Geoff Brink

    Wisconsin has the largest number of organic dairies in the United States with over 450 dairy farms that represents more than 25% of the nation’s certified organic dairy farms (USDA NASS, 2014). Despite the large amount of organic dairy operations Read more…

    Wisconsin has the largest number of organic dairies in the United States with over 450 dairy farms that represents more than 25% of the nation’s certified organic dairy farms (USDA NASS, 2014). Despite the large amount of organic dairy operations in Wisconsin, interest in expansion of existing and new operations exist due to consumer demand for organic milk (Greene and McBride, 2015). With the challenges that expanding operations face (e.g. purchasing land), interest in maximizing pasture performance exist. Previous research has shown that pasture productivity, forage quality, soil fertility and pasture management are all critical to maximizing milk production, but these factors have been observed to vary widely across farms. We visited pastures from organic dairies throughout Wisconsin to assess productivity and determine what facets measured could be improved to maximize milk production.

  • Authors:  Kevin Bradley

    In the United States, herbicide-resistant weed populations have evolved rapidly in response to the selection pressures imposed upon them in agricultural production systems. In recent years, glyphosate-resistant weeds have increased dramatically and are now estimated to occur on more than Read more…

    In the United States, herbicide-resistant weed populations have evolved rapidly in response to the selection pressures imposed upon them in agricultural production systems. In recent years, glyphosate-resistant weeds have increased dramatically and are now estimated to occur on more than half of the corn, soybean, and cotton acreage. In Missouri, we were the first in the U.S. to discover a glyphosate-resistant waterhemp population in 2005. Since that time, waterhemp has progressively worsened in our state and has become the most troublesome species that our growers contend with each year. Multiple-resistant waterhemp populations now occur on three-quarters of the acres in the state. To date, the primary way that farmers have responded to the problem of glyphosate resistance in weeds has been to rely on alternative herbicides other than glyphosate. However, due to the increasing problem of multiple herbicide resistance, it seems clear that this practice alone will not prove successful, and that a multi-faceted approach will be required. In this session we will discuss some of these integrated approached and some of the recent successes we have had with managing this very problematic weed species in Missouri.

  • Authors:  Kevin Bradley

    In 2016, the majority of the cotton acreage in the southeastern portion of Missouri was planted with dicamba-tolerant (DT) varieties. A limited number of DT soybean varieties were also planted throughout the state. However, during the 2016 growing season, the Read more…

    In 2016, the majority of the cotton acreage in the southeastern portion of Missouri was planted with dicamba-tolerant (DT) varieties. A limited number of DT soybean varieties were also planted throughout the state. However, during the 2016 growing season, the Environmental Protection Agency had not approved any dicamba herbicide formulations for post-emergence application to DT cotton or soybean. Although investigations are ongoing, apparently a subset of growers made illegal applications of dicamba to their DT cotton and/or soybean, which resulted in off-target movement of dicamba to a variety of sensitive crops, including large acreages of non-DT soybean. In southeastern Missouri alone, over 125 dicamba injury complaints were filed with the Missouri Department of Agriculture. These injury complaints occurred on over 40,000 acres of soybean, 1,000 acres of cotton, 700 acres of peaches, 400 acres of purple hull peas, 200 acres of peanuts, 32 acres of watermelon, 9 acres of cantaloupe, 6 acres of alfalfa, 2 acres of tomatoes, and on numerous homeowner’s gardens, trees, and ornamental bushes. Some of the primary factors that contributed to the off-site movement of dicamba will be discussed, as well as the impacts that this situation has had and will continue to have on Missouri agriculture.

  • Authors:  Elizabeth Meils, Mike Drummer, Mike Murray

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

    WiDATCP and
    Pollinator Program Update
    insects and disease
  • Authors:  Randy Gordon

    No abstract provided

    No abstract provided

    National Grain and Feed Association
    Food Safety Modernization Act - What Does it Mean to Me and My Feed Mill?
    grain and feed legislation and regulatory topics
  • Authors:  Heather Bartley, Robby Personette

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

    WiDATCP
    Feed Tonnage Report
    grain and feed legislation and regulatory topics
  • Authors:  Francisco Arriaga

    Soil erosion continues to be a significant issue that affects farm productivity. Impacts of soil erosion on soil productivity are short- and long-term. Short-term, plant nutrient losses lower the fertility of the land, requiring additional fertilizer inputs to correct the decreased soil fertility. Read more…

    Soil erosion continues to be a significant issue that affects farm productivity. Impacts of soil erosion on soil productivity are short- and long-term. Short-term, plant nutrient losses lower the fertility of the land, requiring additional fertilizer inputs to correct the decreased soil fertility. As soil erodes the depth of the soil profile is reduced, effectively decreasing the volume of soil crop roots have to explore for water and nutrients, which causes long-term productivity concerns. Both of these short- and longtermconcerns are highlighted by the renewed interest in practices that promote soilhealth, such as reduced tillage, crop rotations, and cover crops.

    UW- Madison Soil Science
    How Soil Erosion Impacts Farm Productivity and What to do About it
    soil, water and climate
  • Authors:  Eric Cooley, Matt Ruark

    Tile-drained agricultural land must be well-managed to reduce the loss of nutrients to surface waters. Nutrient management practices must be carefully followed to minimize the risk of nutrient loss and to maximize fertilizer use efficiency. This is of particular importance to farmers, as Read more…

    Tile-drained agricultural land must be well-managed to reduce the loss of nutrients to surface waters. Nutrient management practices must be carefully followed to minimize the risk of nutrient loss and to maximize fertilizer use efficiency. This is of particular importance to farmers, as this water can also transport essential plant nutrients, specifically nitrogen and phosphorus, out of the root zone. Once nutrients reach the tile drain, they have a direct conduit to surface waters.

    Emerging technologies in drainage water treatment can mitigate nutrient transport from tile drainage systems. Some of these technologies include drainage water management, constructed wetlands, bioreactors, and saturated buffers. The information provided will briefly assess the cost and effectiveness of nitrogen and phosphorus removal of these tile drainage treatment options.

    UW- Discovery Farms
    Technologies in Tile Drainage Water Treatment
    soil, water and climate
  • Authors:  Bill Bland

    Precipitation matters a lot for agriculture. The right amounts of rainfall at the right times work in concert with the water holding capacity of the soil to provide crop plants with the water they need to be productive. The agricultural crops and Read more…

    Precipitation matters a lot for agriculture. The right amounts of rainfall at the right times work in concert with the water holding capacity of the soil to provide crop plants with the water they need to be productive. The agricultural crops and practices of a place evolve to make the most of the local precipitation. Many factors about how this precipitation arrives matter: annual amount, seasonal amounts, duration of rain-free periods, number of rain days, and the nature of the heaviest rainfall events. The heaviest rainfalls lead to flooding and the potential for great soil erosion damage.

    UW-Soils
    Extreme Rainfall and Soil Erosion
    soil, water and climate
  • Authors:  Judy Derrick, Jason Nemecek

    Soil Survey interpretations predict soil behavior for specific soil uses. The soil survey is used to assist in planning of broad categories of land use and specific management practices that are applied to soils such as nutrient management. As with everything we do Read more…

    Soil Survey interpretations predict soil behavior for specific soil uses. The soil survey is used to assist in planning of broad categories of land use and specific management practices that are applied to soils such as nutrient management. As with everything we do in conservation planning, the most critical piece of using soil survey products is making sure we are recording observable site specific criteria along with the predictive models.

    Each year soil science is updated based on additional studies and efforts to make a uniform quality product. In recent years, the Soil Data Join Recorrelation (SDJR) has been instrumental in making sure there is uniformity across county and state lines. As a result of this effort, there have been changes to the T (maximum tolerable soil loss that sustains crop productivity) and K (Soil’s susceptibility to erosion).

    The purpose behind updates to the Soil Survey is to provide a quality foundation for the next generation of soil survey users where discrepancies are corrected and soil properties are identified uniformly across the state.

    NRCS
    Updates to Wisconsin Soil Survey
    water and soil management
  • Authors:  Bill Bland

    Every few days a low pressure system rambles across the US, and if it passes close enough to us and is strong enough, we may see some clouds and precipitation, followed by blue skies and cooler temperatures. Such fluctuations are a feature Read more…

    Every few days a low pressure system rambles across the US, and if it passes close enough to us and is strong enough, we may see some clouds and precipitation, followed by blue skies and cooler temperatures. Such fluctuations are a feature of our Midwest climate. At the global scale, there are also semi-regular disruptions that change the weather, and none is better known than ENSO — the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. We expect ENSO events every 3 to 7 years. When a strong ENSO event occurs, its fingerprints can be seen many places around the globe. If you are a farmer in Australia, Indonesia, South Africa, or northern South America, plan for a dry spell. In the southern third of the US, expect more rain than usual. The global average temperature is always warmer than average during an ENSO. As with passing storm systems, there are some regular features, but also lots of unknowns about how ENSO will affect a given place.

    UW-Soils
    El Nino's Influence on Global and Midwestern Climates
    soil, water and climate
  • Authors:  Gregory Heck

    RNA-based technologies (e.g., initiation of RNAi via the engineered production or plant surface application of double-stranded RNA, dsRNA) can be applied to a wide range of agricultural improvement objectives. These applications range from the modification of harvestable plant phenotype to crop protection scenarios. Read more…

    RNA-based technologies (e.g., initiation of RNAi via the engineered production or plant surface application of double-stranded RNA, dsRNA) can be applied to a wide range of agricultural improvement objectives. These applications range from the modification of harvestable plant phenotype to crop protection scenarios. Examples are present in current agricultural production while additional applications such as plant-produced dsRNA targeting insect predators are advancing pending regulatory approvals for commercial release. Numerous considerations are taken into account as such products develop that bring forward efficacy, robustness, specificity, and safety of dsRNA as an active agent. A historical perspective, current applications, and prospects will be discussed.

    Monsanto
    The RNAi Pipeline
    seeds and traits
  • Authors:  Adam Gaspar, Carrie Laboski, Shawn Conley

    The base of all soil fertility build, maintain, and drawdown programs are crop nutrient uptake and removal estimates. Unfortunately, soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] nutrient uptake and partitioning models are primarily built from work conducted in the early 1960’s with obsolete soybean genetics Read more…

    The base of all soil fertility build, maintain, and drawdown programs are crop nutrient uptake and removal estimates. Unfortunately, soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] nutrient uptake and partitioning models are primarily built from work conducted in the early 1960’s with obsolete soybean genetics and production practices. Since the 1960’s, yields have nearly doubled to 47.5 bu acre-1 in 2014 and soybean physiology has been altered with approximately one more week of reproductive growth and greater harvest index’s for currently cultivated varieties. These changes in soybean development along with new production practices warrant re-evaluating soybean nutrient uptake, partitioning, and removal to better guide soybean fertility recommendations in the Upper Midwest. This study’s objective was to re-evaluate these factors across a wide yield range of 40 to 90 bu acre-1. Trials were conducted at three locations (Arlington and Hancock, WI and St. Paul, MN) during 2014. Plant samples were taken at the V4, R1, R4, R5.5, R6.5, and R8 growth stage and partitioned into stems, petioles, leaves, pods, seeds, fallen leaves, and fallen petioles, totaling about 4,000 samples annually. Preliminary 2014 results indicate that dry matter accumulation at R6.5 was only 86% of the total and that as yield increased the harvest index changed from 40% at 40 bu acre-1 to 55% at 80 bu acre-1. Nutrient uptake for N, P2O5, and K2O was 220, 52, and 141 lb acre-1, respectively and crop removal was 187, 43, and 75 lbs. a-1, respectively at a yield level of 60 bu acre-1. Preliminary 2014 data showed that the extended reproductive growth phase (~7 days), greater nutrient remobilization efficiencies (>70%), and a higher harvest index with increasing yields helped contribute to higher yields without greatly increasing total nutrient uptake. Data from 2015 are currently being analyzed.

    Uw-Madison Agronomy
    Revamping Soybean Nutrient Uptake, Partitioning and Removal Data of Modern High Yielding Genetics and Production Practices
    seeds and traits
  • Authors:  David Marburger, Bryson Haverkamp, Shawn Conley

    Increased soybean commodity prices in recent years have generated interest in developing high-input systems to increase yield. However, little peer-reviewed information exists about the effects of input-intensive, high-yield management on soybean yield and profitability, as well as interactions with basic agronomic practices.

    Increased soybean commodity prices in recent years have generated interest in developing high-input systems to increase yield. However, little peer-reviewed information exists about the effects of input-intensive, high-yield management on soybean yield and profitability, as well as interactions with basic agronomic practices.

    UW-Madison Agronomy
    Do More Inputs Increase Soybean Yield and Profitability?
    seeds and traits
  • Authors:  Joe Lauer, Maciek Kazula, Thiemo Diallo

    Climate change projections suggest an increased variability of extreme climate conditions, such as sustained drought or prolonged precipitation (IPCC, 2007; USDA, 2012). The early growing season for 2012 and 2013 contrasted significantly in Wisconsin, where 2012 was one of the driest seasons ever Read more…

    Climate change projections suggest an increased variability of extreme climate conditions, such as sustained drought or prolonged precipitation (IPCC, 2007; USDA, 2012). The early growing season for 2012 and 2013 contrasted significantly in Wisconsin, where 2012 was one of the driest seasons ever recorded while 2013 was one of the wettest. These events had a negative effect on Wisconsin crop production.

    Agriculture plays a significant role in the global flux of three major greenhouse gasses (GHG – CO2, N2O and CH4), which when trapped in the atmosphere warms the surface of the Earth via infrared radiation (IPCC, 2007; USDA, 2012). A large amount of these gas fluxes are thought to be derived from soil through crop intensification (USDA, 2012).Improved management practices like reduced tillage, controlled fertilization (Snyder et al., 2009) or extended crop rotation (Drury et al., 2008) are of particular interest because they have a high potential to mitigate gas emissions. Corn rotation is a management practice of high mitigating potential, but due to recent economic influences is often neglected. The effect of crop rotation on GHG emissions is usually positive for mitigation (Drury et al., 2008; Adviento-Borbe et al., 2007; Venterea et al., 2005). Unlike nitrogen fertilizer and tillage management practices, crop rotation effects are often overlooked by farmers in gas emissions.

    UW-Madison Agronomy
    Capitalizing on the Rotation Effect to Increase Yield The Rotation Effect on Greenhouse Gas Emission from Wisconsin Soils
    seeds and traits
  • Authors:  Devin Hammer, Shawn Conley, Dave Stoltenberg

    The first confirmed case of herbicide resistance in Wisconsin was atrazine resistant common lambsquarters in 1979 (Heap 2015). Since then, herbicide resistance has been confirmed in 12 other weed species in Wisconsin. Resistance to photosystem II inhibitors such as atrazine and other triazine Read more…

    The first confirmed case of herbicide resistance in Wisconsin was atrazine resistant common lambsquarters in 1979 (Heap 2015). Since then, herbicide resistance has been confirmed in 12 other weed species in Wisconsin. Resistance to photosystem II inhibitors such as atrazine and other triazine herbicides has been confirmed in smooth pigweed (1985), kochia (1987), and velvetleaf (1990), in addition to common lambs quarters in 1979. Resistance to ACCase inhibitors has been confirmed in only two species: giant foxtail (1991) and large crabgrass (1992). In contrast, resistance to ALS inhibitors has been confirmed in many species including kochia (1995) and eastern black nightshade, giant foxtail, green foxtail, and common waterhemp, all in 1999. More recently, resistance to ALS inhibitors has been found in giant ragweed (Marion et al. 2013; Stoltenberg et al. 2015) and common ragweed (Butts et al. 2015).

    Glyphosate resistance in Wisconsin is a relatively recent occurrence compared to the instances of photosystem II inhibitor, ACCase inhibitor, and ALS inhibitor resistance noted above. The first confirmed case of glyphosate resistance occurred in 2011 in a giant ragweed population in Rock County (Glettner et al. 2012; Stoltenberg et al. 2015). Glyphosate resistance was subsequently confirmed in horseweed populations found in Jefferson County (Recker et al. 2013) and Columbia County (Recker et al. 2014). Following confirmation of glyphosate-resistant common waterhemp populations in Eau Claire and Pierce Counties (Butts and Davis 2015a, 2015b) and Palmer amaranth in Dane County (Butts and Davis 2015b, 2015c), glyphosate resistance concerns in Wisconsin have focused mostly on pigweeds (Amaranthus spp.). In 2015, there were 18 new reports of suspected glyphosate-resistant common waterhemp populations, bringing the total to 30 counties in which glyphosate resistance has been investigated since 2012 (Figure 1). In addition to the previously confirmed glyphosate-resistant common waterhemp in Eau Claire and Pierce Counties, molecular screening indicated glyphosate resistance in seven more counties in 2015. Glyphosate resistance in these seven cases has yet to be confirmed by whole-plant dose-response analysis at UW-Madison, but preliminary research indicates that whole-plant dose-response results are consistent with findings from molecular screening.

    UW-Madison Agronomy
    Herbicide Resistance Update for Wisconsin
    weed management
  • Authors:  Aaron Hagar

    The continual evolution of weed species and populations resistant to herbicides from one or more mechanism-of-action families represents one of the most daunting challenges faced by weed management practitioners. Currently in Illinois, biotypes of 12 weed species have been confirmed resistant to one Read more…

    The continual evolution of weed species and populations resistant to herbicides from one or more mechanism-of-action families represents one of the most daunting challenges faced by weed management practitioners. Currently in Illinois, biotypes of 12 weed species have been confirmed resistant to one or more herbicide mechanisms of action. Resistance to herbicides that inhibit the ALS enzyme is the most common type of resistance in Illinois. Waterhemp has evolved resistance to more herbicide mechanisms of action than any other Illinois weed species, including resistance to inhibitors of acetolactate synthase (ALS), photosystem II (PSII), protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO), enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) and hydroxyphenyl pyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD). Not every individual waterhemp plant is resistant to one or more herbicides, but the majority of field-level waterhemp populations contain one or more types of herbicide resistance. Perhaps even more daunting is the occurrence of multiple herbicide resistances within individual plants and/or fields. Waterhemp plants and populations demonstrating multiple herbicide resistance are becoming increasingly common and greatly reduce the number of herbicide options that remain effective for their control. Integrated weed management programs offer the greatest potential for long-term, sustainable solutions for weed populations demonstrating resistance to herbicides from multiple families.

    Univ. of Illinois Crop Sciences
    Spread of Herbicide Resistant Weeds in Illinois and Factors that Prevent Presence of Herbicide Resistance in Illinois Fields
    weed management
  • Authors:  Jared Golpen

    Across the Midwest, weeds resistant to multiple herbicides continue to become more widespread. Not only do weeds with resistance to multiple herbicides reduce the utility of existing herbicides, but they also necessitate the use of alternative weed control strategies. From 2012-2015 in southern Read more…

    Across the Midwest, weeds resistant to multiple herbicides continue to become more widespread. Not only do weeds with resistance to multiple herbicides reduce the utility of existing herbicides, but they also necessitate the use of alternative weed control strategies. From 2012-2015 in southern Minnesota, we determined the effect of six 3-year crop rotations containing corn (C), soybean (S), alfalfa (A), and wheat (W): (CCC, SCC, CSC, SWC, SAC, AAC) on herbicide-resistant giant ragweed seed bank depletion and emergence patterns. Crop rotation had no effect on the amount of seed bank depletion when a zero weed threshold was maintained, with 96% of the giant ragweed seed bank being depleted within 2 years (Table 1). However, this quantity of seed bank depletion was primarily through seedling emergence in annual crop rotation treatments. Multiple years of alfalfa exhibited less seedling emergence while maintaining a high level of seed bank depletion, possibly indicating an increase in seed predation or fatal germination of seedlings (Table 1). In comparison to rotations containing just corn or soybean, total emergence of giant ragweed was reduced by an average of 38% when wheat or alfalfa were included in the rotation (Table 1). Giant ragweed emerged early across all treatments, with 90% emergence occurring by 4 June on average. These results indicate that corn and soybean rotations are more conducive to giant ragweed emergence than rotations containing wheat and alfalfa, and that adopting a zero weed threshold is a viable approach to depleting the weed seed bank. This presentation will discuss current research focusing on how crop rotation and timing of field operations can be used as part of an integrated weed management plan to improve herbicide-resistant giant ragweed control. Specifically, alfalfa will be highlighted as being an important tool to deplete the weed seed-bank while maintaining profitability.

    Univ of Minnesota Agronomy and Agroecology
    Herbicide Resistant Weed Seedbank Dynamics Influenced by Crop Rotation? The Value of Alfalfa as a Tool.
    weed management
  • Authors:  Mark Renz

    No abstract provided. Please see presentation.

    No abstract provided. Please see presentation.

    UW-Madison Agronomy
    How Do I Change my Turndown Program to Improve Perennial Weed Management
    weed management
  • Authors:  Brian Rydlund

    Grain marketing from a very basic standpoint, including: the components of price, hedging tools, basis, & strategies will be discussed. Market outlook for corn, soybeans and wheat, primarily futures, will also be discussed.

    Grain marketing from a very basic standpoint, including: the components of price, hedging tools, basis, & strategies will be discussed. Market outlook for corn, soybeans and wheat, primarily futures, will also be discussed.

    CHS Hedging
    Basic Train Marketing Workshop and Market Outlook
    grain and feed marketing
  • Authors:  Nick Friant

    Grain quality management touches every aspect of the grain industry. From elevator to seller, managing the quality of your stored grain impacts selling price, operating costs, company reputation, and more. This session will cover handling and storage best practices such as shrink, binning/blending, Read more…

    Grain quality management touches every aspect of the grain industry. From elevator to seller, managing the quality of your stored grain impacts selling price, operating costs, company reputation, and more. This session will cover handling and storage best practices such as shrink, binning/blending, and ground piles and temporary storage, as well as methods for preventing and responding to either a handling or storage incident.

    Cargill
    Grain Quality - Things to Remember When Storing/Handling the 2015 Crop
    grain and feed marketing
  • Authors:  Travis Frey, Danielle Fuchs, Chelsey Robinson

    Experts agree that to keep up with the demands of a growing global population, we will need to grow as much food in the next 50 years as we did in the past 10,000 years combined. We will need to do so Read more…

    Experts agree that to keep up with the demands of a growing global population, we will need to grow as much food in the next 50 years as we did in the past 10,000 years combined. We will need to do so under the pressures of a changing climate which has created a more volatile environment for farming, including increased drought, insect populations and new and renewed disease threats, among other challenges.

    Monsanto
    GMO 101: Facts to Educate You and Help You to Educate Others about GMO Crops and Foods
    grain and feed marketing
  • Authors:  Amber Radatz

    UW Discovery Farms, part of UW-Extension, works with Wisconsin farmers to identify the water quality impacts of different farming systems around the state. Discovery Farms programs of Wisconsin and Minnesota have collected water quality information from a wide variety of farming systems. There Read more…

    UW Discovery Farms, part of UW-Extension, works with Wisconsin farmers to identify the water quality impacts of different farming systems around the state. Discovery Farms programs of Wisconsin and Minnesota have collected water quality information from a wide variety of farming systems. There are many management styles and landscapes represented in the monitored fields.

    UW-Discovery Farms
    Three Ways to Control Dissolved Phosphorus / Controlling Nutrient Loss
    manure and fertilizer
  • Authors:  Peter Vadas, Laura Ward Good, John Panuska

    Agricultural nutrient management continues to be an important area of research and policy due to concerns of phosphorus (P) loss in runoff and water quality impacts. For dairy and beef farms, outdoor cattle lots (feedlots, barnyards, exercise lots, over-wintering lots) can be significant Read more…

    Agricultural nutrient management continues to be an important area of research and policy due to concerns of phosphorus (P) loss in runoff and water quality impacts. For dairy and beef farms, outdoor cattle lots (feedlots, barnyards, exercise lots, over-wintering lots) can be significant sources of P loss (Koelsch et al., 2006). There is a need to assess P loss from lots, especially relative to other farm areas (cropland, pastures), to see if alternative lot management is needed and cost-effective. Computer models can be effective tools to help quantify P loss from cattle lots. Despite quite a bit of physical monitoring research on P loss from lots since the 1970’s, there has been little development of models to predict P loss from these areas. To our knowledge, the only two examples of runoff and P loss models for cattle lots are in the AGNPS model (Young et al., 1989) and the APEX model (Gassman et al., 2010; Williams et al., 2006). Barnyard runoff models such as BARNY in Wisconsin and MinnFarm in Minnesota use the same approach as AGNPS. Both AGNPS and APEX have had only minimal testing for P loss from lots (Kizil et al., 2006; Williams et al., 2006), so it is not clear if they are reliable across a range of cattle lot managements, conditions, and locations. Our objectives were to:

    1.Develop a relatively simple, annual model to estimate P loss in runoff from cattle lots

    2.Test the model with data available in the published literature

    3.Compare the new model to BARNY and MinnFarm.

    USDA
    A New Tool for Estimating Phosphorus Loss from Cattle Barnyards and Outdoor Lots
    manure and fertilizer
  • Authors:  Bill Jokela

    Why apply manure on alfalfa and other perennial forage crops? There are several benefits, but also some concerns or challenges to be considered. Alfalfa and other forages have a large nutrient need – potassium, phosphorus, sulfur,micronutrients, and for grass forages, nitrogen. Read more…

    Why apply manure on alfalfa and other perennial forage crops? There are several benefits, but also some concerns or challenges to be considered.

    Alfalfa and other forages have a large nutrient need – potassium, phosphorus, sulfur,micronutrients, and for grass forages, nitrogen. Manure is a good source of these nutrients and can produce yield increases if nutrients are deficient. Application of manure to forage crops increases the acreage base, which may be important to meet nutrient management plan requirements and avoid over application of P. And applying manure after harvest during the growing season opens up windows of time for manure application not available with most annual crops. While alfalfa and other legumes don’t benefit from nitrogen in manure, applied N reduces the amount of symbiotic N fixation, helping to buffer N availability and reducing the risk of nitrate leaching due to N application from manure. And the deep rooting pattern of alfalfa can capture nitrate that leached beneath the root zone other crops from excessive manure or fertilizer N application. (See Russelle and Jokela, 2013, for more detail.)

    There are also some challenges or limitations associated with manure application on forages – smothering and leaf coating, soil compaction and crown damage from wheel traffic, pathogens and feed contamination, surface runoff of nutrients, and odor and ammonia emission. Most of these concerns are associated with broadcast application after harvest and will be discussed in a later section.

    There are three general manure application strategies or times of application: preplant (before forage seeding), following last harvest at termination of the stand, and after harvest during the season.

    USDA
    Manure on Perennial Forages: Benefits and Challenges
    manure and fertilizer
  • Authors:  Carrie Laboski

    The purpose of this paper is to explain how to evaluate the potential for N loss after heavy rainfall and determine corrective measures that may be taken. Denitrification Denitrification is the process whereby nitrate is converted to the gases dinitrogen or Read more…

    The purpose of this paper is to explain how to evaluate the potential for N loss after heavy rainfall and determine corrective measures that may be taken.

    Denitrification

    Denitrification is the process whereby nitrate is converted to the gases dinitrogen or nitrous oxide and subsequently released to the atmosphere. This conversion is carried out by soil bacteria. Denitrification can be a significant mechanism for N loss on medium- and fine-textured soil. It is generally not an issue on coarse-textured soils because they do not remain saturated for any length of time. There are several environmental factors that determine if denitrification occurs and to what extent.

    1. Nitrate. Nitrate must be present for denitrification to occur. If nitrate is not present or is in low concentrations, denitrifiaction losses will be minimal.

    2. Soil water content and aeration. Denitrification occurs in wet soils with low oxygen concentrations. Denitrification increase with the length of time the soil is saturated. Standing water may result in a greater percentage of nitrate being denitrified.

    3. Temperature. Denitrification proceeds faster on warmer soils, particularly when soil temperature is greater than 75°F.

    4. Organic matter. Denitrification occurs because soil bacteria are breaking down organic matter under low oxygen conditions and the bacteria use nitrate in a biochemical process. Soils with low soluble organic carbon will have less potential for denitrification than soils with high soluble organic carbon. Thus, nitrate that resides deeper in the soil profile (e.g., below 12 inches) where there is less organic matter will have a greatly reduced or minimal probability of being denitrified.

    5. Soil pH. Denitrification is negligible in soils with a pH < 5.0. Thus, pH likely does not limit denitrification on most of our cropland in Wisconsin.

    UW-Madison Soil Science
    Evaluating Nitrogen Loss After Heavy Rainfall
    manure and fertilizer
  • Authors:  Adam Gaspar, Carrie Laboski

    Since the 1950s there have been three philosophies driving soil fertility recommendations throughout the U.S. concerning certain base cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+). They include build and maintain, sufficiency level, and base cation saturation ratio (BCSR). The theory of an “ideal” BCSR in the Read more…

    Since the 1950s there have been three philosophies driving soil fertility recommendations throughout the U.S. concerning certain base cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+). They include build and maintain, sufficiency level, and base cation saturation ratio (BCSR). The theory of an “ideal” BCSR in the soil has been extensively discussed and used to a limited extent throughout the Midwest by some soil testing labs to guide fertility recommendations. This “ideal” soil was first suggested by researchers from New Jersey in the 1940’s (Bear et al., 1945; Bear and Toth, 1948; Hunter, A.S., 1949; Prince et al., 1947) and further emphasized by William Albrecht, Professor from the University of Missouri. Their theory built upon work done by Loew and May (1901) which suggested that Ca and Mg should be in a 5:4 ratio for optimal plant growth. However, this theory has been a subject of great debate in terms of its utility for affecting crop yields and farmer profitability. Numerous studies have found flaws in the BCSR method and showed no proven yield increases, while a greater research base exists to support the sufficiency and build and maintain approaches (Eckert and McLean, 1981; McLean et al., 1983). Yet, some consultants and ag. retailers still use the BCSR method to guide fertility recommendations. All land-grant university fertility recommendations in the Midwest use a sufficiency or build and maintain approach. The University of Wisconsin recommendations employ a build and maintain approach, as do most surrounding states (IL, IA, IN, MI). This paper will discuss the theory behind the BCSR method, its applicability, if there is any value to it, and why state fertility recommendations do not endorse the BCSR method.

    UW-Madison Agronomy
    Base Saturation: What is it? Should I be concerned? Does it affect my fertility program?
    manure and fertilizer
  • Authors:  Becky Larson

    No Abstract was provided, please see presentation.

    No Abstract was provided, please see presentation.

    UW-Madison Biological Systems Engineering
    Evaluating Technology Options for Manure Transport and Land Application
    manure and fertilizer
  • Authors:  Matt Akins, Elizabeth Remick, Wayne Coblentz

    Growing of moderate quality forages that meet and not exceed requirements of dairy replacement heifers is not commonly done; however, it would have a positive impact on the dairy industry. It is typical for heifers to gain excessive bodyweight, especially post-puberty which negatively Read more…

    Growing of moderate quality forages that meet and not exceed requirements of dairy replacement heifers is not commonly done; however, it would have a positive impact on the dairy industry. It is typical for heifers to gain excessive bodyweight, especially post-puberty which negatively impacts first lactation milk production when fed diets high in energy. Replacement dairy heifers are typically fed high forage diets with a combination of corn silage and alfalfa or grass silage. Corn silage is typically high energy (70 to 75% TDN, DM basis) and exceeds dairy heifer requirements (900 to 1200 lb heifers require 62% TDN, DM) causing excess gain and overconditioning. Use of lower quality forages would reduce heifer over-conditioning. Sorghum and sorghum-sudangrass have a lower nutritive quality (higher fiber, lower starch) than corn silage and would be an alternative to reduce excess heifer weight gains.

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the yield of PS forage sorghum and sorghum-sudangrass compared to non-PS sorghum, sorghum-sudangrass and corn silage. We chose to conduct the study at the Hancock and Marshfield Agricultural Research Stations due to differences in soil characteristics (silt loam soil at Marshfield and sandy soil at Hancock).

    UW-Madison Dairy Science
    Sorghum as a Forage in Wisconsin
    forages
  • Authors:  Brian Luck, Joshua Harmon

    Silage is a popular feedstock for dairy cattle. Corn production for silage has grown steadily in the past years, with more than 128 million tons produced in the United States in 2014, up from 116 million tons in 2012. Growers in the Read more…

    Silage is a popular feedstock for dairy cattle. Corn production for silage has grown steadily in the past years, with more than 128 million tons produced in the United States in 2014, up from 116 million tons in 2012. Growers in the state of Wisconsin produced nearly 16 million tons of corn silage and over 9 million tons of haylage during 2014. However, making it requires a large input of time and energy. Commercial dairies often employ multiple self-propelled forage harvesters (SPFH) and many transport vehicles to harvest their crops. Managing this fleet of vehicles is often a logistical challenge, leaving significant opportunities for improvements in efficiency.

    A study was conducted on a commercial dairy in Wisconsin which used two self-propelled forage harvesters, 10 straight trucks and 2 tractor-trailers. Machine movement was tracked during harvest with Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers and Controller Area Network (CAN) data loggers placed in each vehicle. GPS loggers for non-CAN equipped vehicles were developed with Arduino Uno micro-controllers utilizing EM-506 GPS receivers. The Arduino loggers were installed in the cab of each truck and powered by the vehicle battery, and GPS data were collected at a frequency of 1 Hz via storage on a micro-SD card. Vector CANcaseXL two-channel data loggers collected CAN and GPS signals on SPFH’s. The Vector data loggers stored CAN signals, such as vehicle speed and cutterhead speed while simultaneously collecting GPS data at 1 Hz. These datasets were stored together as binary log files on the CANcaseXL SD card. Data from the Arduino and Vector data loggers were downloaded and copied once a week during harvest times. Hand-written notes were collected that recorded the time and order of trucks filled for verification of work status during data analysis. During the 2015 growing season, data were collected on these machines for 450 acres of rye (Secale cereale), 1600 acres of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), and over 2000 acres of corn (Zea mays).

    UW-Madison Biological Systems Engineering
    Forage Harvest Process Time Motion Analysis and Optimization
    forages
  • Authors:  Yoana Newman, Veronica Justen

    Alfalfa is the most extensively grown perennial legume inWisconsin. In 2015, 1.3 million acres were harvested, producing 4.55 million tons of pure and mixed dry hay, an average yield of 3.5 tone per acre (USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service, 2015). Read more…

    Alfalfa is the most extensively grown perennial legume inWisconsin. In 2015, 1.3 million acres were harvested, producing 4.55 million tons of pure and mixed dry hay, an average yield of 3.5 tone per acre (USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service, 2015). Worldwide, alfalfa has been known among forage plants as the ‘Queen’ of forages because of its productivity, and superior forage nutritive value. Alfalfa breeders and molecular biologists have been working for over a decade on improving the quality of alfalfa by targeting the reduction of lignin in leaf and stems. Sets of reduced-lignin varieties are scheduled  to be on the market in limited supplies in 2016. The information presented is an update on the advances and management considerations for these new alfalfa varieties.

    Reduced Lignin Alfalfa
    forages
  • Authors:  Randy Shaver

    As the number of cows per farm, and thus the acres needed to provide feed, have increased for Wisconsin’s dairy farms, the reliance of farm operators on agronomists and nutritionists for advice when making management decisions has also increased. An adequate supply of Read more…

    As the number of cows per farm, and thus the acres needed to provide feed, have increased for Wisconsin’s dairy farms, the reliance of farm operators on agronomists and nutritionists for advice when making management decisions has also increased. An adequate supply of high quality forage is crucial to reduce purchased feed costs and increase milk production per ton of forage. The agronomist – dairy nutritionist interface includes the following areas: feed inventory and crop rotations, manure storage and application, nutrient management plans, expansion planning, yield versus quality considerations, feed testing, harvest and storage considerations, feed valuing, team meetings, and staff training. Sub-categories within those various areas will be discussed with regard to potential for interaction between agronomists, dairy nutritionists, and farm managers on management decisions.

    UW-Madison Dairy Science
    Connecting the Agronomist and the Nutritionist to Make Management Decisions
    forages
  • Authors:  Matt Ruark

    Cover crops are a conservation management practice that can reduce soil erosion, reduce nitrate leaching to groundwater, and increase soil organic matter. However, use management of cover crops can be challenging, especially in the upper Midwest, where little growing season is left following Read more…

    Cover crops are a conservation management practice that can reduce soil erosion, reduce nitrate leaching to groundwater, and increase soil organic matter. However, use management of cover crops can be challenging, especially in the upper Midwest, where little growing season is left following harvest of corn or soybean. Additionally, termination of cover crops in the spring can be a challenge depending on spring growing conditions. Different organizations and researchers have conducted studies to assess if cover crops “work” in the Midwest, and results have ranged from clear decreases in corn yield to clear increases in corn yield. This presentation will be a thorough review of recent studies across the Midwest that assess the impact of cover crops on the subsequent crops yield. The presentation will also seek to address what cover crop management strategies should be implemented to reduce any short-term risk in order to achieve the long-term benefits of cover crops on soil health.

    UW-Madison Soil Science
    Do Cover Crops Increase or Decrease Crop Yields
    water and soil management
  • Authors:  Daniel Smith, Matt Ruark, Mark Renz

    Wisconsin growers are increasingly interested in utilizing cover crops. While cover crop establishment is relatively easy following corn silage, small grains, and processing vegetables, establishing cover crops successfully following corn or soybean has been more difficult. Aerial seeding or over-the canopy seeding late Read more…

    Wisconsin growers are increasingly interested in utilizing cover crops. While cover crop establishment is relatively easy following corn silage, small grains, and processing vegetables, establishing cover crops successfully following corn or soybean has been more difficult. Aerial seeding or over-the canopy seeding late in the growing season can be done with moderate success. An alternative approach is to interseed cover crops into a standing corn crop early in the growing season. This management practice requires special or at least modified equipment, but can improve cover crop establishment by drilling seed rather than broadcasting. Ideally, the cover crop will establish prior to canopy closure, but then survive to the end of the growing season without creating too much competition for resources (nutrients and water) for the corn crop. Little experimentation has occurred in Wisconsin to evaluate cover crop growth when interseeded into standing corn and the impact of interseeding cover crops on corn grain yield.

    UW-Madison Horticulture
    Interseeding Cover Crops into Corn in Wisconsin
    all subjects
  • Authors:  Daren Mueller

    Sudden death syndrome (SDS) was severe in many fields across the Midwest the past few years, resulting in yield loss and frustration for farmers. There are a few positive things that we can learn in a years like this, though. For one, Read more…

    Sudden death syndrome (SDS) was severe in many fields across the Midwest the past few years, resulting in yield loss and frustration for farmers. There are a few positive things that we can learn in a years like this, though. For one, many soybean varieties were pushed to their limits, allowing farmers to get a really good evaluation of the genetic resistance for SDS in a variety. Additionally, other beneficial management strategies can be identified that complement variety resistance.

    Iowa State University Plant Pathology
    Integrated Management of Soybean Sudden Death Syndrome
    disease management
  • Authors:  Anette Phibbs, Susan Lueloff, Adrian Barta

    http://pestsurvey.wi.gov/ The 2015 survey of early-vegetative soybeans found 38% (19 of 50) surveyed fields tested positive for Phytophthora root rot disease caused by Phytophthora sojae. That is a lower infection level than last year’s 49%, but still very high. The state-wide survey Read more…

    http://pestsurvey.wi.gov/

    The 2015 survey of early-vegetative soybeans found 38% (19 of 50) surveyed fields tested positive for Phytophthora root rot disease caused by Phytophthora sojae. That is a lower infection level than last year’s 49%, but still very high. The state-wide survey took place from June 2 to 30. The fungus-like pathogen was detected in 16 counties: Buffalo, Calumet, Chippewa, Columbia, Dodge, Dunn, Iowa, Kenosha, Lafayette, Manitowoc, Outagamie, Polk, Rock, and Winnebago. Based on previous year’s survey results, all other counties should not expect to be free from the disease.

    WDATCP
    2015 Wisconsin Crop Disease Survey
    disease management
  • Authors:  Daren Mueller

    Herbicide resistant weeds have been in the news quite frequently lately, and rightfully so. Their existence is changing how farmers currently manage weeds in corn and soybean fields. But resistance to pesticides is not limited to weeds. Fungi that cause crop disease can Read more…

    Herbicide resistant weeds have been in the news quite frequently lately, and rightfully so. Their existence is changing how farmers currently manage weeds in corn and soybean fields. But resistance to pesticides is not limited to weeds. Fungi that cause crop disease can also develop resistance to fungicides. This presentation will cover the basics of fungicide resistance and outline ways to avoid or delay fungicide resistance from occurring. Some of this research is funded through the soybean check off from Iowa Soybean Association and the United Soybean Board. We thank our sponsors for this support.

    Iowa State University Plant Pathology
    Fungicide Resistance in Field Crops
    disease management
  • Authors:  Damon Smith, Scott Chapman, Brian Mueller

    The 2014 field season was a bit of a challenge for corn growers in Wisconsin, to say the least. Growing conditions were poor, which made for a lot of challenges including diseases. On the top of that list in Wisconsin was Northern Read more…

    The 2014 field season was a bit of a challenge for corn growers in Wisconsin, to say the least. Growing conditions were poor, which made for a lot of challenges including diseases. On the top of that list in Wisconsin was Northern Corn Leaf blight (NCLB). A close second was Goss’s Wilt. In 2015, NCLB again was a considerable issue along with reports of Goss’s wilt and eyespot. NCLB hit the state hard anywhere from prior to the VT growth stage through to late reproductive growth stages. This likely resulted in some direct loss in yield, but also led to increased levels of stalk rot which caused lodging in some fields.

    UW-Madison Plant Pathology
    Managing Corn Diseases in Wisconsin
    disease management
  • Authors:  Jeffrey Brandenburg

    Hardly a day goes by without seeing an article or hearing a news report about fraud and ethics….usually involving a loss of cash or assets. Many organizations believe “it just cannot happen to them.” The fact is that surveys show most businesses Read more…

    Hardly a day goes by without seeing an article or hearing a news report about fraud and ethics….usually involving a loss of cash or assets. Many organizations believe “it just cannot happen to them.” The fact is that surveys show most businesses experience some sort of fraud or ethics challenges each and every year. How you address fraud and ethics from a management and business perspective can make an impact not only in discouraging fraud and ethics issues from occurring but also creating a better work environment at your company.

    The items this session will address include:

    ►What is fraud?

    ►Ethics discussion

    ►Defining the ethics at your organization

    ►Dealing with fraud and ethics

    ►Ethics and internal controls

    ______________________

    CliftonLarsonAllen
    Business Code of Ethics Workshop
    agriculture business
  • Authors:  Jim Fleming, Megan O'Rourke, Mark Waschek

    Please see three presentations below.

    Please see three presentations below.

    Agri-search, UW-CALS career development, Ag 1 Source
    Recruiting Good People for your Agribusiness
    agriculture business
  • Authors:  Russell Groves, Kathryn Prince

    Production and processing of specialty crops in Wisconsin are very important to both state and national agricultural industries. Nearly all of the commercial, contract green bean acres receive an at-plant seed treatment of a Group 4A insecticide (neonicotinoid). Increasingly, producers rely heavily on Read more…

    Production and processing of specialty crops in Wisconsin are very important to both state and national agricultural industries. Nearly all of the commercial, contract green bean acres receive an at-plant seed treatment of a Group 4A insecticide (neonicotinoid). Increasingly, producers rely heavily on this single class of insecticides for control of early season pests including seed maggots, potato leafhopper, and bean leaf beetles. Reported at-plant applications of these neonicotinoid seed treatments have occurred on nearly 90% of all acres reported and reflect statewide use rates in many other grain crops. Concomitantly, both native and domestic pollinators are experiencing declines and even disappearance in localized regions of the US on an unprecedented level. Despite a remarkably intensive level of research effort towards understanding causes of pollinator declines and managed honeybee colony losses in the US, overall losses continue to be high and pose a serious threat to meeting the pollination service demands for several commercial crops. In addition, the US EPA has recently proposed revisions to existing insecticide label registrations for the control of key pests in green bean production. Current and future proposed options for control will be discussed in the context of revised seed treatment registrations.

    UW-Madison Entomology
    Snap Bean Insect Pest Management
    vegetable topics
  • Authors:  Jed Colquhoun, Richard Rittmeyer, Daniel Heider

    Carrot growers are challenged with a broad spectrum of weed species in a relatively uncompetitive crop and currently have few management options to remedy the situation. Furthermore, linuron, one of the more effective control options in carrots, is restricted in use on coarse-textured, Read more…

    Carrot growers are challenged with a broad spectrum of weed species in a relatively uncompetitive crop and currently have few management options to remedy the situation. Furthermore, linuron, one of the more effective control options in carrots, is restricted in use on coarse-textured, low organic matter soils where the crop is often grown. With this in mind, studies were conducted to: 1) identify herbicide programs that provide season-long control; 2) evaluate preemergent herbicides on cereal nurse crops interseeded among carrots for wind erosion control; and, 3) identify carrot varieties that suppress weeds with rapid emergence and establishment. All studies were conducted at the Hancock Agricultural Research Station in Hancock, WI on a loamy sand soil.

    UW-Madison Horticulture
    Integrated Weed Management in Carrot Production
    vegetable topics
  • Authors:  Matt Ruark, Jaimie West

    While the University of Wisconsin-Extension guidelines for nitrogen applications to sweet corn are listed at 150 lb/ac of N for soils with less than 2% SOM and 130 lb/ac of N for soils with 2 to 10% SOM, there are still many Read more…

    While the University of Wisconsin-Extension guidelines for nitrogen applications to sweet corn are listed at 150 lb/ac of N for soils with less than 2% SOM and 130 lb/ac of N for soils with 2 to 10% SOM, there are still many questions related to other N management practices (such as timing and source). A change in N timing relative to planting date is a key factor in improving N use efficiency for sweet corn on irrigated sandy soil. Two studies have been conducted over the past 3 years to evaluate if there are any benefits to altering the timing and rate of N applications on sweet corn.

    UW-Madison Soil Science
    Fine-tuning Nitrogen Recommendations for Sweet Corn
    vegetable topics
  • Authors:  Amanda Gevens, Stephen Jordan

    White mold of snap beans has been a challenge to manage in processing production fields in Wisconsin. When unmanaged, white mold can cause significant yield reduction, particularly in moist, warm years. The soilborne fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is responsible for white mold in snap Read more…

    White mold of snap beans has been a challenge to manage in processing production fields in Wisconsin. When unmanaged, white mold can cause significant yield reduction, particularly in moist, warm years. The soilborne fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is responsible for white mold in snap beans, as well as disease in a broad range of dichotomous food plants including other legumes, cucurbits, crucifers, and solanaceous crops. We have routinely conducted foliar fungicide efficacy trials to determine optimum timing and selection of fungicides for white mold control on snap beans in Wisconsin. Results of 2015 fungicide research trials are detailed below.

    UW-Madison Plant Pathology
    White Mold Management Update in Processing Snap Beans
    vegetable topics
  • Authors:  Judy Derricks

    It has been an exciting and challenging year as we worked to get conservation on the ground throughout Wisconsin. Our new “Regional Conservation Partnership Program (RCPP) provided record levels of conservation installation as we teamed up with public and private investors in the Read more…

    It has been an exciting and challenging year as we worked to get conservation on the ground throughout Wisconsin. Our new “Regional Conservation Partnership Program (RCPP) provided record levels of conservation installation as we teamed up with public and private investors in the field of conservation. The Environmental Quality Incentive Program (EQIP) and Conservation Stewardship Program continue to be our base programs along with easements programs for wetlands and working lands. To find out more we encourage you to visit www.wi.nrcs.usda.gov for information regarding all of NRCS-Wisconsin’s technical tools, service and financial assistance programs.

    NRCS
    Nutrient Management Government Panel (NRCS)
    nutrient management
  • Authors:  Sara Walling

    See presentation below

    See presentation below

    WiDATCP
    Nutrient Management Government Panel (WiDATCP)
    nutrient management
  • Authors:  Joe Baeten

    See presentation below

    See presentation below

    WDNR
    Nutrient Management Government Panel (WDNR)
    nutrient management
  • Authors:  Carrie Laboski

    Adaptive nutrient management is a new feature in the revised NRCS code 590. This paper will explain what adaptive nutrient management is and how to implement it. The goal of adaptive management is to enable growers to use on-farm data to Read more…

    Adaptive nutrient management is a new feature in the revised NRCS code 590. This paper will explain what adaptive nutrient management is and how to implement it.

    The goal of adaptive management is to enable growers to use on-farm data to refine nutrient management strategies to adapt to conditions on their farm. Adaptive management in the context of the 590 standard can be used to 1) document the need for and amount of rescue N applications after excessive rainfall; 2) adjust P and K application rates when documented crop yield levels are greater than ranges provided in UWEX Pub. A2809; or 3) refine any nutrient application rate (primarily N) or management strategy using on-farm research data.

    UW-Madison Soil Science
    Implementing Adaptive Nutrient Management as Part of a 590 Plan
    nutrient management
  • Authors:  Scott Sanford

    A great deal of resources and effort are invested in growing, harvesting, drying and transporting grain crops. Managing the dry grain in storage is important to protect that investment. The quality of grain cannot be improved during storage but if not properly Read more…

    A great deal of resources and effort are invested in growing, harvesting, drying and transporting grain crops. Managing the dry grain in storage is important to protect that investment. The quality of grain cannot be improved during storage but if not properly managed, grain quality can deteriorate quickly. The majority of grain losses are caused by living things such as fungi, mold, insects and rodents. The grain temperature and moisture can provide a haven for living things or aid in preventing problems.

    There are six main causes of grain storage problems: grain is too warm, grain is too wet, too much foreign matter and fines, uneven grain temperatures in bin, storage bins not cleaned before harvest, and grain not checked often enough during storage.

    UW-Madison Biological Systems Engineering
    Managing Dry Grain Storage
    insects and disease
  • Authors:  Patrick Liesch

    Due to its northern location and cooler climate, Wisconsin tends to have fewer problems with stored grain insects than other regions of the country. However, insects present in stored grains still pose a significant threat to grading and salability. Some good news Read more…

    Due to its northern location and cooler climate, Wisconsin tends to have fewer problems with stored grain insects than other regions of the country. However, insects present in stored grains still pose a significant threat to grading and salability. Some good news for farmers in Wisconsin is that insect-free grain that is stored properly in clean bins, should remain insect free until the following summer, if not longer. The practices listed below can help prevent insect infestations:

    1. Prior to storage, thoroughly clean storage bins and transport/handling equipment

    2. Maintain functional storage bins (properly sealed, functioning aeration fans, etc.)

    3. Apply preventative insecticide treatments to bin and/or grain if warranted

    4. Keep grain as dry and cool as possible

    5. Scout to catch infestations early

    UW-Madison Entomology
    Managing Insect Pests in Stored Grain
    insects and disease
  • Authors:  Bryan Jensen

    Corn rootworms (CRW) are a key insect pest and a potential economic risk to corn production in Wisconsin. Detection of field-evolved resistance of the western corn rootworm to certain plant incorporated Bt proteins (GMO hybrids) has recently focused attention on using an Read more…

    Corn rootworms (CRW) are a key insect pest and a potential economic risk to corn production in Wisconsin. Detection of field-evolved resistance of the western corn rootworm to certain plant incorporated Bt proteins (GMO hybrids) has recently focused attention on using an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) approach to reduce the potential for resistance and unexpected damage. Managing this risk will require use of field data (beetle scouting and root evaluations) so that a prescriptive management plans can be developed that reduces the reliance on a single management tactic.

    UW-Madison Entomology
    Corn Rootworm Resistance Management
    insects and disease
  • Authors:  Bryan Jensen

    European corn borer (ECB) is a pest of several crops including field, sweet and popcorn. Once considered a key pest of field corn, populations of ECB have declined since the widespread adoption of commercial corn hybrids that express above ground traits. However, Read more…

    European corn borer (ECB) is a pest of several crops including field, sweet and popcorn. Once considered a key pest of field corn, populations of ECB have declined since the widespread adoption of commercial corn hybrids that express above ground traits. However, in recent years populations of ECB have increased. Likely because of growers using more conventional corn hybrids and because of several other non-traited host crops being planted.

    UW-Madison Entomology
    ECB 101: ManagingECB in the Absence in Traits
    insects and disease
  • Authors:  Chad Hart

    Useful to Usable (U2U): Transforming Climate Variability and Change Information for Cereal Crop Producers, is a USDA-funded research and extension project designed to improve the resilience and profitability of U.S. farms in the Corn Belt amid a changing climate. The team of over Read more…

    Useful to Usable (U2U): Transforming Climate Variability and Change Information for Cereal Crop Producers, is a USDA-funded research and extension project designed to improve the resilience and profitability of U.S. farms in the Corn Belt amid a changing climate. The team of over 50 faculty, staff, and students from nine Midwestern universities are experts in applied climatology, crop modeling, agronomy, cyber-technology, agricultural economics, and other social sciences. We have worked together, and with members of the agricultural community, to develop decision support tools, resource materials, and training methods that lead to more effective decision making and the adoption of climate-resilient practices. The five tools listed below have been developed and are available for public use at http://www.agclimate4u.org.

    Iowa State University- Department of Economics
    U2U-Based Decision Tools
    economics, transportation and soil health
  • Authors:  Paul Mitchell

    No draft provided.

    No draft provided.

    UW-Madison Ag and Applied Economics
    Strategies When the Market Price is Below the Cost of Production
    economics, transportation and soil health
  • Authors:  Erin Silva

    No abstract was provided, please see presentation below.

    No abstract was provided, please see presentation below.

    UW-Madison Plant Pathology
    Production of Organic Processing Crops
    vegetable topics
  • Authors:  Bryan Young

    A common progression for farmers in the Roundup Ready crop system has been to gradually increase the rate of glyphosate as inconsistent weed control is observed. Thus, previous failed applications of glyphosate are followed with higher rates of glyphosate in Read more…

    A common progression for farmers in the Roundup Ready crop system has been to gradually increase the rate of glyphosate as inconsistent weed control is observed. Thus, previous failed applications of glyphosate are followed with higher rates of glyphosate in subsequent applica-tions. There are multiple concerns with this approach. First, the use of a single herbicide until failure allows weeds to continue growing with the crop which can reduce crop yields. Even if a successful rescue treatment controls all the surviving weeds the span of time for the failed glyphosate application to the rescue treatment is significant enough to reduce crop yields. Second, the use of glyphosate in this manner has been implicated in the evolution of glyphosate-resistant weed biotypes throughout the U.S., which ultimately results in the loss of the most effective herbicide available for control of our primary weed species.

    Purdue University
    Uh oh...44 oz of glyphosate didn't touch it...what do I do now?
    weed management
  • Authors:  Mark Renz

    Since its introduction into the United States in the late 1700s, Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) has spread dramatically, causing greater crop losses than any other perennial broadleaf weed in the north central region of the United States. In Wisconsin, it Read more…

    Since its introduction into the United States in the late 1700s, Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) has spread dramatically, causing greater crop losses than any other perennial broadleaf weed in the north central region of the United States. In Wisconsin, it continues to be a major pest identified by growers, land managers, and consultants. In pastures studies indicate that, while highly variable, forage loss from Canada thistle can result in an average of 22% yield loss. While forage quality remains high for Canada thistle, its palatability can be extremely low due to the spiny nature of the leaves. This can result in partial-use (40%) or complete rejection by animals. In addition to these costs animals do not utilize the forage nearby effectively when Canada thistle is present. This can result in <50% utilization of desirable forage. Finally, spines present on the leaves can aggravate animals often resulting in reduced performance. Clearly Canada thistle is not a desirable plant.

  • Authors:  N/A

    Topics include: european corn borer, corn rootworm, black cutworm, corn earworm, true armyworm, soybean aphid, and western bean cutworm

    Topics include: european corn borer, corn rootworm, black cutworm, corn earworm, true armyworm, soybean aphid, and western bean cutworm

  • Authors:  Amanda Gevens

    Late blight is a potentially destructive disease of potatoes and tomatoes caused by the fungal-like organism, Phytophthora infestans. This pathogen is referred to as a ‘water mold’ since it thrives under wet conditions. Symptoms include leaf lesions beginning as pale green or olive Read more…

    Late blight is a potentially destructive disease of potatoes and tomatoes caused by the fungal-like organism, Phytophthora infestans. This pathogen is referred to as a ‘water mold’ since it thrives under wet conditions. Symptoms include leaf lesions beginning as pale green or olive green areas that quickly enlarge to become brown-black, water-soaked, and oily in appearance. Lesions on leaves can also produce pathogen sporulation which looks like white-gray fuzzy growth. Stems can also exhibit dark brown to black lesions with sporulation. Tuber infections are dark brown to purple in color and internal tissues are often reddish brown in color and firm to corky in texture. The time from first infection to lesion development and sporulation can be as fast as 7 days, depending upon the weather.

    Two mating types are needed to produce sexual, persistent soil-borne oospores. The population is largely clonal outside its center of origin in the Toluca Valley of Mexico, relying on production of asexual sporangia for persistence. In the U.S., clonal lineage (also referred to as genotype or strain) US-1 (A1 mating type) was the predominant clonal lineage until the late 1980s-early 1990s, when US-8 appeared. US-8 was the opposite mating type (A2) and was insensitive to mefenoxam, a fungicide with exceptional activity against oomycetes, but with a specific mode of action that effectively selects for insensitivity. New clonal lineages have predominated epidemics in recent years with varying levels of mefenoxam resistance. Late blight pathogen populations in the U.S. have and continue to experience major genetic changes or evolution. The end result is the production of pathogen isolates with unique genotypes and epidemiological characteristics. As such, continued investigation of this pathogen is necessary to maintain best management strategies in susceptible crops.

    Our objective was to monitor for late blight on a state-wide basis and characterize P. infestans in a timely manner to inform appropriate management recommendations and enhance understanding of the pathogens introduction and persistence in Wisconsin.

    UW-Madison
    Late blight and downy mildew updates in processing vegetable crops
    vegetable topics
  • Authors:  Anders S. Huseth, Russell L. Groves, Scott A. Chapman

    Multiple applications of pyrethroid insecticides are used to manage European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner, in snap bean, but new diamide insecticides may reduce application frequency. The objective of this study was to examine the potential for improving control of O. nubilalis in Read more…

    Multiple applications of pyrethroid insecticides are used to manage European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner, in snap bean, but new diamide insecticides may reduce application frequency. The objective of this study was to examine the potential for improving control of O. nubilalis in processing snap bean with diamide insecticides. Specifically, we compared O. nubilalis control with chlorantraniliprole, cyantraniliprole, and bifenthrin at three different phenological snap bean stages (i.e., bud, bloom, pod formation) to determine the duration of residual activity for each insecticide under field conditions in snap bean, and co-applied cyantraniliprole and bifenthrin insecticides with either herbicides or fungicides at each vegetative stage to determine if tank mixing cyantraniliprole and bifenthrin with common agrochemicals would reduce O. nubilalis control, and finally we confirmed the suitability of diamide insecticides for O. nubilalis control using commercial snap bean fields and processing plant contamination data, over two consecutive field seasons. Cyantraniliprole applications timed either during bloom or pod formation controlled O. nubilalis better than similar timings of bifenthrin. Co-applications of insecticides with fungicides controlled O. nubilalis as well as insecticide applications alone. Insecticides applied either alone or with herbicides during bud stage did not control this pest. In commercial snap bean fields, yield and quality were equivalent in fields treated once with chlorantraniliprole and twice with pyrethroids. Diamides are an excellent alternative to pyrethroids for manage O. nubilalis in snap bean. Adoption of diamides by snap bean growers could improve the efficiency of production by reducing the number of sprays required each season.

    UW Madison
    Co-application of the diamide insecticides in snap beans
    vegetable topics
  • Authors:  Kenneth Frost, Amanda Gevens, Ross Groves

    Alternaria leaf blight, caused by the fungus Alternaria dauci, andCercospora leaf spot, caused by the fungus Cercospora carotae, infect leaves and petioles of carrot and are the most prevalent foliar diseases of carrot worldwide. These foliar blight pathogens reduce yield by limiting Read more…

    Alternaria leaf blight, caused by the fungus Alternaria dauci, andCercospora leaf spot, caused by the fungus Cercospora carotae, infect leaves and petioles of carrot and are the most prevalent foliar diseases of carrot worldwide. These foliar blight pathogens reduce yield by limiting the plant’s photosynthetic capacity and by weakening the petioles needed for mechanical harvest. Typically, carrots are harvested by implements that loosen the soil and simultaneously grasp the foliage while lifting the roots out of the soil; blighted petioles break when gripped by the mechanical harvester and carrots are left in the soil. Environmental conditions greatly influence the occurrence and progression of these foliar diseases of carrot and the anticipation of heightened disease risk through the identification and monitoring of critical environmental factors, such as, relative humidity and temperature, can enhance disease management by optimizing the timing of fungicide applications. However, implementation of the weather-based models is difficult because, typically, each field requires a customized forecast that is dependent on disease severity, weather conditions, and fungicide program, factors that are field-specific. A goal of this research is to provide a set of generalized recommendations for managing foliar diseases of carrot that can be used for the majority of WI fields without the need for grower investment in weather stations.

    UW Madison
    Web-based pest and disease forecasting tool for enhanced processing vegetable crop management
    vegetable topics
  • Authors:  Jed Colquhoun, Dan Heider, Richard Rittmeyer

    The introduction of new agronomic crop herbicides in recent years that are active at low doses, as well as the pending introduction of crop traits conferring resistance to additional herbicides, have spurred an interest among specialty crop producers in knowing more about Read more…

    The introduction of new agronomic crop herbicides in recent years that are active at low doses, as well as the pending introduction of crop traits conferring resistance to additional herbicides, have spurred an interest among specialty crop producers in knowing more about the potential off target implications of these tools. While pesticide drift remains a concern, our recent work has focused more on implications of potential spray tank contamination when specialty crops are sprayed after agronomic crops, such as corn, soybean or small grains. We recently completed a replicated study in snap bean and potato in this subject area and have also completed the first repetition of a 2-year study looking at the implications of potato seed crop exposure to herbicides on daughter tuber germination and growth.

    UW Madison
    Implications of off-target herbicides near specialty crops
    vegetable topics
  • Authors:  Erin Silva

    Cover crops are increasingly recognized for their multiple agronomic benefits, including improving soil quality and health, enhancing soil fertility, and preventing erosion. Choosing cover crops for a particular farming system requires consideration of several factors, including planting window, termination time and strategy, desired Read more…

    Cover crops are increasingly recognized for their multiple agronomic benefits, including improving soil quality and health, enhancing soil fertility, and preventing erosion. Choosing cover crops for a particular farming system requires consideration of several factors, including planting window, termination time and strategy, desired functionality (weed suppression, erosion prevention, nitrogen credits), and potential disease and insect interactions. Resources exist to assist farmers in the selection of appropriate cover crops for their specific system and crop rotations. The Midwest Cover Crop Council has created one of the most extensive sources of information regarding cover crops for the upper Midwest; comprised of a diverse group of academia, farmers, non-governmental organizations, and state and federal agency representatives, this group works to provide materials on cover crop practices and opportunities, including farmer profiles, webinars, and field days. The information is housed on their website, www.mccc.msu.edu.

    UW Madison
    Cover crops in processing crops
    vegetable topics
  • Authors:  Richard Ferguson

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

    University of Nebraska-Lincoln
    Using crop sensors for nitrogen management
    nutrient management
  • Authors:  Pat Murphy, Sara Walling, Andrew Craig

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

    NRCS
    Government agency panel on nutrient management
    nutrient management
  • Authors:  Richard Ferguson

    In response to increasing levels of nitrate-N in groundwater in the Central Platte River Valley of Nebraska, intensive education and then regulatory efforts were implemented starting in the 1980s, to encourage adoption of nitrogen fertilizer and irrigation management practices which can reduce nitrate Read more…

    In response to increasing levels of nitrate-N in groundwater in the Central Platte River Valley of Nebraska, intensive education and then regulatory efforts were implemented starting in the 1980s, to encourage adoption of nitrogen fertilizer and irrigation management practices which can reduce nitrate leaching to groundwater. Since 1988, there have been steady declines in average NO3-N concentrations in groundwater in the Central Platte River Valley, resulting from adoption of recommended practices – in particular conversion from furrow to center-pivot irrigation. However, fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency has remained fairly static over the past 25 years. Trends suggest that further improvement in nitrogen use efficiency may require development and adoption of next generation nutrient management tools, such as increased use of fertigation, controlled release formulations, or crop canopy sensors for in-season fertilization.

    University of Nebraska- Lincoln
    Groundwater nitrate and nitrogen use efficiency in Nebraska's Central Platte River Valley
    nutrient management
  • Authors:  Martin Chilvers, Alejandro Rojas, Janette Jacobs

    Seedling diseases of soybean and corn can cause significant losses through poor stand establishment and reduced plant vigor. Identifying the causal agent of seedling disease is not a simple process as the soil environment is complex and contains many thousands of microbe species Read more…

    Seedling diseases of soybean and corn can cause significant losses through poor stand establishment and reduced plant vigor. Identifying the causal agent of seedling disease is not a simple process as the soil environment is complex and contains many thousands of microbe species but only a small portion of these actually cause disease. The primary causes of soybean seedling disease are Pythium spp., Phytophthora sojae, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium spp. In this study it was our objective to identify the predominant oomycete (Pythium and Phytophthora) species that cause soybean seedling disease. Only by understanding which pathogens cause disease are we are ultimately able to improve disease management.

    Michigan State University
    Making every seed count: Who's responsible for stand loss?
    disease management
  • Authors:  Damon Smith, Scott Chapman, Bryan Jensen

    Over the past several years, interest in using foliar-applied fungicides on alfalfa for dairy production has increased. This has subsequently led to new labeling for foliar fungicide products for use on alfalfa. Research at the University of Wisconsin-Madison began in 2011 to Read more…

    Over the past several years, interest in using foliar-applied fungicides on alfalfa for dairy production has increased. This has subsequently led to new labeling for foliar fungicide products for use on alfalfa. Research at the University of Wisconsin-Madison began in 2011 to evaluate some of the products labeled for use in alfalfa. From 2011 to 2014 replicated on-farm and research station trials were conducted to evaluate the utility of using fungicide on alfalfa for dairy production.

    UW Madison
    Fungicide use in alfalfa: What four years of research has taught us
    disease management
  • Authors:  Anette Phibbs, Susan Lueloff, Adrian Barta

    DATCP’s 2014 early soybean disease survey found the highest level of Phytophthora root rot since the beginning of this survey in 2008 and identified four different species of Phytophthora on Wisconsin soybean. Besides the well-known cause of seedling root rot Phytophthora sojae, Read more…

    DATCP’s 2014 early soybean disease survey found the highest level of Phytophthora root rot since the beginning of this survey in 2008 and identified four different species of Phytophthora on Wisconsin soybean. Besides the well-known cause of seedling root rot Phytophthora sojae, DNA based testing also determined P. sansomeana that was first detected in Wisconsin soybeans in 2012, and two additional new species P. pini and P. sp. “personii”.

    WI DATCP
    2014 Wisconsin Crop Disease Survey
    disease management
  • Authors:  Damon Smith, Jaime Jensen

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, the causal agent for white mold disease, is a devastating soybean fungal pathogen. In 2006, white mold ranked in the top 10 yield reducing diseases of soybean and was estimated to account for over 2 billion metric tonnes of yield Read more…

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, the causal agent for white mold disease, is a devastating soybean fungal pathogen. In 2006, white mold ranked in the top 10 yield reducing diseases of soybean and was estimated to account for over 2 billion metric tonnes of yield loss world-wide (1). In the United States, soybean losses in 2009 reached an estimated 59 million bushels due to white mold, which cost producers ~$560 million (2, 3). Disease control is limited due to the lack of complete resistance in commercial cultivars and an incomplete understanding of resistance mechanisms (3). Further investigation of white mold resistance mechanisms in soybean and subsequent resistance evaluations of soybean germplasm would improve commercially available resistance.

    UW-Madison
    Tools for better management of white mold on soybean
    disease management
  • Authors:  Martin Chilvers, Jie Wang, Janette Jacobs

    Soybean sudden death syndrome (SDS), caused by Fusarium virguliforme, is one of the most yield limiting diseases in the US, and effective disease management options are limited. We developed a realtime quantitative PCR assay for the diagnosis and quantification of F. virguliforme. Read more…

    Soybean sudden death syndrome (SDS), caused by Fusarium virguliforme, is one of the most yield limiting diseases in the US, and effective disease management options are limited. We developed a realtime quantitative PCR assay for the diagnosis and quantification of F. virguliforme. Using this assay we investigated the F. virguliforme infection process of four soybean cultivars with differing resistance to the foliar SDS leaf scorch symptoms. We found that the quantity of F. virguliforme did not differ between the varieties as expected, indicating that leaf scorch resistance is separate to root infection resistance. Interestingly the ratio of F. virguliforme to soybean increased sharply just before the R5 growth stage, around the time of foliar disease onset. The findings also demonstrate that use of a soybean variety with resistance to the SDS foliar scorch will not necessarily reduce the subsequent amount of F. virguliforme in the soil.

    Michigan State University
    Soybean sudden death syndrome: plant infection and management
    disease management
  • Authors:  Dan Undersander

    Baleage is a practical method to harvest and store either wet hay or to make haylage. If the harvested forage is less than 50% moisture, preservation is primarily by maintenance of anaerobic (oxygen limiting) conditions and, if harvested forage is 50 to Read more…

    Baleage is a practical method to harvest and store either wet hay or to make haylage. If the harvested forage is less than 50% moisture, preservation is primarily by maintenance of anaerobic (oxygen limiting) conditions and, if harvested forage is 50 to 70% moisture, preservation is due both to anaerobic conditions and acids produced in the fermentation.

    UW Madison
    Making baleage
    forages
  • Authors:  Geoff Brink, W.K. Coblentz, W. Jokela

    Forage legumes such as alfalfa and red clover have greater nutritive value than grasses, reduce the need for applied N, and may be more productive during drought. Producers often wish to apply manure to grass-legume or pure legume stands, however, to increase Read more…

    Forage legumes such as alfalfa and red clover have greater nutritive value than grasses, reduce the need for applied N, and may be more productive during drought. Producers often wish to apply manure to grass-legume or pure legume stands, however, to increase yield, amend soil nutrient deficiencies, or address manure storage challenges. This practice may reduce legume persistence and result in poor hay or silage preservation. In two separate studies, dairy manure was applied to red clover – orchardgrass mixtures or to alfalfa to determine its effect on productivity, persistence, and feed quality. Applying liquid or solid manure (60 lb N/acre) to a grazed red clover-orchardgrass mix increased annual yield 500 lb DM/acre above that of the non-fertilized control (7100 lb DM/acre/year), but reduced annual yield when applied in July or September. Applying manure in any form at any time of the year reduced red clover persistence, but the effect was generally greatest when application occurred in July. Applying liquid manure to alfalfa did not improve annual yield. Based on counts of Clostridium tyrobutyricum, the greatest risk of undesirable fermentation after harvesting for balage occurred when slurry was applied 7 and 14 days after cutting compared to application directly onto stubble. Results from these studies suggest that 1) spring manure application to grass-legume pastures will improve annual yield but will likely reduce legume persistence, which may ultimately reduce pasture nutritive value; and 2) manure application to alfalfa stubble is preferred, but if application to growing alfalfa is necessary, choose old alfalfa stands and consider additional field wilting to reduce clostridial fermentation.

    UW-Madison & USDA-ARS
    Effects of manure on legume productivity and persistence
    forages
  • Authors:  Mike Rankin

    Unlike corn and soybeans, obtaining accurate yield information for forage crops involves considerable planning, time, and effort on behalf of the person collecting the yield data and the farmer. Historically, few producers had the capacity or patience during harvest to undertake such Read more…

    Unlike corn and soybeans, obtaining accurate yield information for forage crops involves considerable planning, time, and effort on behalf of the person collecting the yield data and the farmer. Historically, few producers had the capacity or patience during harvest to undertake such a task. Most efforts to measure alfalfa yield in the past were usually limited to the best small area of the best field. Currently, many larger dairies have installed on-farm scales for measuring purchased production of forages and/or feed commodities. These scales now make it relatively easy to weigh production not just from small areas of fields, but entire fields over the course of several years.

    UW-Extension
    Checking in on Wisconsin alfalfa yield and persistence
    forages
  • Authors:  Mark Renz

    Weeds can affect alfalfa establishment, productivity and forage quality but the magnitude of the impact has not been thoroughly studied. Over the past three years we have established studies to evaluate the impact of all of these factors during the establishment year Read more…

    Weeds can affect alfalfa establishment, productivity and forage quality but the magnitude of the impact has not been thoroughly studied. Over the past three years we have established studies to evaluate the impact of all of these factors during the establishment year as previous research has shown this to be the most sensitive to weed populations. While previous experiments have been conducted throughout the state, research in 2014 was focused at the Arlington research station to determine the impacts of annual grasses on alfalfa establishment.

    UW-Madison
    Effect of annual grass weeds in alfalfa establishment, yield and forage quality
    forages
  • Authors:  Paul Mitchell

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

    UW-Madison
    Farm policy update: County ARC or PLC+SCO
    economics, transportation and soil health
  • Authors:  Brenda Boetel

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

    UW-River Falls
    Grains price outlook
    economics, transportation and soil health
  • Authors:  Jim Stute

    Interseeding cool-season grasses: annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum); barley (Hordeum vulgare) or winter rye (Secale cereal) alone or in combination forage legumes or radish (Raphanus sativus) into standing row crops is an increasingly common practice in the upper midwest for corn and soybean producers Read more…

    Interseeding cool-season grasses: annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum); barley (Hordeum vulgare) or winter rye (Secale cereal) alone or in combination forage legumes or radish (Raphanus sativus) into standing row crops is an increasingly common practice in the upper midwest for corn and soybean producers who otherwise could not grow cover crops because of insufficient time for growth if planted after harvest. Perceived soil quality benefits: species diversity and impact on the soil biological community; return of vegetative (green) biomass to soil (including roots) and enhanced over-winter soil cover are all responsible for this interest and the belief that it will result in long-term improvement of crop yield and economic return (CTIC, 2013). Additional ecosystem services in this intensified system include the potential to increase infiltration and the retention of residual applied nitrogen when growing season conditions prevent corn from achieving its full yield potential. Increased infiltration is important for soil and nutrient retention as well as water capture and storage to mitigate increasing precipitation variability induced by climate change.

    Michael Fields Agricultural Institute
    Aerial application of cover crops into corn and soybeans
    economics, transportation and soil health
  • Authors:  Elyssa McFarland, Francisco Arriaga, Richard Wolkowski

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum is a by-product of the process that removes sulfur from the gas emissions stream of coal fired electric power plants. FGD gypsum is currently being soil in Wisconsin to producers as a soil amendment and Read more…

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum is a by-product of the process that removes sulfur from the gas emissions stream of coal fired electric power plants. FGD gypsum is currently being soil in Wisconsin to producers as a soil amendment and sulfur source. Most of the current work on FGD gypsum for row crop production in the Midwest is taking place in Ohio on soils that are very different from those in Wisconsin (Chen et al., 2008). The goal of this study was to better understand the effect of gypsum on corn production and soils under no tillage and conventional tillage cropping systems with six different rates of nitrogen fertilizer in Wisconsin.

    UW Madison
    Interaction of FGD gypsum, tillage and soil type on corn production in Wisconsin
    economics, transportation and soil health
  • Authors:  Dan Heider

    Spray drift has been a part of the agricultural landscape since the very beginning of pesticide application through sprayers. Although our ability to contain drift has improved, current application technologies are never fully able to eliminate drift. Applicator understanding of Read more…

    Spray drift has been a part of the agricultural landscape since the very beginning of pesticide application through sprayers. Although our ability to contain drift has improved, current application technologies are never fully able to eliminate drift. Applicator understanding of the forces involved in delivering pesticides through a sprayer is critical for proper sprayer management in drift prone conditions.

    UW Madison
    Sprayer set-up to mitigate drift
    all subjects
  • Authors:  Raj Khosla

    Spatial variation in soil properties exists within fields, farms and across landscapes. Although spatial variation in agricultural fields has received considerable attention recently, its importance and impact on crop management has been discussed for over a century. Many approaches have Read more…

    Spatial variation in soil properties exists within fields, farms and across landscapes. Although spatial variation in agricultural fields has received considerable attention recently, its importance and impact on crop management has been discussed for over a century. Many approaches have been proposed over the last two decades for quantifying and managing spatial variation in crop production fields to implement site specific crop management. However, most or all of these approaches utilize complex geo-statistical techniques which often prove to be challenging for practicing crop advisors to implement such techniques in field conditions. This is primarily because of lack of understanding and accessibility to “simple to understand” educational materials on such complex techniques and topics. This presentation will simplify the concept of spatial variability and how to understand the science of managing spatial variability in an easy to comprehend educational material.

    Colorado State Univ.
    Understanding the science of managing spatial variability
    all subjects
  • Authors:  Brian Luck

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV’s) have recently been a hot topic of discussion. Several industries, including agriculture, have expressed interest in implementing these devices to aid in performing various tasks. Implementation of UAV’s in our current infrastructure poses several potential problems Read more…

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV’s) have recently been a hot topic of discussion. Several industries, including agriculture, have expressed interest in implementing these devices to aid in performing various tasks. Implementation of UAV’s in our current infrastructure poses several potential problems which are currently being addressed by Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) regulators. Integration of UAV’s in agriculture production will have a major impact on how information about a crop is gathered throughout the growing season. Visual crop assessment and vegetative index data currently provide indicators to the state of the crop. This data is usually collected manually or via sensors mounted on a machine based tool bar. Several benefits can be gained by gathering this data with an aerial platform. This presentation will cover the FAA’s progress on regulating the use of UAV’s in the United States, the different types of UAV’s currently available with pro’s and con’s of each, and the data collection capabilities of the UAV’s and how the data can help crop management.

    UW Madison
    Integrating UAV's into your crop management system
    all subjects
  • Authors:  Joe Lauer

    More site-specific management has been adopted by farmers to increase field productivity and profitability, although successful prediction of input response within management zones remains challenging. For some inputs, like plant density, the maximum yield plant density (MYPD) and the economic Read more…

    More site-specific management has been adopted by farmers to increase field productivity and profitability, although successful prediction of input response within management zones remains challenging. For some inputs, like plant density, the maximum yield plant density (MYPD) and the economic optimum plant density (EOPD) changes as new genetics become available. The objective of this research is to determine whether an MYPD and EOPD could be determined for one soil type given that genetics constantly change.

    UW Madison
    The realities of precision farming for corn
    all subjects
  • Authors:  Ethan Smidt, Shawn Conley

    Growers are collecting many forms of spatial data for their fields including yield, elevation, and soils data. Highly accurate GPS systems along with advances in variable rate technology (VRT) are allowing growers to create and use variable rate planting prescriptions Read more…

    Growers are collecting many forms of spatial data for their fields including yield, elevation, and soils data. Highly accurate GPS systems along with advances in variable rate technology (VRT) are allowing growers to create and use variable rate planting prescriptions to optimize yields and seed placement. Finding the key measureable parameters determining soybean seed yield in Wisconsin and using them to create VRT prescriptions are the objectives of this research.

    UW Madison
    Can soybean growers benefit from precision agricultural data?
    all subjects
  • Authors:  Krista Hamilton

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

    DATCP
    Wisconsin insect survey results: 2014 and outlook for 2015
    insects and disease
  • Authors:  Dave Stoltenberg, Stacey Marion, Courtney Glettner

    Giant ragweed is one of the most difficult to manage weed species in Midwestern cropping systems due to its biology and competitive ability. Adaptation to a wide range of soil environments, rapid vertical growth, and high biomass production make giant Read more…

    Giant ragweed is one of the most difficult to manage weed species in Midwestern cropping systems due to its biology and competitive ability. Adaptation to a wide range of soil environments, rapid vertical growth, and high biomass production make giant ragweed particularly competitive (Abul-Fatih et al. 1979; Harrison et al. 2007; Webster et al. 1994). An extended germination period characterized by the ability to germinate early and grow rapidly, combined with embryo dormancy that allows for prolonged emergence periods, contributes to the difficulty of managing giant ragweed (Gramig and Stoltenberg 2007; Harrison et al. 2001; Schutte et al. 2012). In Wisconsin, giant ragweed is found in both corn (Fickett et al. 2013a) and soybean (Fickett et al. 2013b) production fields. As the most competitive species relative to other common weed species in corn and soybean cropping systems (Fickett et al. 2013a,b), giant ragweed represents a serious threat to crop yield potential.

    UW Madison
    Research progress on understanding herbicide resistance in Wisconsin giant ragweed
    weed management
  • Authors:  Thomas Butts, Vince Davis

    Pigweeds, specifically common waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis Sauer) and Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.), are an increasing threat to current agricultural production systems. Common waterhemp and Palmer amaranth are dioecious, small seeded, broadleaf weed species’ known for their prolific growth Read more…

    Pigweeds, specifically common waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis Sauer) and Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.), are an increasing threat to current agricultural production systems. Common waterhemp and Palmer amaranth are dioecious, small seeded, broadleaf weed species’ known for their prolific growth characteristics and high competitive ability. Exceedingly plastic in nature, common waterhemp and Palmer amaranth can grow at rates of 0.16 and 0.21 cm per growing degree day, respectively (Horak and Loughin, 2000). Furthermore, both species can produce over 250,000 seeds per female plant (Sellers et al., 2003). This intensifies the likelihood and speed that herbicide-resistant biotypes can increase in a population and transfer from one location to another through seed dispersal. Moreover, common waterhemp and Palmer amaranth cause significant yield loss in corn (74 and 91%, respectively) and soybean (56 and 79%, respectively) when left unmanaged (Bensch et al., 2003; Massinga et al., 2001; Steckel and Sprague, 2004).

    UW Madison
    Herbicide-restant pigweeds (Amaranthus spp.) are in Wisconsin, how serious is it?
    weed management
  • Authors:  Vince Davis, Elizabeth Bosak

    Do you want to compare new herbicides, and herbicide programs, to products and programs you are already familiar with? In the Wisconsin Crop Weed Science program Herbicide Evaluation program, that’s what do we do. We evaluate new herbicide products, application Read more…

    Do you want to compare new herbicides, and herbicide programs, to products and programs you are already familiar with?

    In the Wisconsin Crop Weed Science program Herbicide Evaluation program, that’s what do we do. We evaluate new herbicide products, application timings, and efficacy for controlling an array of weed species of interest to Wisconsin farmers.

    UW Madison
    Efficacy of "new" herbicides and program approaches for resistance management
    weed management
  • Authors:  Vince Davis, Daniel Smith

    Cover crops are of increasing interest to producers in Wisconsin due to many potential agronomic benefits. These potential benefits include reducing soil erosion, providing and scavenging nutrients, weed suppression, improving soil health, reducing soil moisture losses, protecting water quality, reducing Read more…

    Cover crops are of increasing interest to producers in Wisconsin due to many potential agronomic benefits. These potential benefits include reducing soil erosion, providing and scavenging nutrients, weed suppression, improving soil health, reducing soil moisture losses, protecting water quality, reducing production costs and increasing yield. Cover crops have been utilized for many years in crop organic production. While cover crops are of increasing interest there are often challenges with their establishment. The increasing interest is shown through results from a 2013-2014 survey conducted by the North Central Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE) program with the Conservation Technology Information Center (CTIC). This survey indicated there has been a steady increase in cover crop acres since 2009 with 415,191 acres planted in the Mississippi river basin in 2014. Of the farmers surveyed 42.5% indicated that establishing cover crops was one of the biggest challenges. (SARE/CTIC, 2014) Some of this challenge may be due to herbicide carryover issues. Herbicide persistence factors include chemical properties of the herbicide, rate of application, soil pH, organic matter content, amount of surface plant residue, temperature, rainfall, and microbial degradation (Walsh, 1993). The objective of this study was to determine if persistence of commonly used residual herbicides applied in the spring to corn and soybean crops affect the subsequent establishment of cover crops in the fall.

    UW Madison
    Cover crop establishment following commonly applied corn and soybean herbicides in Wisconsin
    weed management
  • Authors:  Mark Renz

    Invasive plants are defined by Wisconsin Legislation as “nonindigenous species whose introduction causes or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health” (NR40). These plants can persist in our climate, reproduce, and spread. This is Read more…

    Invasive plants are defined by Wisconsin Legislation as “nonindigenous species whose introduction causes or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health” (NR40). These plants can persist in our climate, reproduce, and spread. This is why Wisconsin has developed legislation to prevent the introduction and spread of these species. While much of the benefit from these regulations is focused on non-agricultural areas, this can directly (and indirectly) influence agriculture. Below are several examples of how invasive plants impact agriculture followed by a brief description of how agronomists can assist in preventing the spread of these new invaders.

    UW Madison
    Why agronomists should be concerned about invasive plants
    weed management
  • Authors:  Henry Turlington

    The Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) was signed into law on January 4, 2011, and provides the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) with sweeping new authorities and requirements. The law was a bi-partisan supported bill backed by the food Read more…

    The Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) was signed into law on January 4, 2011, and provides the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) with sweeping new authorities and requirements. The law was a bi-partisan supported bill backed by the food and feed industries. It authorizes FDA to promulgate new rules for preventive controls, develop performance standards, create new administrative detention rules, provides authority for mandatory recall of adulterated products and provides authority for hiring more than 4,000 new field staff among other provisions. It remains unclear whether Congress will provide sufficient funding to fully implement the law, but FDA is proceeding with rulemaking to meet the court ordered deadlines that were established by court order. The animal food final rule must be published by August 2015.

    American Feed Industry Assoc.
    Food safety modernization
    economics, transportation and soil health
  • Authors:  Jim Nolte

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

    WABA
    OSHA 2015: What you need to know
    nutrient management
  • Authors:  Dan Mack

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

    CHS Inc.
    Transportation issues: rail car, waterway locks and dams, trucks
    economics, transportation and soil health
  • No abstract provided.

    Advance Trading
    World grain production trends, supply/demand, price and yield projections, market outlook
    nutrient management
  • Authors:  Eric Cooley

    Tile blowouts in Wisconsin are increasing in prevalence as older clay and concrete tile drainage systems continue to age. The gradual expansion of tile lines to an existing system, without proper resizing or venting, has only exacerbated this problem. Sinkholes Read more…

    Tile blowouts in Wisconsin are increasing in prevalence as older clay and concrete tile drainage systems continue to age. The gradual expansion of tile lines to an existing system, without proper resizing or venting, has only exacerbated this problem. Sinkholes caused by tile blowouts can introduce soil and nutrients into the tile drainage system and increase the potential for nutrient loss and tile blockage.

    UW Discovery Farms
    Fixing tile blowouts: What you need to know!
    soil, water and climate
  • Authors:  Francisco Arriaga

    Crop residues provide several benefits to the soil and crop production systems. Minerals and nutrients in crop tissue are released as residue decomposes, aiding in the recycling and better utilization of nutrients by subsequent crops. During decomposition, carbon in the Read more…

    Crop residues provide several benefits to the soil and crop production systems. Minerals and nutrients in crop tissue are released as residue decomposes, aiding in the recycling and better utilization of nutrients by subsequent crops. During decomposition, carbon in the residue is transformed into different soil organic matter forms. These different fractions of soil organic matter play important roles in soil fertility, soil water relations, and soil biology.

    UW Madison, Soil Science
    Crop residue management: trash or treasure?
    soil, water and climate
  • Authors:  Rebecca Larson

    Manure production is an unavoidable by-product of livestock production facilities. In the United States, there are approximately 58,000 dairy farms (USDA-NASS, 2013a) with a total of 9.2 million dairy cows (USDA-NASS, 2013b) which represent a manure production value of nearly Read more…

    Manure production is an unavoidable by-product of livestock production facilities. In the United States, there are approximately 58,000 dairy farms (USDA-NASS, 2013a) with a total of 9.2 million dairy cows (USDA-NASS, 2013b) which represent a manure production value of nearly 183 million tons of manure per year (USEPA, 2012). Manure production, collection, and land application are a part of every dairy system. When land applied, manure can provide essential nutrients for crop production and promote soil health and fertility. However, during these processes the manure constituents (including pathogens) can be lost to the environment causing negative environmental impacts and potentially human health impacts.

    UW Madison, BSE
    Manure irrigation: Benefits and challenges
    manure and fertilizer
  • Authors:  John Panuska

    Water stress can adversely impact crop yield and quality making adequate root zone soil water availability essential to any crop production operation. Irrigation has become an important tool of choice by growers for drought risk management. The recommended approach to Read more…

    Water stress can adversely impact crop yield and quality making adequate root zone soil water availability essential to any crop production operation. Irrigation has become an important tool of choice by growers for drought risk management. The recommended approach to root zone soil water management includes the use of soil moisture tracking in combination with monitoring. Irrigation scheduling and rainfall forecasts can project soil moisture conditions into the near future (1-3 days) while monitoring can be used to ground truth scheduler predictions.

    UW Madison
    Irrigation water management
    soil, water and climate
  • Authors:  Laura Ward Good

    A project in southwestern Wisconsin has shown that producers’ changes in management can lead to improvements in stream water quality. This project began in 2006 as a pilot to test the targeting ideas of the Wisconsin Buffer Initiative (WBI, CALS, Read more…

    A project in southwestern Wisconsin has shown that producers’ changes in management can lead to improvements in stream water quality. This project began in 2006 as a pilot to test the targeting ideas of the Wisconsin Buffer Initiative (WBI, CALS, 2005). This was a project with many partners in addition to producers: Dane, Green and Iowa County Land Conservation offices, University of Wisconsin, University of Wisconsin-Extension, The Nature Conservancy, The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), US Geological Survey, and private sector agronomists.

    UW Madison Soil Science
    Success: Producer implemented water quality improvement in the Driftless Area
    watershed studies and ag technology
  • Authors:  Bill Jokela

    Manure can provide valuable nutrients, especially nitrogen, to high N-requiring crops such as corn. However, a large portion of manure N, about half in typical liquid dairy manure, is in the ammonium or urea form and can potentially be lost Read more…

    Manure can provide valuable nutrients, especially nitrogen, to high N-requiring crops such as corn. However, a large portion of manure N, about half in typical liquid dairy manure, is in the ammonium or urea form and can potentially be lost to the air as ammonia if the manure is not incorporated into the soil promptly (Jokela and Meisinger, 2008). Tillage is the most common method of incorporation, but tillage and, to a lesser extent, standard injection reduce crop residue cover, leaving the field more susceptible to erosion. Tillage may also be incompatible with management requirements to meet criteria in nutrient management plans. Corn production for silage is particularly problematic because whole-plant removal leaves minimal residue cover after harvest. Establishment of a cover crop such as winter rye after harvest can provide adequate residue cover, but timely seeding (preferably by mid-September) is critical. Farmers need a system that incorporates manure while still maintaining crop residue cover.

    USDA Marshfield
    Low-disturbance manure application methods in a corn silage-rye cover crop system
    manure and fertilizer
  • Authors:  Peter Vadas, Bill Jokela, Laura Ward Good

    Agricultural nutrient management continues to be an important area of research and policy due to concerns of phosphorus (P) loss in runoff and water quality degradation. Surface manure application to fields without incorporation can be a significant source of P Read more…

    Agricultural nutrient management continues to be an important area of research and policy due to concerns of phosphorus (P) loss in runoff and water quality degradation. Surface manure application to fields without incorporation can be a significant source of P loss (Daniel et al., 1998). In many northern states, winter manure application without incorporation is common (Srinivasan et al., 2006). This fact, combined with frequent snowmelt runoff, has prompted some states to restrict winter manure spreading. However, restrictions are based more on commonly held perceptions than on research. Studies of winter manure P loss are limited, and most have been observational with mixed results (Kongoli and Bland, 2002). P transport from winter‐applied manure varies due to infiltration, runoff, erosion, and nutrient cycling processes, all of which are sensitive to air and soil temperatures. Manure P loss also varies with spreading practices, especially relative to manure placement beneath or on top of snow and the effect of manure on rates of snow melt (Williams et al., 2011). Overall, good understanding of P cycling and transport associated with winter manure application is still lacking.

    UW Madison
    Impact of manure application in different seasons on phosphorus loss in runoff
    manure and fertilizer
  • Authors:  Matt Ruark, David Evans, Jim Leverich

    The use of apparent electrical conductivity to map the variation in fields has been around for several decades (Corwin and Lesch, 2003) and several studies have shown that there can be a statistically significant correlation between EC and various soil Read more…

    The use of apparent electrical conductivity to map the variation in fields has been around for several decades (Corwin and Lesch, 2003) and several studies have shown that there can be a statistically significant correlation between EC and various soil physical, chemical, and biological properties (e.g., Corwing and Lesch, 2003; Johnson et al., 2003). However, there isn’t a clear or standardized use of apparent EC to develop N management zones within a corn field. What we will describe here is a simple approach to using apparent EC data, with targeted soil sampling, to identify with soil properties are the best upon which to alter N rates within a field.

    UW Madison Soil Science
    Defining nitrogen management zones with apparent electrical impacts of dairy production systems
    nutrient management
  • Authors:  Mark Powell

    Nitrogen (N) is the most limiting nutrient for productive agriculture. The principal N inputs on dairy farms are feeds, manure, fertilizers, biologically-fixed N, soil N and atmospheric N deposition. The relative importance of each N source to the production of Read more…

    Nitrogen (N) is the most limiting nutrient for productive agriculture. The principal N inputs on dairy farms are feeds, manure, fertilizers, biologically-fixed N, soil N and atmospheric N deposition. The relative importance of each N source to the production of crops, pasture and milk depends on several factors, including a farm’s stocking rate (animals per unit land area), which influences the type and amount of feed grown on a farm, feed and fertilizer purchases, manure management, N use efficiency, whole-farm N balances and environmental N loss. Soil type also impacts N use efficiency (NUE, the amount of applied N transformed into products) and N loss as ammonia (NH3), nitrate (NO3-) and nitrous oxide (N2O). This presentation will demonstrate how stocking rate, fertilizer, feed and manure management impact NUE and N loss from dairy production systems.

    USDA, UW Madison Soil Science
    Measures of nitrogen use efficiency and environmental impacts of dairy production systems
    nutrient management
  • Authors:  Yao Yao

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

    Potash Corporation
    Fertilizer market update 2015
    nutrient management
  • Authors:  Bryan Young

    The Roundup Ready crop era and the robust activity of glyphosate has almost eliminated the need for an applicator to be knowledgeable about adjuvants. Arguably, glyphosate is the most forgiving herbicide when applied under less than optimal conditions or application Read more…

    The Roundup Ready crop era and the robust activity of glyphosate has almost eliminated the need for an applicator to be knowledgeable about adjuvants. Arguably, glyphosate is the most forgiving herbicide when applied under less than optimal conditions or application methods. Glyphosate can be optimized with proper adjuvant selection, however, the lack of doing such can be offset by just applying progressively higher rates of glyphosate. Continued abuse of glyphosate in these applications eventually led to the evolution of glyphosate-resistant weed biotypes which has required the use of alternative herbicides to glyphosate.

    Purdue University
    Does adjuvant choice really matter?
    weed management
  • Authors:  Carrie A.M. Laboski, Jim Camberato, John Sawyer

    Nitrogen is the plant nutrient required in the largest quantity, the most likely to be deficient, and the most impactful on corn yield as well as grower profit. Providing N to a corn crop in the right amount while minimizing loss is Read more…

    Nitrogen is the plant nutrient required in the largest quantity, the most likely to be deficient, and the most impactful on corn yield as well as grower profit. Providing N to a corn crop in the right amount while minimizing loss is difficult because of complex biological and chemical reactions that result in the loss of N from the crop root zone via deep percolation to ground water, lateral flow, runoff and erosion to surface waters, and volatile losses to the atmosphere as ammonia, nitrogen gas, nitric oxide, nitrous oxide, etc. Increasing crop utilization of N and reducing loss of N outside the field is important to the sustainability of corn production in the Corn Belt.

    UW-Madison, Soil Science
    Evaluation of Adapt-N in the Corn Belt
    nutrient management
  • Authors:  Amber Radatz

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

    UW Discovery Farms
    Documenting Management in Watersheds UW-Discovery Farms
    watershed studies and ag technology
  • Authors:  John Doran

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

    USDA - ARS Retired
    Overview of Soil Quality
    for Sustaining Earth and Its People
    nitrogen and nutrient management
  • Authors:  Teri Balser

    In order to truly understand the behavior of nitrogen in the soil, it is important to understand the reasons why it cycles; why and how soil microorganisms use nitrogen. For example, unlike plants soil bacteria can use some forms of Read more…

    In order to truly understand the behavior of nitrogen in the soil, it is important to understand the reasons why it cycles; why and how soil microorganisms use nitrogen. For example, unlike plants soil bacteria can use some forms of nitrogen as an energy source rather than simply for biomass production. Their nitrogen needs and ability to compete for it in the soil are unique. In this talk, we will take an alternative view and explore the hows and whys of the nitrogen cycle from the perspective of soil microorganisms. We will see that nitrogen cycling is a consequence of the growth and activity of microorganisms, and that an understanding of how to ‘think like a microbe’ can help us have a greater understanding of plant-soil nitrogen dynamics.

    First, we’ll take a look at the N cycle. We’ve all seen this before, but have we ever really looked at it from the organisms’ perspective? We’ll examine some of the reasons nitrogen cycles in the soils, and where are the important points of control. Finally, we’ll discuss how the ecology of soil organisms might contribute to soil quality, and management issues. Our ability to manage soil and fertilizer inputs for sustainable yield and environmental quality may depend on a greater understanding of soil ecology.

    University of Wisconsin - Madison
    The Ecology of Soil Nitrogen Cycling
    nitrogen and nutrient management
  • Authors:  Francisco Arriaga

     Farmers are faced with uncertainty and risk every growing season. Changes and differences in weather patterns are typically the main driver for this risk, but other factors such as commodity prices and pest pressure can also be contributing factors. Although Read more…

     Farmers are faced with uncertainty and risk every growing season. Changes and differences in weather patterns are typically the main driver for this risk, but other factors such as commodity prices and pest pressure can also be contributing factors. Although every farm activity will have a certain inherent level of risk associated with it, some of this risk can be reduced and its impact lessened with certain management practices. This presentation will provide some recommendations to help lower risk for a crop production operation by looking at soil management, but these recommendations are not comprehensive by any means. It is advised to also pay close attention to agronomic, weed, insect, and other pest management guidelines to further improve risk management of a farming operation using an integrated approach.

    UW-Madison Soil Science
    Soil Management Practices for Reducing Risk
    water and soil management
  • Authors:  Eric Cooley, Matt Ruark, John Panuska

     Subsurface drainage of agricultural land has the ability to improve yields and reduce surface runoff and erosion losses. However, with a reduction in surface runoff, more water infiltrates the soil and percolates through the soil profile. This is of particular Read more…

     Subsurface drainage of agricultural land has the ability to improve yields and reduce surface runoff and erosion losses. However, with a reduction in surface runoff, more water infiltrates the soil and percolates through the soil profile. This is of particular importance to farmers, as this water can also transport essential plant nutrients, specifically nitrogen and phosphorus, out of the root zone. Once nutrients reach the tile drain, they have a direct conduit to surface waters.

    Tile-drained agricultural land must be well-managed to reduce the loss of nutrients to surface waters. Nutrient management practices must be carefully followed to minimize the risk of nutrient loss and to maximize fertilizer use efficiency. Additional considerations need to be taken with manure applications on tile-drained land to both minimize nutrient loss and prevent manure entry into tile drains.

    There are a variety of best management practices customizable to fit individual cropping systems and various tile-drained landscapes. We have identified twelve key elements that will lead to proper nutrient management on tile-drained land and thus minimize the potential to transmit manure to tile drains.

    UW Discovery Farm
    Management Practices and Emerging Technologies in Tile Drained Landscapes to Mitigate Sediment and Nutrient Loss
    water and soil management
  • Authors:  Matt Ruark, Kevin Shelly, Richard Proost

    Clover There has been much research using red clover as cover crop, frost-seeded in to winter wheat (Stute UWEX pub). Planting red clover into winter wheat provides a clear value for the subsequent corn crop in terms of greater yields Read more…

    Clover There has been much research using red clover as cover crop, frost-seeded in to winter wheat (Stute UWEX pub). Planting red clover into winter wheat provides a clear value for the subsequent corn crop in terms of greater yields and reduced need for nitrogen (N) fertilizer (Fig. 1.) The drawback to using red clover is that it will not die during winters in Wisconsin and thus needs to be chemically terminated in the late fall or early spring. There are two other clover species that will winter kill and can be planted after winter wheat: berseem clover and crimson clover. Neither of these species has been well-researched in Wisconsin. In late-summer of 2013, berseem and crimson clover was planted in replicated strips on a farmer field in Sheboygan County. Preliminary findings suggest that both clover species established well. In 2014, this field will be planted to corn and a N rate study will be conducted.

    UW-Madison Soil Science
    On-Farm Cover Crop Trials: Clover, Rye, and Radish
    water and soil management
  • Authors:  Adam Gaspar, Shawn Conley, Paul Mitchell

     Earlier soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] planting coupled with increasing seed costs and higher commodity prices has led to a surge in the number of hectares planted with seed treatments (Esker and Conley, 2012). Furthermore, recent studies have suggested that Read more…

     Earlier soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] planting coupled with increasing seed costs and higher commodity prices has led to a surge in the number of hectares planted with seed treatments (Esker and Conley, 2012). Furthermore, recent studies have suggested that growers should consider lowering seeding rates to increase their return on investment (De Bruin and Pedersen, 2008; Epler and Staggenborg, 2008). Ultimately, growers would like to know the value proposition of combining seed treatments with lowered seeding rates. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to quantify the effects of seed treatments and seeding rates on soybean seed yield and assess the economic risk and profitability of seed treatments and seeding rates, including the calculated economically optimal seeding rate (EOSR) for each seed treatment.

    Trials were conducted at nine locations throughout Wisconsin during the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons, totaling 18 site-years. Syngenta brand S20-Y2 ($50 unit-1) soybeans were treated with either no seed treatment (UTC), ApronMaxx ($5 unit-1) (mefenoxam + fludioxonil at 0.0094 mg ai seed-1), or CruiserMaxx ($12 unit-1) (mefenoxam + fludioxonil + thiamethoxam at 0.0858 mg ai seed-1) at six seeding rates of 40000, 60000, 80000, 100000, 120000, and 140000 seeds acre-1. The analysis used a soybean grain sale price of $12 bu-1.

    UW-Madison
    Economic Risk & Profitability of Soybean Seed Treatments at Reduced Seeding Rates
    seeds and traits
  • Authors:  Greg Kruger, Brad Fritz, Andrew Hewitt

     Since 1996, glyphosate has been the predominant herbicide used postemergence for weed control in corn, soybean and cotton in the United States. Because of that, glyphosate-resistant weeds have become increasingly more prevalent in glyphosate-resistant crops which have forced many growers Read more…

     Since 1996, glyphosate has been the predominant herbicide used postemergence for weed control in corn, soybean and cotton in the United States. Because of that, glyphosate-resistant weeds have become increasingly more prevalent in glyphosate-resistant crops which have forced many growers to use other herbicides. Herbicide programs that relied primarily on glyphosate for weed control often used rates as low as 5 gallon/acre (GPA). The other herbicides being used in row crops often require a higher carrier volume according to the label when compared to glyphosate which can be burdensome to the applicator, requiring the transport of more water, more refills and more potential of mixing errors. Additionally, there is growing concern about off-target movement of pesticides and what can be done to mitigate pesticide drift. Both drift and efficacy can be affected by spray quality and application decisions such as nozzle selection, operating pressure and components of the spray solution.

    Applicators should be aware that pesticide applications are complex and there are many applicator driven decisions which will impact both the efficacy and off-target movement of pesticides following the application (Figure 1). Every applicator should be aware of the potential effects starting with properly mixing and agitating the spray solution through the resulting droplet size and deposition from atomization of the spray contingent upon nozzle selection, operating pressure and spray solution composition. In general, every applicator should be aware of the weather conditions (especially wind speed), boom height, droplet size and distance away from susceptible vegetation.

    University of Nebraska-Lincoln
    Role of Adjuvants and Nozzles in Managing Drift: Lessons from Wind Tunnel, Greenhouse, and Field Studies
    weed management
  • Authors:  Ross Recker, Vince Davis

     Atrazine provides effective control of many small and large seeded broadleaf weeds, as well as some grass weed species, in numerous grass crops such as corn. In Wisconsin, the use of atrazine is prohibited in areas where atrazine total chlorinated Read more…

     Atrazine provides effective control of many small and large seeded broadleaf weeds, as well as some grass weed species, in numerous grass crops such as corn. In Wisconsin, the use of atrazine is prohibited in areas where atrazine total chlorinated residues were once found in concentrations greater than 3 parts per billion in drinking water wells. Glyphosate-resistant weeds, confirmed in 32 states, continue to be a major threat to corn and soybean production across the Nation and Wisconsin. In Wisconsin, a population of both giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida) and horseweed (Conyza canadensis) has been confirmed to be resistant to glyphosate (Stoltenberg et al. 2012; Recker et al. 2013). Integrated weed management tactics, including the use of multiple effective modes-of-action (MOA) against troublesome weeds are important to delay the onset of glyphosate resistance (Norsworthy et al. 2012). Identifying geographies that may be most vulnerable to glyphosate resistance development could help direct attention and pro-active resistance management tactics before wide-scale control failures occur (Davis et al. 2008). A pro-active survey of late-season weed escapes in corn and soybean fields was conducted throughout Wisconsin in 2012 and 2013. The objective of the late-season weed escape survey was to compare weed community composition in different types of management, including previous atrazine use, as well as identify areas where glyphosate-resistant weeds may first appear.

    UW-Madison
    Influence of Management and Atrazine Use on Late-Season Weed Escapes in Wisconsin Corn and Soybean Fields
    weed management
  • Authors:  Jim Nolte

     Over the past several years there has been uncertainty within the grain handling industry on what type of sweep-auger equipment can be used and the types of procedures the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) may find acceptable. In 2009, Read more…

     Over the past several years there has been uncertainty within the grain handling industry on what type of sweep-auger equipment can be used and the types of procedures the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) may find acceptable.

    In 2009, OSHA issued a letter of interpretation that essentially created a new policy for operating sweep augers inside grain bins. In the letter, OSHA stated an employee cannot work inside a bin with an energized sweep auger, unless the auger was “completely guarded.” The Agency did not offer any acceptable alternative procedures for removing grain from a bin if a partially guarded auger cannot be used, nor did OSHA define what is meant by completely guarded or unguarded. Prior to the letter, it was common practice in the industry to “guard”, or cover the top and back of the auger while in operation. Following the letter, OSHA stated that the entire auger, including the front, needed to be covered. However, a sweep-auger cannot properly function if it is completely guarded.

    As a result, OSHA issued numerous citations to grain-handling facilities for allowing employees to work around “unguarded” sweep augers. This caused confusion within the industry since many were unsure of what type of sweep-auger equipment could be used and the types of procedures OSHA may find acceptable.

    Not long ago, an Illinois grain company legally challenged OSHA citations they had received based on the 2009 letter of interpretation. Following a settlement agreement in early 2013, OSHA released a sweep auger policy memo in May of 2013. In total, there are 10 criteria outlined in the memo regarding employee entry into bins with mobilized sweep augers. The entire document is based mostly upon the existing requirements under 29 CFR 1910.272 or OSHA’s Grain Handling Standard as well as both engineering and administrative controls.

    This presentation will review these 10 criteria in detail and provide examples of engineering controls that can be utilized to comply with OSHA’s new sweep auger interpretation policy memo. The PowerPoint presentation is available for viewing on the WABA website at www.wiagribusiness.org. The May 3rd 2013 policy memo can be viewed on OSHA’s website at www.osha.gov.

    ____________________

    Wisconsin Agri-Business Association
    OSHA Issues New Sweep Auger Interpretation Policy Memo
    grain and feed legislation and regulatory topics
  • Authors:  Bill Jokela, Mike Casler, Mike Bertram

     Transport of phosphorus (P), nitrogen (N), sediment, and pathogens via runoff from crop fields, especially where manure has been applied, can contribute to degradation of surface waters, leading to eutrophication and potential health effects. In the dairy cropping system of Read more…

     Transport of phosphorus (P), nitrogen (N), sediment, and pathogens via runoff from crop fields, especially where manure has been applied, can contribute to degradation of surface waters, leading to eutrophication and potential health effects. In the dairy cropping system of Wisconsin and most of the northern dairy belt, the silage corn phase of the rotation is the most susceptible to runoff and erosion losses because of the lack of protective crop residue and regular applications of livestock manure. We initiated this study to evaluate cropping systems to minimize adverse water quality impact, while maintaining or increasing nutrient efficiency and productivity.

    The objective of this study was to evaluate field runoff losses of nutrients and pathogens from different manure/crop/tillage management systems for silage corn production. We chose to use a paired watershed design, rather than conventional replicated field plots, because the larger field-scale units provide data that more adequately reflects the more complex hydrology of the real-world landscape.

    USDA-Agricultural Research Service
    Runoff Losses from Corn Silage-Manure Cropping Systems
    manure and fertilizer
  • Authors:  Peter Vadas, Mark Powell

     Non-point source pollution of surface water by nutrients such as phosphorus can degrade water quality for drinking, recreation and industry. When excess nutrients accumulate in lakes and reservoirs, water quality issues such as algal blooms often result. Because agriculture has Read more…

     Non-point source pollution of surface water by nutrients such as phosphorus can degrade water quality for drinking, recreation and industry. When excess nutrients accumulate in lakes and reservoirs, water quality issues such as algal blooms often result. Because agriculture has been identified as a source of non-point phosphorous pollution, there has been a strong push to identify and manage farm sources of phosphorus runoff. On dairy farms, possible sources of this runoff include cropland, grazed pastures and outside cattle holding areas such as feedlots, barnyards and overwintering lots. In the United States, research on phosphorous loss due to runoff from grazed pastures has been limited.

    Physically monitoring phosphorous loss from farms is an expensive, lengthy process. Simulation models are potentially a more rapid, cost-effective way to estimate phosphorous loss from farms. Agriculture Research Service soil scientist Peter Vadas, who works at the U.S Dairy Forage Research Center in Madison, worked with a team of USDA scientists to develop the Annual Phosphorous Loss Estimator (APLE) spreadsheet, which predicts the phosphorous lost through runoff for diverse types of farms and field conditions. APLE is free to download at http://ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=21763.

    Building on this work, Vadas, along with Mark Powell and Geoff Brink from the Dairy Forage Research Center and Dennis Busch from UW-Platteville, monitored phosphorus loss in runoff from grazed pastures and used APLE to predict phosphorus runoff from grazing farms. This research took place from 2010-2012 at the UW-Platteville Pioneer Farm and four Wisconsin grazing farms, and was funded by the WI DATCP Grazing Lands Conservation Initiative (GLCI). The researchers monitored phosphorous loss due to runoff from beef and dairy grazed pastures at the Pioneer Farm. They used this data to validate that APLE can reliably predict phosphorus loss from grazed pastures. They then used APLE to simulate phosphorous loss from the four farms, all of which use managed grazing. The focus of this brief is on the modeling results from these farms.

    The researchers visited each farm three times in January, June and November 2011 to gather seasonal information about farm management. Questionnaires completed by each farm provided snapshot assessments of cattle, feed, fertilizer, manure and cropping management. Using this information, the researchers modeled year-round, whole-farm phosphorus losses under typical management for each farm.

    USDA-Agricultural Research Service
    Monitoring and Predicting Phosphorus Loss from Wisconsin Dairy Grazing Farms
    manure and fertilizer
  • Authors:  Dan Undersander

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

    UW-Madison
    Alfalfa Winterkill
    forages
  • Authors:  Jeremy Hayward

     Forage Genetics International, the Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation and the U.S. Dairy Forage Research Center began working together in 2000 to produce transgenic alfalfa plants with reduced lignin content and improved fiber digestibility. This team of ~ 12 scientists collaborated Read more…

     Forage Genetics International, the Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation and the U.S. Dairy Forage Research Center began working together in 2000 to produce transgenic alfalfa plants with reduced lignin content and improved fiber digestibility. This team of ~ 12 scientists collaborated in using gene silencing technology to systematically “knock out” each of the twelve genes in the lignin biosynthetic pathway and to compare the effect of these individual gene knockouts on alfalfa forage composition, fiber digestibility (NDFD) and agronomic performance. We were able to develop a gene knockout that gave the desired improvement in forage quality, without any negative impact on forage yield and standability. Multiple transgenic events were created containing this commercial gene silencing construct, and in 2009 a single commercial event was selected after extensive field and laboratory testing.

    This commercial transgenic event has been introgressed into a wide variety of FGI germplasm to produce Reduced Lignin (RL) alfalfa. RL alfalfa has now been tested in multiple genetic backgrounds for multiple years and in multiple locations. When compared both to the non-transgenic control and to appropriate commercial check cultivars, RL alfalfa has consistently shown a ~15% reduction in whole plant lignin content and a 10 to 15% increase in NDFD and RFQ. In current trials, forage yield potential of current RL alfalfa experimentals is similar to appropriate commercial check cultivars. There is no difference in incidence of lodging of RL alfalfa compared to the non-transgenic control or conventional commercial varieties.

    In cutting management trials the decreased lignin content of RL alfalfa has resulted in increased flexibility in harvest timing. A 2011 trial (Fig. 1) compared performance of a RL alfalfa breeding population to two commercial check cultivars, under two harvest treatments: 3 cuts/yr (harvest interval ~38 days) and 4 cuts/yr (harvest interval ~31 days). In this trial, and in similar trials designed to look at changes in forage quality associated with increased physiological maturity, NDFD in RL alfalfa was equal to or higher than NDFD in conventional alfalfa harvested 7-10 days earlier.

    WL Alfalfa
    Reduced Lignin Alfalfa Technology Update
    forages
  • Authors:  Dan Undersander

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

    UW-Madison
    Alternative Forages: When and How to Utilize Them
    forages
  • Authors:  John Grabber

     Corn silage is commonly fed to dairy cattle and other types of ruminant livestock, but its production can leave cropland vulnerable to nitrate leaching and runoff of nutrients and sediment. As result, a wide variety of cover crops or living Read more…

     Corn silage is commonly fed to dairy cattle and other types of ruminant livestock, but its production can leave cropland vulnerable to nitrate leaching and runoff of nutrients and sediment. As result, a wide variety of cover crops or living mulches (collectively referred to here as “companion crops”) have been developed and promoted to mitigate the adverse environmental impacts of corn production and to improve crop yields, nutrient cycling, and soil quality. Based on a review of the literature, a few of the more promising companion crops for corn in north-central states such as Wisconsin include winter rye, Italian ryegrass, red clover, alfalfa, and kura clover.

    Winter rye is commonly seeded in the fall after corn harvest. Although it often provides little ground cover in the fall and winter, fall-seeded rye grows vigorously during the spring to protect soil and remove residual soil nitrate. Rye can be grazed or harvested for forage prior to a late planting of corn, but earlier spring termination is often used because more mature rye can in some cases deplete soil moisture, immobilize nitrogen, and depress corn yields.

    Italian ryegrass is usually interseeded in June about 4 to 6 weeks after corn planting to permit establishment without excessive competition with corn. In the fall, interseeded ryegrass usually provides greater ground cover and soil nitrate scavenging than fall-seeded rye and it can be grazed or harvested for forage. Ryegrass often winterkills to provide short-lived mulch for spring-seeded crops such as corn and it tends to have a neutral effect on corn yields unless its growth and uptake of soil nitrate are too vigorous.

    Red clover or alfalfa are also typically interseeded in June to prevent excessive competition with corn, but such seedings are prone to fail during dry summer conditions or if corn growth is especially vigorous. If successfully established, interseeded red clover or alfalfa will normally overwinter to provide moderate ground cover and uptake of soil nitrate during both the fall and spring. Red clover and alfalfa cover crops supply nitrogen and often boost yields of subsequent corn crops. A seemingly overlooked option would be to keep interseeded red clover or alfalfa in production for at least one year after corn to provide high quality forage and to further boost subsequent corn yields through greater nitrogen and non-nitrogen rotational effects. This system would be most workable if forage legumes could be interseeded immediately after corn planting, but new approaches are needed to lessen yield-killing competition between the co-planted crops.

    Kura clover may also serve as a dual-purpose crop that can be used one year as a living mulch for corn and then kept in production in following years as a forage crop. Corn grown in kura clover can produce yields comparable to corn grown after killed kura clover, but excessive competition from the living mulch can depress corn yields. Following corn production, kura clover living mulch can recover to full forage production by midsummer of the following year. The performance of the kura-corn system has not, however, been directly compared to other companion crop systems for corn.

    USDA-Agricultural Research Service
    Alfalfa, Clovers, and Grasses as Companion Crops for Silage Corn
    forages
  • Authors:  Chris Bloomingdale, Damon Smith, Russell Groves

     Soybean Vein Necrosis Virus (SVNV) is a Tospovirus that was first described in 2008 (Zhou et al., 2011) and first reported in Wisconsin in 2012 (Smith et al., 2013). SVNV symptoms include yellowing and clearing of the veins which eventually Read more…

     Soybean Vein Necrosis Virus (SVNV) is a Tospovirus that was first described in 2008 (Zhou et al., 2011) and first reported in Wisconsin in 2012 (Smith et al., 2013). SVNV symptoms include yellowing and clearing of the veins which eventually lead to necrosis of both the vein and leaf tissue. Soybean thrips, Neohydatothrips variabilis (Beach), have been identified as a principal vector of this virus (Zhou and Tzanetakis, 2013) making SVNV the first known virus to be transmitted by soybean thrips.

    Since SVNV is new to Wisconsin, it is important to understand the timing of thrips movement and virus spread as well as the associated impacts the viral infection may have on soybean. The objective of this research was to establish field trials to investigate the species composition and timing of arrival of thrips in Wisconsin soybean fields, as this information might be important for developing management strategies to reduce the damage caused by SVNV.

    UW-Madison
    Thrips Dispersal and Soybean Vein Necrosis Virus (SVNV) in Wisconsin Soybean
    insects and disease
  • Authors:  Krista Hamilton

     Moths began arriving in the state on April 15, first appearing near Janesville in Rock County. The first significant flight was registered in Dodge and Grant counties from May 6-7 and the primary cutting period was predicted to start by Read more…

     Moths began arriving in the state on April 15, first appearing near Janesville in Rock County. The first significant flight was registered in Dodge and Grant counties from May 6-7 and the primary cutting period was predicted to start by May 28. Spring planting delays and rampant weed infestations created very favorable outbreak conditions this year, but widespread cutworm problems failed to develop. The spring migration of 577 moths collected from April 16-June 5 was much smaller than last year’s flight of 2,601 moths and damage to emerging corn was not as prevalent or severe as expected.

    Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade, and Consumer Protection
    Wisconsin Insect Survey Results 2013 and Outlook for 2014
    insects and disease
  • Authors:  Eileen Cullen

     Transgenic Bt corn hybrids that produce insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner have become the standard insect management tactic across the U.S. Corn Belt. Widespread planting of Bt corn places intense selection pressure on target insects to develop Read more…

     Transgenic Bt corn hybrids that produce insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner have become the standard insect management tactic across the U.S. Corn Belt. Widespread planting of Bt corn places intense selection pressure on target insects to develop resistance, and evolution of resistance threatens to erode benefits associated with Bt corn, such as reduced reliance on conventional insecticides. Recognizing the threat of resistance, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency requires seed companies to include an insect resistance management (IRM) plan when registering a Bt trait. The goal of IRM plans is to delay Bt resistance in populations of target insects. One element of IRM is the presence of a non-Bt refuge to maintain Bt-susceptible individuals within a population, and growers are required to implement IRM on-farm by planting a refuge. Field-evolved resistance has not been detected for the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), even though this species has been exposed to Bt proteins common in U.S. corn hybrids since 1996. The IRM situation is unfolding differently for Bt corn targeting the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte. In this article, we examine the scientific evidence for D. v. virgifera resistance to Bt rootworm traits and the cropping system practices that have contributed to the first reports of field-evolved resistance to a Bt toxin by D. v. virgifera. We explain why this issue has developed, and emphasize the necessity of an integrated pest management approach to address the issue.

    UW-Madison
    Resistance to BT Corn by Western Corn Rootworm in the U.S. Corn Belt
    insects and disease
  • Authors:  Bryan Jensen

     Using soil insecticides for control of corn rootworm larvae have been a common practice on continuous corn since the 1950s. However, the development of Bt CRW hybrids has raised concerns regarding use, efficacy and resistance. Particularly with newer crop advisors Read more…

     Using soil insecticides for control of corn rootworm larvae have been a common practice on continuous corn since the 1950s. However, the development of Bt CRW hybrids has raised concerns regarding use, efficacy and resistance. Particularly with newer crop advisors that are unaccustomed with their use.

    UW Madison
    Soil Applied Corn Rootworm Insecticides 101
    insects and disease
  • Authors:  Timothy Muehler

     Methodologies to Value the Company There are three basic approaches to value a company: 1) the Asset approach; 2) the Income approach; and 3) the Market approach.  These approaches are discussed.

     Methodologies to Value the Company

    There are three basic approaches to value a company: 1) the Asset approach; 2) the Income approach; and 3) the Market approach.  These approaches are discussed.

    CliftonLarsonAllen
    Grain Elevator and Feed Mill Asset Valuations - What is My Business Worth
    grain and feed marketing
  • Authors:  Amanda Gevens, Anna Seidl, Amilcar Sanchez Perez

     On vegetable and potato crops, the water molds, or fungus-like, oomycetous plant pathogens, which threaten the greatest crop losses include Pseudoperonospora cubensis (causal agent of downy mildew on cucumbers), and Phytophthora infestans (causal agent of late blight on potatoes and Read more…

     On vegetable and potato crops, the water molds, or fungus-like, oomycetous plant pathogens, which threaten the greatest crop losses include Pseudoperonospora cubensis (causal agent of downy mildew on cucumbers), and Phytophthora infestans (causal agent of late blight on potatoes and tomatoes). Downy mildew and late blight can both be aerially dispersed over long distances and genotypes identified in the region are not known to be soilborne at this time (1, 2). Initial inoculum and infection occurs as the result of movement of spores in the air from diseased fields to healthy, infected seed or transplants, or by overwintering plant tissues harboring the pathogen from the previous year (e.g. volunteers, cull piles, compost piles). In Wisconsin in 2013, both diseases were detected in vegetable crops.

    UW-Madison
    Distribution & Character of Cucurbit Downy Mildew and Potato and Tomato Late Blight in 2013
    vegetable topics
  • Authors:  Mark Borchardt

     Foodborne infectious disease transmission of 31 pathogen types is estimated to account for 9.4 million illnesses, 56,000 hospitalizations, and 1,300 deaths in the United States annually (Scallan et al. 2011). The economic costs from foodborne illness in the United States Read more…

     Foodborne infectious disease transmission of 31 pathogen types is estimated to account for 9.4 million illnesses, 56,000 hospitalizations, and 1,300 deaths in the United States annually (Scallan et al. 2011). The economic costs from foodborne illness in the United States are more than $50 billion per year (Scharff 2012). The Food Safety Modernization Act of 2011 recognizes agricultural water is a source of pathogen contamination of fresh produce and monitoring strategies are being proposed to assess the sanitary quality of water used for food production and processing. Nonetheless, one lesson learned from foodborne outbreaks the past several years is that the events and pathogen movement routes leading to contamination are often surprising. Food producers need to be constantly vigilant for previously unanticipated contamination routes.

    This presentation tells three stories about three studies, highlighting the potential for human pathogens to travel unusual routes and end up in surprising places. Insofar as these routes and places intersect with food, foodborne illness can result.

    USDA-Agricultural Research Service
    From the Ground Up: Groundwater, Surface Water Runoff, and Air as Pathogen Routes for Food Contamination
    vegetable topics
  • Authors:  James Camberato

     Nitrogen (N) fertilization recommendations for corn in several states in the Midwest (including WI and IN) are based on the results of many N response trials conducted over a number of years, locations, soil types, and hybrids. The maximum return Read more…

     Nitrogen (N) fertilization recommendations for corn in several states in the Midwest (including WI and IN) are based on the results of many N response trials conducted over a number of years, locations, soil types, and hybrids. The maximum return to N (MRTN) is calculated based on the yield response to applied N derived from the analysis of these trials and the price of grain and N fertilizer (Sawyer and Nafziger, 2006). The recommended fertilizer rate represents the point at which no further profit is realized by the application of additional N. All states using the MRTN approach consider crop rotation an important factor in determining the N recommendation and several include soil type, soil productivity, or region of the state as well (http://extension.agron.iastate.edu/soilfertility/nrate.aspx).

    Purdue University
    Nitrogen Fertilization Decisions: Can We Do Better
    nutrient management
  • Authors:  Matt Ruark

     With cellulosic ethanol production on its way to becoming a reality, the effects of stover removal on the landscape have not been fully examined and efficient agricultural management practices for biofuel production systems have not been developed. The current UW Read more…

     With cellulosic ethanol production on its way to becoming a reality, the effects of stover removal on the landscape have not been fully examined and efficient agricultural management practices for biofuel production systems have not been developed. The current UW recommendations (e.g., UWEX A2809) do not recommend changes to nutrient management plans based on biomass removal (i.e., when corn is grown for silage). Data sets which evaluate the short- or long-term effects of biomass removal on optimum N fertilization rates for continuous corn in Wisconsin do not exist. Long-term field research (30+ years) in Wisconsin has shown that continuous corn rotations maintain and often increase corn yields and NUE over time when N is fertilized at UW recommended rates (Bundy et al., 2011); SOC and soil N supplying capability also have been shown to increase. These results indicate that with proper N fertilization and stover additions to the soil, the capacity of the soil to supply N for crop production can be maintained. An increase in biomass removal may jeopardize the sustainability of these agricultural systems. Future research in this area should focus how stover removal affects optimum N fertilization rates. However, the quantity of studies which evaluate the value of crop residue related to N fertilization rates are lacking.

    UW-Madison
    Corn Stover Removal and Soil Fertility
    nutrient management
  • Authors:  David Marburger, John Gaska, Shawn Conley

    Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN) is an economically important disease of soybean in Wisconsin. It was first discovered in the southeastern part of the state in 1981 and now is found in over 90% of the state’s soybean acres (Fig. 1). Read more…

    Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN) is an economically important disease of soybean in Wisconsin. It was first discovered in the southeastern part of the state in 1981 and now is found in over 90% of the state’s soybean acres (Fig. 1). It is caused by the soybean cyst nematode, a non-segmented roundworm that inhabits the soil. More recently, another economically important disease of soybean, Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS), was first found in southeastern WI in 2006. A fungus found in the soil called Fusarium virguliforme is the causal agent of SDS.

    UW-Madison
    Relationship Between SDS and SCN in Commercial Soybean Fields in Wisconsin
    insects and disease
  • Authors:  Adrian Barta, Anette Phibbs, Susan Lueloff

    Continuing survey work for soybean seedling root rots again found Phytophthora sansomeana along with the endemic Phytophthora sojae. P. sansomeana was first detected in Wisconsin in 2012; results from the 2013 survey of 50 randomly-selected soybean fields and two corn Read more…

    Continuing survey work for soybean seedling root rots again found Phytophthora sansomeana along with the endemic Phytophthora sojae. P. sansomeana was first detected in Wisconsin in 2012; results from the 2013 survey of 50 randomly-selected soybean fields and two corn fields showed soybean roots from four soybean fields and corn roots from one corn field were infected. Survey staff re-sampled the three fields in 2013 that tested positive for P. sansomeana in 2012, including two fields that had been rotated to corn. Fields were sampled between June 17 and July 18. While the significance of this P. sansomeana find is being investigated, it is the host range that raises concern about this organism. With both corn and soybeans being susceptible to infection (though the development of disease on corn has not been documented in Wisconsin to date), the potential for increases in inoculum is significant, given the widespread use of corn/soybean rotations.

    Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade, and Consumer Protection
    2013 Wisconsin Crop Disease Survey Results
    insects and disease
  • Authors:  Damon Smith

    Sclerotinia stem rot (SSR) or white mold of soybean is caused by the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Grau and Hartman, 1999). In the temperate north central soybean production areas of the United States, SSR can be a significant yield limiting disease. Read more…

    Sclerotinia stem rot (SSR) or white mold of soybean is caused by the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Grau and Hartman, 1999). In the temperate north central soybean production areas of the United States, SSR can be a significant yield limiting disease. In seven growing seasons between 1996 and 2009, yield losses as a result of SSR where greater than 10 million bushels (270 million kg) per year (Peltier et al., 2012). Yield can be reduced 2-5 bushels per acre (133-333 kg/ha) for every 10% increment increase in SSR incidence in soybeans at the R7 growth stage (Peltier et al., 2012). These impacts on yield are significant and make SSR one of the most important diseases of soybean in the North Central U.S.

    UW-Madison
    White Mold Management in 2013: Was It Product or Timing
    disease management
  • Authors:  Francisco Arriaga

    Soil health can be defined as the capacity of a specific soil to function in a natural or managed system to sustain plant and animal productivity, maintain environmental quality, and promote plant and animal health (SSSA, 2013). Soil organic matter Read more…

    Soil health can be defined as the capacity of a specific soil to function in a natural or managed system to sustain plant and animal productivity, maintain environmental quality, and promote plant and animal health (SSSA, 2013). Soil organic matter (SOM) is a key component in soil health as it affects soil chemical, physical, and biological properties. It is commonly accepted that SOM enhances fertility, improves physical properties (such as, infiltration and water retention), and enhances overall soil health. Although improvements in crop varieties/hybrids and innovation in fertilizers continue to boost average yields, proper soil health is important for sustaining productivity. Crop and soil management are key to increasing SOM and improving soil health.

    UW-Madison Soil Science
    The Impact of Soil Health on Crop Production
    economics, transportation and soil health
  • Authors:  Erin Silva

    Discussion related to the benefits of the integration of cover crops and improvement of soil health as part of crop management practices has increased over the past several years. A recent survey conducted by the Conservation Technology Information Center reported Read more…

    Discussion related to the benefits of the integration of cover crops and improvement of soil health as part of crop management practices has increased over the past several years. A recent survey conducted by the Conservation Technology Information Center reported that 2012 harvested yields from corn fields following a cover crop were 9.6% greater than side-by-side fields with no cover crops, and soybean yields improved 11.6% following cover crops. Yield differences were even greater in regions most impacted by the 2012 drought, with corn yielding 11% greater and soybeans yielded 14.3% greater than those grown in fields with no cover crops.

    UW-Madison
    Crop Rotation and Cover Cropping Impacts on Soil Health
    economics, transportation and soil health
  • Authors:  Paul Mitchell

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

    UW Madison
    A Practical Sustainability Assessment Program: Processing Vegetable Results
    vegetable topics
  • Authors:  Jed Colquhoun, Dan Heider, Richard Rittmeyer

    Weed management options in garden beets have become limited in recent years, particularly after the introduction of glyphosate-resistant sugar beets and subsequent loss of herbicide registrations. The primary objective of this project was to evaluate registered and nonregistered herbicides as Read more…

    Weed management options in garden beets have become limited in recent years,
    particularly after the introduction of glyphosate-resistant sugar beets and subsequent loss of
    herbicide registrations. The primary objective of this project was to evaluate registered and nonregistered
    herbicides as part of pre- and post-emergent programs in an effort to achieve seasonlong
    weed control. Studies were conducted in 2013 at two locations (Arlington and Plover, WI).
    A total of 12 weed management programs were evaluated. Four garden beet varieties were
    included: ‘Ruby Queen’, ‘Detroit Supreme’, ‘Red Ace’ and ‘Red Titan’. This study will be
    repeated in the 2014 growing season at both locations.

    UW-Madison
    Evaluation of potential new herbicides in garden beets
    vegetable topics
  • Authors:  Ken Genskow

    Wisconsin has a long history of collaboration and partnerships around issues of nutrients and water quality. Over the course of 2012-2013, Wisconsin developed a statewide “Nutrient Reduction Strategy” document in response to a request from USEPA to all states in Read more…

    Wisconsin has a long history of collaboration and partnerships around issues of nutrients and water quality. Over the course of 2012-2013, Wisconsin developed a statewide “Nutrient Reduction Strategy” document in response to a request from USEPA to all states in the Mississippi River Basin. Although based on multi-state interest in reducing nutrients to the Gulf of Mexico, Wisconsin’s strategy includes information for the Great Lakes and also Wisconsin’s groundwater. The strategy document was developed through DNR leadership in partnership with University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin’s federal, state and local conservation agencies, and others. It was reviewed by agency staff, agency leadership, broader stakeholder interests, as well as the Natural Resources Board and the ATCP Board.

    UW-Madison
    Wisconsin's Nutrient Reduction Strategy for Water Quality
    watershed studies and ag technology
  • Authors:  Don Stanley

    Whether or not we like it or we use it, it is clear social media has transformed our world. Social media has created dramatic shifts in how people seek information, how they share information, how they learn, how they socialize, and how Read more…

    Whether or not we like it or we use it, it is clear social media has transformed our world. Social media has created dramatic shifts in how people seek information, how they share information, how they learn, how they socialize, and how they interact with organizations and businesses alike. In this session, we will provide a broad overview of the tools most commonly used today, discuss how they are used by consumers and organizations alike and then share best practices for getting started or improve your use of social media.

    3Rhino Media
    Social Media in Agriculture
    agriculture business
  • Authors:  John Panuska

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

    UW-Madison Biological Systems Engineering
    Monitoring for Manure Management
    manure and fertilizer
  • Authors:  James Camberato

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization recommendations for corn in several states in the Midwest (including WI and IN) are based on the results of many N response trials conducted over a number of years, locations, soil types, and hybrids. The maximum return to N Read more…

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization recommendations for corn in several states in the Midwest (including WI and IN) are based on the results of many N response trials conducted over a number of years, locations, soil types, and hybrids. The maximum return to N (MRTN) is calculated based on the yield response to applied N derived from the analysis of these trials and the price of grain and N fertilizer (Sawyer and Nafziger, 2006). The recommended fertilizer rate represents the point at which no further profit is realized by the application of additional N. All states using the MRTN approach consider crop rotation an important factor in determining the N recommendation and several include soil type, soil productivity, or region of the state as well (http://extension.agron.iastate.edu/soilfertility/nrate.aspx).

    Purdue University- Agronomy
    Nitrogen Fertilization Decisions: Can we do better with adaptive N management
    nutrient management
  • Authors:  Damon Smith, Quinn Watson

     Alfalfa is an important crop for Wisconsin and the Midwestern, United States. Commodity records, as of February 1, 2013 report alfalfa prices reaching $265 per ton for hay (1). Nationwide, alfalfa was planted across 55.6 million acres in 2012, the Read more…

     Alfalfa is an important crop for Wisconsin and the Midwestern, United States. Commodity records, as of February 1, 2013 report alfalfa prices reaching $265 per ton for hay (1). Nationwide, alfalfa was planted across 55.6 million acres in 2012, the 3rd field crop in terms of acreage after corn and soybean, and has an $8 billion dollar production value (15). Furthermore, alfalfa is the single largest source of protein for livestock, especially for the dairy industry (13). Wisconsin is the second largest producer of dairy in the United States, and since dairy feed is the single largest cost to the milk producer, the yield and consequent price of alfalfa is understandably important to the Wisconsin dairy industry (16).

    Aphanomyces euteiches is a soil-borne oomycete that causes the disease, Aphanomyces root rot. A. euteiches can infect a variety of field crops worldwide, but in Wisconsin, the most important commodity is alfalfa. A. euteiches is most threatening in poorly drained soil conditions because it proliferates with water-motile zoospores. A. euteiches germinates in response to chemical signals from its host’s roots during early seeding, penetrates its host, and causes stunted, chlorotic hypocotyls and cotyledons due to necrosis of the roots early after emergence (12, 13). Although this disease does not cause immediate damping off, the pathogen stunts growth and reduces alfalfa’s ability to compete with weeds. This monocyclic oomycete is persistent and it is suspected that its oospores can survive as many as 30 years in soil that has not been planted with alfalfa. This suggests that A. euteiches can parasitize other hosts. Furthermore, A. euteiches has adapted to have increasingly more virulent phenotypes, beginning with race 1, race 2, and possibly now the most virulent race, race 3 (6, 12).

    Currently, there exists no chemical treatment to manage A. euteiches infestations in alfalfa. The fungicide metalaxyl has been found ineffective against A. euteiches even though it effectively inhibits Phytophthora medicaginis, a second oomycete pathogen that frequently occurs in alfalfa fields (9). Farmers are left two management options for Aphanomyces root rot; crop rotations and planting with alfalfa cultivars that are selectively bred for resistance to specific races of A. euteiches. Currently, the commercial cultivar with the highest resistance available is only against race 2, which will be ineffective in prevention of A. euteiches of the putative race 3. Selectively breeding resistance to A. euteiches in alfalfa has aided in increased alfalfa yields; however breeding is a slow and costly process, especially since more virulent phenotypes than race 2 are predicted to exist (6). In addition, interest has peaked into using alfalfa varieties with the Roundup Ready trait. Anecdotal reports suggest that these Roundup Ready varieties lack the level of resistance to A. euteiches race 2 that exists in conventional varieties. This should be investigated further.

    UW-Madison Plant Pathology
    Aphanomyces Root Rot Management in Alfalfa
    forages
  • Authors:  Pat Murphy

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

    NRCS
    Wisconsin NRCS Update
    nutrient management
  • Authors:  Sara Walling

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

    Wisconsin Department of Agriculture Trade and Consumer Protection
    NM Panel-DATCP Updates
    nutrient management
  • WisCALM

    2014
    Authors:  Andrew Craig

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

    Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources
    WisCALM
    manure and fertilizer
  • Authors:  James Camberato

    Agricultural production advances occur incessantly. Constant development and marketing of a myriad of crop genetics, equipment, fertilizers, pesticides, and management practices require evaluation via research to enable the wise adoption of beneficial products and practices. Research conducted on farmer’s fields by farmers themselves Read more…

    Agricultural production advances occur incessantly. Constant development and marketing of a myriad of crop genetics, equipment, fertilizers, pesticides, and management practices require evaluation via research to enable the wise adoption of beneficial products and practices. Research conducted on farmer’s fields by farmers themselves or in cooperation with industry or university partners is a useful approach to comparing the new to the old and facilitate decisions to embrace change. Field-scale research is more realistic and believable to farmers and the agricultural industry thus encourages the adoption of proven products and practices. Better yet, a well designed field-scale research study is superior to traditional small plot research in detecting grain yield differences!

    Purdue University- Agronomy
    Implementing on-farm research
    nutrient management
  • Authors:  Kiersten Wise

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

    The REAL story behind SDS-glyphosate interactions
    weed management
  • Authors:  Kiersten Wise

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

    Purdue University- Agronomy
    Pre- and Post-tassel Fungicides in Field corn: What the Data Tells Us
    nutrient management
  • Authors:  Fred Seamon

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

    CME Group
    Issues and Happenings at the Chicago Board of Trade
    agriculture business
  • Authors:  Greg Bussler

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

    USDA crop reporting process- where do the numbers come from?
    agriculture business
  • Authors:  Brian Rydlund

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

    CHS Hedging Inc
    Wisconsin Crop Management Conference- Commodity Markets Update
    agriculture business
  • Authors:  Lara Moody

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

    The Fertilizer Institute
    Fertilizer Industry Update 2013
    manure and fertilizer
  • Authors:  AJ Bussan

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

    Deficit Irrigation Management
    water and soil management
  • Authors:  Zach Zopp, Rebecca Larson

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

    UW-Madison Biological Systems Engineering
    Manure Application Using Irrigation Equipment
    watershed studies and ag technology
  • Authors:  Mark Renz

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

    UW-Madison Agronomy
    Do Weeds Reduce Forage Quality
    forages
  • Authors:  Bill Schaumberg, Mike Cerny, Nick Goeser

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

    Polenske Agronomic Consulting
    The Value of Yield Maps and Predicting Future Management
    seeds and traits
  • No abstract provided.

    UW-Madison Agronomy
    Options for Corn when Flooding, Drought, Late-planting, and Early Frost are Conspiring Against You
    seeds and traits
  • Authors:  Shawn Conley

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

    UW-Madison Agronomy
    80 Years of Breeding by Agronomy Interactions in 30 Minutes or Less
    nutrient management
  • Authors:  Dave Hogg

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

    UW-Madison Entomology
    Neonic Insecticides and the Current State of Soybean Aphid in Wisconsin
    insects and disease
  • Authors:  Phil Pellitteri

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

    UW-Madison Entomology
    Bugs: The More Things Change the More They Stay the Same
    insects and disease
  • Authors:  Vince Davis

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

    UW-Madison Agronomy
    Not Just Glyphosate: Alternative Programs Approach to Weed Management
    weed management
  • Authors:  Paul Mitchell

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

    UW-Madison Ag & Applied Economics
    What Do Wisconsin's Atrazine Prohibition Areas Tell Us About Weed Management?
    weed management
  • Authors:  Greg Kruger

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

    University of Nebraska- Lincoln Dept. of Agronomy
    Big Equipment and Sprayer Technology
    weed management
  • Authors:  Bob Marlow

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

    The Anderson Inc
    Harvest 2013 Grain Quality Issues
    nutrient management
  • Authors:  Eric Hanson

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

    Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade, and Consumer Protection
    Grain and Warehousing Updates
    grain and feed legislation and regulatory topics
  • Authors:  Shawn Pfaff

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

    Pfaff Public Affairs
    Legislative Updates on Issues Important to Agriculture
    grain and feed legislation and regulatory topics
  • Authors:  Carrie A.M. Laboski

    Potassium is important for crop production in Wisconsin particularly in rotations with alfalfa and corn silage. Unfortunately when potash prices increased dramatically in 2008 many growers chose not to apply potash or apply less than recommended rates. Recently, soil test K levels Read more…

    Potassium is important for crop production in Wisconsin particularly in rotations with alfalfa and corn silage. Unfortunately when potash prices increased dramatically in 2008 many growers chose not to apply potash or apply less than recommended rates. Recently, soil test K levels have been decreasing throughout much of Wisconsin even before potash prices increased (Fig. 1). Though changes in soil test K over time vary by county (Fig. 2).

    UW-Madison, Soil Science
    Importance of Potassium for Wisconsin Cropping Systems
    nutrient management
  • Authors:  John Peters, Carrie A.M. Laboski

    Interest in plant tissue testing as a tool to help diagnose the plant nutrient status of crops has increased greatly in the past few years. Results of tissue testing along with a soil test can provide a valuable guide to more efficient Read more…

    Interest in plant tissue testing as a tool to help diagnose the plant nutrient status of crops has increased greatly in the past few years. Results of tissue testing along with a soil test can provide a valuable guide to more efficient crop production. Soil tests provide a good estimate of lime and general fertilizer needs. By adding tissue analysis data, the user is able to better evaluate fertilizer and management practices more accurately by providing a thorough nutritional view of the crop. Several key uses of plant analysis include: evaluation of fertilizer efficiency, determination of availability of elements for which reliable soil tests are not available, and the ability to evaluate the interaction among plant nutrients.

    UW Madison, Soil Science
    Plant Tissue Testing in Wisconsin: What's New?
    nutrient management
  • Authors:  Matt Ruark, Shawn Conley

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

    UW Madison
    Proceedings of the 2014 Wisconsin Crop Management Conference
    nutrient management
  • Authors:  Scott Senseman

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

  • Authors:  Erin Silva

    No-till production has become a common practice across the U.S. in conventional cropping systems. Approximately 35.5% of U.S. cropland planted to eight major crops (barley, corn, cotton, oats, rice, sorghum, soybeans, and wheat) was managed through no-till operations in 2009 Read more…

    No-till production has become a common practice across the U.S. in conventional cropping systems. Approximately 35.5% of U.S. cropland planted to eight major crops (barley, corn, cotton, oats, rice, sorghum, soybeans, and wheat) was managed through no-till operations in 2009 (Horowitz et al., 2010). No-till systems provide environmental benefits, such as reduced soil erosion, increased soil organic matter, decreased runoff and improved soil infiltration, and improved soil structure and aggregate stability (Langdale et al., 1992; Moldenhauer et al., 1983; Edwards et al., 1992; Uri et al., 1999). No-till systems can also provide economic benefits with reduced fuel and labor costs due to less tractor passes over the field (Siemans et al., 1992).

  • Authors:  Joe Lauer

    Due to warmer than normal conditions during March, planting started quickly and then was delayed by wet conditions around May 1. Over the entire growing season, growing degree-day accumulation was above the 30-year normal. During May, June and July, precipitation Read more…

    Due to warmer than normal conditions during March, planting started quickly and then was delayed by wet conditions around May 1. Over the entire growing season, growing degree-day accumulation was above the 30-year normal. During May, June and July, precipitation was significantly below average in southern Wisconsin, while northern Wisconsin had above average precipitation. Drought conditions continued through August and September in the southern half of Wisconsin and were also observed in the northern half of the state. Due to a dry and warm September and October, good grain drying occurred with harvest grain moisture lower than normal in all trials.

  • No abstract provided.

  • Authors:  W.L. Bland

    Southern Wisconsin suffered through a drought during the 2012 growing season that rivaled that of 1988. Affected areas were at the northern fringe of a devastating drought that engulfed over half of the contiguous United States. The 2012 drought joins Read more…

    Southern Wisconsin suffered through a drought during the 2012 growing season that rivaled that of 1988. Affected areas were at the northern fringe of a devastating drought that engulfed over half of the contiguous United States. The 2012 drought joins about 15 previous ones, some of them multi-year, that Wisconsin has endured since 1900. For the practicing agronomist it will be one of two or three profound droughts of a career. As with most droughts it was associated with warmer-than-average summer temperatures. Of the ten driest summers (June, July, and August – JJA) since 1895 in Southcentral Wisconsin, 2012 was the hottest, followed by 1988. In this same region 2012 JJA was essentially tied with 1948 as the driest since 1895 (at 6.2”) (Figure 1).

  • Authors:  Paul Mitchell, Vince Davis, Francisco Arriaga, Matt Ruark

    In response to the increase in interest in cover crop use and cover crop management, we have written several extension articles on economics, weed and herbicide management, soil erosion control, and nitrogen management. This paper is intended as review and Read more…

    In response to the increase in interest in cover crop use and cover crop management, we have written several extension articles on economics, weed and herbicide management, soil erosion control, and nitrogen management. This paper is intended as review and a resource for those interested in cover crop management. The accompanying presentation at the 2013 Wisconsin Crop Management Conference will be conducted as a Question and Answer session on all aspects of cover crop management, with a particular focus on addressing concerns for the 2013 growing season.

  • Authors:  Vince Davis

    Herbicide resistance in weeds, especially glyphosate resistance, has generated many recommendations from University Extension over the last several years to include more preemergence herbicides with residual weed control activity as a greater part of an Integrated Weed Management approach. Unfortunately, Read more…

    Herbicide resistance in weeds, especially glyphosate resistance, has generated many recommendations from University Extension over the last several years to include more preemergence herbicides with residual weed control activity as a greater part of an Integrated Weed Management approach. Unfortunately, over the last many years the economics have favored the sole reliance on a postemergence glyphosate system. It is apparent that constantly ‘beating the drum’ to include residual herbicides as a way to prevent resistance falls on deaf ears unless economics favor the approach. Moreover, residual herbicides applied at the preemergence timing do not come without potential drawbacks. These drawbacks can include injury on young crop seedlings under adverse weather conditions, poor performance when rainfall does not occur to ‘activate’ the herbicide into soil-water solution, and potential carryover under prolonged dry soil conditions adversely affecting a sensitive rotational crop. Unfortunately, we experienced both of the latter of those three statements in 2012, even though the extent to the problems of carryover will not be clear until we’re into the 2013 season. So, in a dry year like 2012, it may easily leave some to question whether the risk of preemergence herbicides is worth the reward. With this background in mind, it is important to constantly evaluate the value of using preemergence herbicides with residual weed control activity for protecting crop yield, and ultimately producing greater economic returns. At the UW-Madison Arlington Agriculture Research station, we annually conduct several herbicide evaluation trials. This year we also conducted several trials that evaluated the impact of several other pest management treatments on the yield of corn and soybean. Several trials revealed the impact of early-season weed control through the use of residual herbicides this year, but to stay concise, I will summarize one corn trial and one soybean trial which demonstrated the effect of early-season weed control in a dry year (2012).

  • Authors:  Ross Recker, Vince Davis

    The potential increase of glyphosate-resistant weeds is a major threat to corn and soybean production across the nation and in Wisconsin. There are 14 glyphosate-resistant weeds confirmed in the United States, five of which occur in states that border Wisconsin Read more…

    The potential increase of glyphosate-resistant weeds is a major threat to corn and soybean production across the nation and in Wisconsin. There are 14 glyphosate-resistant weeds confirmed in the United States, five of which occur in states that border Wisconsin (Heap 2012). A southern Wisconsin population of giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida L.) was confirmed to be glyphosate-resistant and announced at this conference one year ago (Stoltenberg et al. 2012). Additionally, a different Wisconsin population of giant ragweed was also recently confirmed as resistant to cloransulam-methyl3 . Integrated weed management tactics, including the use of multiple effective modes-of-action (MOA) against troublesome weeds are important to delay the onset of glyphosate resistance (Norsworthy et al. 2012). Identifying geographies that may be most vulnerable to glyphosate resistance development could help direct attention and pro-active resistance management tactics before wide-scale control failures occur (Davis et al. 2008). The objective of the late-season weed escape survey is to identify areas of Wisconsin for potential shifts to weeds that are more difficult to control with glyphosate and areas where glyphosate resistant weeds may first appear.

  • Authors:  Joe Dillier

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

  • Authors:  Phil Pellitteri

    Weather has had a major impact on the insects and their activity in 2012. A very mild winter, early spring warm-up, serious drought in the southern half of the state, numerous strong southerly airflows and an extended growing season all Read more…

    Weather has had a major impact on the insects and their activity in 2012. A very mild winter, early spring warm-up, serious drought in the southern half of the state, numerous strong southerly airflows and an extended growing season all had influences this season. This will be a recordbreaking year in the insect diagnostic lab for number of samples and e- mails with over 6,600 contacts for 2012.

    The early warm-up in March brought in many southern migrants. Adult variegated cutworms and armyworms moths were collected in March a full three weeks earlier than any previous records, and large numbers of cutworm egg masses were found pasted on siding and windows in the northern part of the state.. By May and early June major (almost biblical) climbing cutworm problems were seen in central and northern counties. Large influxes of both aster and potato leafhoppers were recorded early and a number of “southern insects” including the Genista broom moth, citron bug, and large numbers of two species of migratory butterflies. Strawberry growers experienced eastern flower thrips problems 2012 and a new tospovirus ( likely thrips transmitted ) was found on soybeans in the state this year.

  • Authors:  Ann MacGuidwin

    Four out of every five animals on earth is a nematode, so it is not surprising that corn and soybean fields are teeming with many members of this diverse group of invertebrates. In 2012 the Wisconsin Soybean Marketing Board expanded Read more…

    Four out of every five animals on earth is a nematode, so it is not surprising that corn and soybean fields are teeming with many members of this diverse group of invertebrates. In 2012 the Wisconsin Soybean Marketing Board expanded the long-running soybean cyst nematode (SCN) testing program to include the “complete nematode test” so producers can monitor total nematode pressure in four fields every year at no charge. This sampling program was used to estimate the current distribution and damage potential for nematode pests of corn in Wisconsin. As of November 30, 2012 the program received 315 samples for analysis. Thirty-five samples arrived before July 1st so the results could be used to explain crop performance in 2012. Samples that arrived after July 1, 2012 were useful for predicting nematode pressure for the 2013 crop.

  • Authors:  Eileen Cullen

    Transgenic Bt corn hybrids that produce insecticidal proteins from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have become the standard insect management tactic across the U.S. Corn Belt. In 2012, 67 percent of 96.4 million acres of corn planted in the Read more…

    Transgenic Bt corn hybrids that produce insecticidal proteins from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have become the standard insect management tactic across the U.S. Corn Belt. In 2012, 67 percent of 96.4 million acres of corn planted in the U.S. contained a Bt trait (USDA ERS, 2012; USDA NASS, 2012). Widespread planting of Bt corn creates intense selection pressure for target insects to develop resistance. Evolution of resistance diminishes the efficacy and benefits of Bt corn technology.

    Because Bt traits are pesticidal substances produced by plants, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) registers Bt crops through the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (EPA, 2012). Recognizing the threat of evolution of insect resistance, the EPA requires registrants (seed companies) to include an insect resistance management (IRM) plan when applying to register a Bt crop. The goal of the IRM plan is to reduce selection pressure associated with Bt crops and prevent, or at least delay, development of resistance in the target insect population. Growers are required to implement the IRM plan on-farm by planting a refuge. The refuge provides a corn crop habitat that allows target pest insects to develop without exposure to the Bt trait. Mating between susceptible insects from the refuge and potential resistant insects from the Bt corn minimizes the chance of resistance developing in the population.

  • Authors:  Matt Ruark, Paul Mitchell

    Nitrogen (N) management for processing sweet corn in Wisconsin has proven to be a complex issue. Sweet corn has a relatively large N demand and, to ensure complete kernel development, requires maintaining plant available N in the soil profile throughout Read more…

    Nitrogen (N) management for processing sweet corn in Wisconsin has proven to be a complex issue. Sweet corn has a relatively large N demand and, to ensure complete kernel development, requires maintaining plant available N in the soil profile throughout the growing season, which can be a challenge on sandy soils. Current N guidelines for sweet corn in the University of Wisconsin Extension Publication A2809 (Nutrient Application Guidelines for Field, Vegetable and Fruit Crops in Wisconsin) suggest 150 lb/ac of N for soils with less than 2% soil organic matter and 130 lb/ac of N for soils with 2 to 10% soil organic matter, based on a yield range of 2 to 10 ton/ac. The guidelines also suggest split-applications or sidedress applications of N on coarse-textured (sandy) soils. Most, if not all, sweet corn production in the Central Sands is on coarse-textured soil with less than 2% soil organic matter and grown with split-applications of N. To evaluate the current A2809 guidelines for N application, on-farm N rate trials were conducted in 2009, 2010, and 2011, on four fields per year, for a total of twelve site-years. All fields were located in Adams County, WI. All plots had 60 lb/ac of N applied before V4 and 45 lb/ac of N applied as fertigation at tassel (VT stage). Six different N rates were then added as sidedress at V6-V8: 0, 25, 50, 75, 100, and 125 lb/ac of N, resulting in total N applications of 105, 130, 155, 180, 205, and 230 lb/ac of N.

  • Authors:  Nicholas Goeser, Jeff Krumm, Mike Johnston

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

  • Authors:  Todd Andraski, Carrie Laboski

    A variety of research has been conducted to assess the efficacy of the nitrification inhibitor Instinct in Wisconsin from 2008 through 2012. Several studies have focused on the use of Instinct with UAN and urea as well as dairy manure. Read more…

    A variety of research has been conducted to assess the efficacy of the nitrification inhibitor Instinct in Wisconsin from 2008 through 2012. Several studies have focused on the use of Instinct with UAN and urea as well as dairy manure. Initial research with UAN applied preplant with and without Instinct on a deep well drained silt loam, found a 5 bu/a yield increase, which was not significant, in two of three years. In both of these years, there was excessive rainfall that resulted in 30 to 40 lb/a of N loss from preplant applied N. In another study, Instinct applied with urea significantly increased corn grain and silage yield when applied in fall and spring. However, application of Instinct with liquid dairy manure did not increase grain yield, but did result in significantly greater silage yield. In general, measurement of nitrate and ammonium concentrations in soil demonstrate that ammonium N concentrations are greater and nitrate N concentrations are lower where Instinct was applied compared to where it wasn’t. This suggests a lower likelihood of N loss from leaching or denitrification where Instinct was applied, even though it didn’t always translate into greater yield.

  • Authors:  Eric Cooley, Aaron Wunderlin

    Numerous climatic studies have shown that weather patterns are changing in Wisconsin and other Midwestern States. Precipitation events are becoming more extreme in both volume and intensity and are occurring with larger variation on a state and regional basis. The Read more…

    Numerous climatic studies have shown that weather patterns are changing in Wisconsin and other Midwestern States. Precipitation events are becoming more extreme in both volume and intensity and are occurring with larger variation on a state and regional basis. The timing and magnitude of these more extreme events plays a vital role in the potential for sediment and nutrient loss from agricultural land.

    To assess the magnitude of a precipitation event, Depth-Duration-Frequency (DDF) charts are commonly used to evaluate rainfall depths (inches of rain) for different durations (e.g., 30 min, 1 h, 24 h). These values are then compared to statistical frequency of similar sized events to determine a ranking of a storm. A common example is the 25-year/24-hour event that is used as a design criteria in technical standards for sizing best management practices to be effective to a given storm size. An example in northeast Wisconsin is the value of 5.29 inches of precipitation received in a 24 hour period. This is the 25-year/24-hour storm event that should statistically occur once every 25 years.

  • Authors:  Scott Senseman

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

  • Authors:  Brent Cook, Kevin Erb, Dave Eisentraut, Chad Tasch

    The dairy industry in Wisconsin produces the equivalent of 12 Billion gallons of liquid dairy manure annually. That’s enough to cover Lambeau field (including the endzones) to a depth of just over 5 miles. Wisconsin’s 134 for-hire manure applicators apply Read more…

    The dairy industry in Wisconsin produces the equivalent of 12 Billion gallons of liquid dairy manure annually. That’s enough to cover Lambeau field (including the endzones) to a depth of just over 5 miles. Wisconsin’s 134 for-hire manure applicators apply ~ 6 billion gallons of liquid manure and ~800,000 tons annually. This is a 50% increase in liquid manure application by for-hire applicators since 2006, and >300% increase in solid manure handling.

  • Authors:  Vince Davis

    Giant ragweed is becoming an increasingly problematic weed to control in both corn and soybean fields in Wisconsin. In an on-line survey conducted between June and September of this past year (2012), respondents indicated that giant ragweed was the fourth Read more…

    Giant ragweed is becoming an increasingly problematic weed to control in both corn and soybean fields in Wisconsin. In an on-line survey conducted between June and September of this past year (2012), respondents indicated that giant ragweed was the fourth most problematic weed to control in their corn and soybean fields. Moreover, in Wisconsin there has been a giant ragweed population confirmed resistant to glyphosate, and recently one population confirmed resistant to cloransulam-methyl. In total, there are now eleven states in the U.S. and one province in Canada (Ontario) with reported populations of glyphosate-resistant giant ragweed (Heap 2012; Stoltenberg et al. 2012). The populations confirmed resistant to glyphosate were collected in Ohio (2004), Arkansas (2005), Indiana (2005), Kansas (2006), Minnesota (2006), Tennessee (2007), Ontario, CA (2008), Iowa (2009), Missouri (2009), Mississippi (2010), Nebraska (2010), and Wisconsin (2010). Additionally, there are five other states in the U.S. with giant ragweed populations resistant to cloransulam-methyl including Illinois (1998), Indiana (1998), Ohio (1998), Iowa (2000), and Minnesota (2008). Most concerning is that Ohio (2006) and Minnesota (2008) have both reported populations that are multiple resistant to both glyphosate and cloransulam meaning tank-mixtures of these two herbicide mode-of-actions (MOAs) are not effective. There is a very high level of importance to find and evaluate control strategies for giant ragweed in corn and soybean for Wisconsin crop producers.

  • Authors:  Mark Renz

    Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) has been identified as a weed of concern in Wisconsin pastures. It can reduce forage yield and utilization, both of which can have a negative impact on animal performance (Undersander et al., 2002). Control typically involves Read more…

    Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) has been identified as a weed of concern in Wisconsin pastures. It can reduce forage yield and utilization, both of which can have a negative impact on animal performance (Undersander et al., 2002). Control typically involves the use of herbicides, an effective control that has been well-researched and documented. Though effective in controlling Canada thistle, herbicides also kill clovers, which are highly desired in Wisconsin pastures. Thus graziers are often left wondering if they should manage Canada thistle infestations in pastures with an herbicide, knowing it will remove the clovers, or if they should allow this problem weed to persist. To answer this question it is important to understand how much forage is being lost due to direct competition with Canada thistle and how much forage utilization is reduced by this spiny weed.

  • Authors:  Pat Murphy, Sara Walling, Andrew Craig

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

  • Authors:  Francisco Arriaga, Greg Andrews

    Erosion is older than human kind. It has helped shape and form numerous landscapes on the planet. However, erosion is detrimental to agriculture, the environment, and the economy. In the 1930s the damaging effects of soil erosion were felt in Read more…

    Erosion is older than human kind. It has helped shape and form numerous landscapes on the planet. However, erosion is detrimental to agriculture, the environment, and the economy. In the 1930s the damaging effects of soil erosion were felt in Washington DC, bringing the attention of government officials to this problem. This awareness of soil erosion’s negative impacts, both on- and off-farm, was key for establishing new programs to address the issue. Wisconsin played a crucial role in the fight against soil erosion in the United States. In 1933, the Coon Valley Watershed Project became the first watershed conservation project in the nation. The site was selected due to the interest of many local farmers in stopping rills and gullies from ravaging their fields. Many conservation practices, such as contour planting and strip cropping, were established and implemented for the first time in multiple farms in a single watershed. Not only was progress monitored at the field and farm level, but benefits to local streams and wildlife were also studied. This watershed project was so successful that it led to the establishment of the Soil Conservation Service (currently Natural Resources Conservation Service). Awareness of soil and other natural resources gained significant attention during this period and the decades that followed. Although great advances have been made in the area of soil and water conservation, the need for this work continues. Many fields still have erosional losses well above soil tolerable loss values, and these are much greater than soil formation rates. Recent changes in climatic patterns, including droughts and severe rainfall events, have created more stress on soil resources. Further, high grain prices have placed incentives on farming marginal and fragile lands. All of these factors have generated greater risks for soil erosion. Can we learn any lessons from history to protect one of our most precious and important resources?

  • Authors:  Keith Marquardt

    Green Bay is the largest freshwater estuary in the world. All the waters within the Lower Fox River Basin drain to Green Bay. However, there are waters within the Lower Fox River Basin that are impaired due to high levels Read more…

    Green Bay is the largest freshwater estuary in the world. All the waters within the Lower Fox River Basin drain to Green Bay. However, there are waters within the Lower Fox River Basin that are impaired due to high levels of sediment and phosphorus entering the waters. Impaired waters need to be corrected – – restored to fishable, swimmable, and designated use conditions as required by the U.S. EPA in the Clean Water Act.

    All land uses within the Lower Fox River Basin, whether urban or rural, contribute a source of sediment and phosphorus to the waters within the basin to some extent, but in varying amounts. To determine the amounts of sediment and phosphorus being delivered to the waters, total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) were developed and subsequently approved by EPA in May 2012 (http://dnr.wi.gov/topic/tmdls/). By knowing the amounts of sediment and phosphorus being delivered to a waterbody, and which areas or land uses contribute the most pollutants, resource managers can focus their restoration efforts in the watershed in order to achieve improved water quality.

  • Authors:  Mike Rankin

    Alfalfa has been a primary forage crop on Wisconsin dairy farms for many years. As we enter 2013 it is readily apparent that today’s alfalfa varieties are much different than those planted 15-20 years ago. Further, alfalfa is managed more Read more…

    Alfalfa has been a primary forage crop on Wisconsin dairy farms for many years. As we enter 2013 it is readily apparent that today’s alfalfa varieties are much different than those planted 15-20 years ago. Further, alfalfa is managed more intensively from a cutting frequency standpoint in an attempt to harvest forage of higher quality. In 2012 Wisconsin alfalfa was subject to a multitude of stresses, the consequences of which have yet to be seen. As we enter 2013 it seems appropriate to take inventory of the current state of alfalfa, looking both at factors that have been changing over the past 20 years and those that have impacted the crop and its management recently.

  • Authors:  Dan Undersander

    The 2012 drought reduced alfalfa yield by significantly across Wisconsin. It appears, that while some regions (especially northeast Wisconsin) had better yield than others, the overall average yield was down about 25% and (since haylage is made first and the Read more…

    The 2012 drought reduced alfalfa yield by significantly across Wisconsin. It appears, that while some regions (especially northeast Wisconsin) had better yield than others, the overall average yield was down about 25% and (since haylage is made first and the rest baled) hay production may be down by as much as 50%.

    In the Southern part of the Wisconsin yield of first cutting was reduced due to a dry March. Alfalfa root systems die back to some extent over winter. The root system requires good soil moisture in the early spring to regrow. If a strong root system forms then high yields will occur on first cutting. If the root system growth is restricted by dry soil, then the top growth will be reduced, even if good rain occurs in the later part of the first cutting growth period (during April and May) as occurred this past year.

  • Authors:  Randy Shaver, Pat Hoffman

    The 2012 drought generated many dairy cattle feeding related questions, especially in southern Wisconsin. Harvest and storage issues emerged and disappeared as the cropping year progressed, while feeding issues linger through feed out. The situation has been exacerbated by very Read more…

    The 2012 drought generated many dairy cattle feeding related questions, especially in southern Wisconsin. Harvest and storage issues emerged and disappeared as the cropping year progressed, while feeding issues linger through feed out. The situation has been exacerbated by very high corn, soybean meal, forage, and byproduct feedstuff prices for those needing to purchase more feed unexpectedly due to the drought. Below is a list of sub-topics for discussion from a dairy cattle nutrition perspective at the conference.

  • Authors:  Bill Halfman, Greg Blonde, Bryan Jensen, Deborah Samac, Lisa Behnken, Fritz Breitenbach

    Current trends in agronomic field crop production (corn and soybean) have been towards the use of foliar fungicides to promote “plant health” and increase yield in the absence of disease. Trials to examine this trend have been conducted across the Read more…

    Current trends in agronomic field crop production (corn and soybean) have been towards the use of foliar fungicides to promote “plant health” and increase yield in the absence of disease. Trials to examine this trend have been conducted across the upper Midwest and have resulted in very inconsistent results. Headline (pyraclostrobin, BASF, Research Triangle Park, NC) was approved for use in alfalfa beginning in 2011. We received numerous questions from growers and university researchers regarding the benefits of foliar fungicide use in alfalfa grown for forage. Many of these questions were focused on the use of a fungicide in a tank-mix with an insecticide, with the intent of providing a positive synergistic yield response. Thus, the objective of this study was to conduct field research trials in Wisconsin and Minnesota to examine the benefit of using a foliar fungicide, alone or in combination with foliar insecticide on alfalfa.

  • Authors:  Elissa Chasen, Eileen Cullen, Dan Undersander

    A fully developed integrated pest management (IPM) system uses all available strategies for a given pest or pest complex in a cropping system; incorporating host plant resistance, biological, cultural and physical controls and chemical control when necessary (Pedigo, 1999). Several Read more…

    A fully developed integrated pest management (IPM) system uses all available strategies for a given pest or pest complex in a cropping system; incorporating host plant resistance, biological, cultural and physical controls and chemical control when necessary (Pedigo, 1999). Several such management strategies have been developed in alfalfa for the potato leafhopper (Empoasca fabae) (PLH). The first glandular haired varieties of alfalfa, bred for resistance to PLH were released for market in 1997. Field studies of these varieties have been met with varying levels of success. Lefko et al. (2000) observed that established resistant alfalfa stands could tolerate up to 2.5 greater the PLH pressure as a susceptible stand. However, when leafhopper pressure is low, resistant alfalfa has expressed some amount of yield drag (Hogg et al. 1998, Hansen et al. 2002). The presence of grasses in alfalfa fields has also been correlated to a reduction in PLH abundance. Degooyer et al. (1999) showed that both orchardgrass and bromegrass intercropped in alfalfa stands significantly reduced the number of PLH present, but noted it was not enough to keep populations below economic thresholds. Grasses are also promoted as an intercrop with alfalfa for the increase in digestible fibers and decrease in non-fiber carbohydrates they provide, which can help reduce incidence of ruminal acidosis (Lee, 2011).

  • Authors:  Dave Hogg

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

  • Authors:  Eileen Cullen

    Populations of the Twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, increase during periods of hot, dry weather. Representative grain yield reduction potential in soybean (40-60%), field corn (23%) and silage corn (17%) are significant (Klubertanz, 1994; Bynum, pers. comm.). Spider mites Read more…

    Populations of the Twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, increase during periods of hot, dry weather. Representative grain yield reduction potential in soybean (40-60%), field corn (23%) and silage corn (17%) are significant (Klubertanz, 1994; Bynum, pers. comm.).

    Spider mites damage plants by piercing cells and sucking sap. Mites often go undetected until damage is severe because of their tiny size and because spider mite feeding and drought stress symptoms are similar. It is important to be aware of twospotted spider mite potential under these conditions, recognize plant damage symptoms, and be able to identify live mite colonies in the field.

  • Authors:  Anders Huseth, Russ Groves

    To date, the in-plant distribution of the in-furrow, systemic neonicotinoid classes (IRAC MoA 4A) of insecticides are relatively unknown in potato. Variable insecticide concentration and distribution over time is thought to affect resistance development in numerous insect pests, including key Read more…

    To date, the in-plant distribution of the in-furrow, systemic neonicotinoid classes (IRAC MoA 4A) of insecticides are relatively unknown in potato. Variable insecticide concentration and distribution over time is thought to affect resistance development in numerous insect pests, including key pests of potato (Gould, 1984, Isaacs, 2002, Daniels et al., 2009). Dynamic insecticide expression in the crop creates sub-lethal refuges promoting the evolution of behavioral and physiological mechanisms of resistance (Hoy et al., 1998). Documentation of insecticide within potato foliage throughout the growing season will generate a concentration profile for systemic use patterns. Insecticide expression patterns will better inform times at which the crop expresses sub-lethal insecticide doses that have direct implications for resistance management of key insect pests in potato. Connecting the amount of insecticide delivered to the proportion taken up by the plant season-long is a key factor in documenting overall in-plant concentration and environmental fate of insecticides.

  • Authors:  Russell Groves, Brian Flood, Don Caine, Mike Johnson, Mick Holm, Scott Chapman

    Effective, economical, and efficient season-long management of key insect pest species in commercial, succulent snap bean continues to be a challenge for many locales in the Midwest. Much of the processing snap bean crop in the upper Midwest is now Read more…

    Effective, economical, and efficient season-long management of key insect pest species in commercial, succulent snap bean continues to be a challenge for many locales in the Midwest. Much of the processing snap bean crop in the upper Midwest is now treated with an at-plant, seed treatment including thiamethoxam, (Cruiser® 5FS). This prophylactic approach is designed to mitigate risk of damage by both seed corn maggot (SCM), Delia platura, and the potato leafhopper (PLH), Empoasca fabae. Cruiser applied at the labeled rates of 1.28 fl oz / 100 lb of seed, has been demonstrated to protect the crop from the early season seed maggot pressure as well as the damage resulting from immigrant potato leafhopper populations for nearly 50 days. Unfortunately, the Cruiser seed treatments will not protect the crop against infestation by the European corn borer. As a result, if degree day accumulations are favorable for a flight of European corn borer at a vulnerable stage of snap bean development (e.g. flowering to pin bean stage), a foliar spray of insecticide continues to be warranted. The current project proposes to continue with these evaluations and compare an experimental and a commercially registered anthranilic diamide, cyazypyr (HGW86 20SC), and rynaxypyr (Coragen® 1.67SC), respectively, as both in-furrow and seed treatment applications for the control of European corn borer in succulent snap beans.

  • Authors:  A.J. Bussan

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

  • Authors:  D.W. Franzen

    Nitrogen management continues to be difficult due to transformations of nitrogen fertilizers that are possible when applied to soil and the uncertainties of weather (Cabrera et al., 2008). Nitrate fertilizer is subject to leaching (Randall et al., 2008) or denitrification Read more…

    Nitrogen management continues to be difficult due to transformations of nitrogen fertilizers that are possible when applied to soil and the uncertainties of weather (Cabrera et al., 2008). Nitrate fertilizer is subject to leaching (Randall et al., 2008) or denitrification (Coyne, 2008) depending on the water content of the soil and water movement through the soil. Ammonium forms of N can be fixed (Kissel et al., 2008), or can be transformed to nitrate through the activities of specific soil bacteria (Norton, 2008). Because of these and other processes, nitrogen use efficiency is low.

  • Authors:  D.W. Franzen

    Nitrogen fertilizer in the form of urea is subject to ammonia volatilization through the activity of the urease enzyme found ubiquitously in soil (Kissel et al., 2008). Nitrogen volatilization is especially prevalent when urea is applied to the soil surface, Read more…

    Nitrogen fertilizer in the form of urea is subject to ammonia volatilization through the activity of the urease enzyme found ubiquitously in soil (Kissel et al., 2008). Nitrogen volatilization is especially prevalent when urea is applied to the soil surface, as in no-till systems when growers have not invested in sub-surface application tools. To decrease possible ammonia volatilization losses a number of products have been developed to delay urease activity.

  • Authors:  Matt Ruark, Joe lauer, Thierno Diallo, Mike Bertram

    Maintaining high corn yields on highly productive lands is essential for the sustainability of agricultural production in Wisconsin. Sustainability also relies on soil conservation practices and reduced energy inputs. Many growers have adopted no-till management practices to reduce energy costs, Read more…

    Maintaining high corn yields on highly productive lands is essential for the sustainability of agricultural production in Wisconsin. Sustainability also relies on soil conservation practices and reduced energy inputs. Many growers have adopted no-till management practices to reduce energy costs, reduce soil erosion, and conserve soil organic carbon. However, no-till as a management practice remains an under-utilized conservation practice for corn-based production systems in Wisconsin. In Wisconsin, approximately 500,000 acres of corn is grown under no-till (Frazee et al., 2005), which ranks tenth among all states. More growers are likely to adopt no-till management practices if potential negative production implications can be overcome. Studies conducted on rainfed, Corn Belt soils have mixed results with studies showing positive yield effects of no-till (Olson and Ebelhar, 2009; Grandy et al., 2006; Hussain et al., 1999) and negative yield effects of no-till (Bakhsh and Kanwar, 2007; West et al., 1996). For Wisconsin soils, suppressed yields have been shown to be a result of lower soil temperatures (Andraski and Bundy, 2008). In an effort to combat this yield decrease, Andraski and Bundy (2008) further suggest that an additional 30 lb/ac of nitrogen (N) may be required to maintain corn yields when managed with no-till. Increasing the N fertilizer rate adds an additional expense to the operation and does not guarantee that this N will be used efficiently by the crop. Further adoption of no-till as a tillage practice is unlikely unless these yield and economic gaps can be overcome. There are currently several fertilizer technologies, such as polymer-coated urea (PCU) and urease and nitrification inhibitors (U! and NI) which may be viable alternatives to conventional N fertilizer for improving yields in no-till corn and would alleviate the need for supplemental N in these systems. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of different N fertilizer products on corn yield in long-term tillage and crop rotation trials. The N products evaluated are a PCU, urea with UI, and a product with both a UI and NI. The PCU evaluated was ESN® (Agrium, Inc.), the UI evaluated was Agrotain® (Agrotain, Ltd.) added to urea, and the UI+NI product was SuperU® (Agrotain, Ltd) which has the UI and NI chemicals impregnated into the urea granule.

  • Authors:  Kevin Klingberg

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

  • Authors:  Alison Robertson

    Aspergillus ear rot is caused by the fungus Aspergillus flavus and is recognized as an olive-green powdery mold that usually occurs at the ear tip or in association with damaged kernels. The fungus infects corn ears soon after pollination when Read more…

    Aspergillus ear rot is caused by the fungus Aspergillus flavus and is recognized as an olive-green powdery mold that usually occurs at the ear tip or in association with damaged kernels. The fungus infects corn ears soon after pollination when the silks are yellow-brown but still moist. Infection and colonization of kernels are favored by hot (>86F), dry conditions during grain fill.

    The fungus, A. flavus, may also produce a potent mycotoxin called aflatoxin. Hot, dry conditions with warm (>70F) nights and low kernel moisture (<35%) favor the production of aflatoxin. Not all strains of A. flavus produce aflatoxin. Grain contaminated with aflatoxin can cause feeding and reproductive disorders in swine, cattle and poultry, and has been associated with esophageal cancer in humans. For these reasons, the FDA has established an “action level” of 20 ppb for aflatoxins in corn for interstate commerce.

  • Authors:  Adrian Barta, Anette Phibbs, Sue Lueloff

    The Pest Survey Program of the Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection conducts monitoring and detection surveys for targeted exotic and key endemic agricultural and wildland plant pests.

    The Pest Survey Program of the Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection conducts monitoring and detection surveys for targeted exotic and key endemic agricultural and wildland plant pests.

  • Authors:  Damon Smith

    Fungicides have become a major component of plant disease management plans for agronomic crops. Fungicides are applied to prevent or slow epidemics of disease caused by fungi. Unlike insecticides and herbicides, which are used to kill insects and weeds, fungicides Read more…

    Fungicides have become a major component of plant disease management plans for agronomic crops. Fungicides are applied to prevent or slow epidemics of disease caused by fungi. Unlike insecticides and herbicides, which are used to kill insects and weeds, fungicides are applied to form a barrier to protect plant organs from infection. Performance of fungicide products can be affected by many factors including timing of application, off-label rates, poor product choice for the pathogen of concern (e.g. active ingredient is not effective against the organism), fungicide resistance, etc.

  • Authors:  Paul Mitchell

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

  • Authors:  Bruce Jones

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

  • Authors:  John Peters

    The nutrient credits from applied manure vary by animal species and the manure management system in place on the farm. Traditionally, the most common approaches have been liquid handling systems (minimal bedding) and solid manure systems, which is a more Read more…

    The nutrient credits from applied manure vary by animal species and the manure management system in place on the farm. Traditionally, the most common approaches have been liquid handling systems (minimal bedding) and solid manure systems, which is a more highly bedded management strategy. In more recent years, practices such as running the manure through a digester or composting process as well as liquid-solid separation have become more common. These actions can have a significant impact on total nutrient content and potential availability of the nutrients when field applied. The use of sand bedding has replaced wood products as a bedding source on many farms as well.

    With any change in management there is the potential for a significant shift in the manure characteristics and nutrient content. The best way to track these changes is though a comprehensive manure sampling and testing program. In cases where this is not practical, book values exist to give an estimate of the typical nutrient content for a specific manure type. This can be an effective strategy but only if the manure on the farm is relatively normal or typical.

  • Authors:  Becky Larson

    Land application of manure is the most common end product use in Wisconsin and throughout the nation. Application of manure provides the necessary nutrients for crop production and provides organic matter essential to soil health. When applied correctly manure serves Read more…

    Land application of manure is the most common end product use in Wisconsin and throughout the nation. Application of manure provides the necessary nutrients for crop production and provides organic matter essential to soil health. When applied correctly manure serves as a beneficial soil amendment and fertilizer, however when over applied, manure can be the cause of substantial environmental consequences. Therefore, management of manure applications if critical to limit negative environmental impacts. Application rates play a key role in accurately applying manure. Unfortunately, the variability in manure and lack of process controls makes accurate application difficult. Key practices in frequency and methods of sampling, agitation, and application equipment can minimize the variation in manure consistency reducing the chance for over application. Recent and previous research has shown the importance of manure management practices during agitation and application and how they can effectively be used to reduce environmental impact while increasing crop yields due to accurate application.

  • Authors:  John Panuska, Jim Leverich

    Optimal crop production requires nutrient application. Land application of nutrients is a common practice in Wisconsin and occurs as both animal manure and chemical fertilizers. Conventional practices have involved nutrient application during the spring or fall and at quantities sufficient Read more…

    Optimal crop production requires nutrient application. Land application of nutrients is a common practice in Wisconsin and occurs as both animal manure and chemical fertilizers. Conventional practices have involved nutrient application during the spring or fall and at quantities sufficient to ensure adequate supply throughout the growing season. This requires applying additional nutrients to compensate for anticipated losses through both surface and subsurface pathways and/or mineralization in the soil. Mechanisms for these losses can include manure in surface runoff and tiles or nutrients dissolved in stormwater runoff.

    Nutrient losses represent a cost to producers as well as the environmental cost from downstream impacts. Nutrients lost from upland areas enter streams, lakes and groundwater resulting in impairment to beneficial use. Oxygen demanding organic matter, bacteria, pathogens and nutrients from manure can pose public health and environmental risks. In addition, it is costly to transport liquid manure from the farm to land application areas. These costs increase with distance along with increased wear on public roads.

  • Authors:  N.J. Bero, M.D. Ruark, Birl Lowery

    Current nitrogen (N) fertilizer management practices for vegetable farming have led to elevated levels of nitrate-nitrogen in the local groundwater. A study was conducted at the Hancock Agricultural Research station to determine if controlled release fertilizer, specifically Environmentally Smart Nitrogen Read more…

    Current nitrogen (N) fertilizer management practices for vegetable farming have led to elevated levels of nitrate-nitrogen in the local groundwater. A study was conducted at the Hancock Agricultural Research station to determine if controlled release fertilizer, specifically Environmentally Smart Nitrogen (ESN®), could reduce groundwater N concentration. Field experiments were conducted using Russet Burbank potato and Overland sweet corn, planted in Plainfield sand. Four fertilizer rates in potato were evaluated: 1) 0 N control, 2) 224 kg ha-1 of N as ESN®, 3) 280 kg N ha-1 as ESN®, and 4) 280 kg N ha-1 as a split application of ammonium sulfate (AS) and ammonium nitrate (AN). Sweet corn fertilizer rates were: 1) 0 N control, 2) 168 kg N ha-1 as ESN®, 3) 168 kg N ha-1 as ASurea-urea, and 4) 224 kg N ha-1 as AS-urea-urea. Both studies included three replicates to create twelve 14.6 m by 15.2 m field plots. Three groundwater monitoring wells placed diagonally across plots were installed and sampled weekly during the growing season and monthly during winter for assessing nitrate. Bromide tracer was used to evaluate solute flux and spatial distribution of N leaching potential among plots. Bromide tracer showed that plot size was sufficiently large with no plot-to-plot contamination from N migration and the time for groundwater to flow to adjacent plots is longer than the growing season. Therefore, in-season contamination is minimal, and thus nitrate measurements were from respective plots. Trends indicate that ESN® reduced the amount of nitrate leaching to groundwater. However, highly variable background nitrate concentrations in the groundwater made it difficult to show statistical significance. The effective use of groundwater monitoring wells requires careful consideration of depth to groundwater, groundwater flow direction, and variability of groundwater nitrogen concentration.

  • Authors:  Nick Schneider

    Drought experienced through much of Wisconsin during the summer has reduced the states dry alfalfa inventory by 32% and other dry forage by 1% as of the 2012 USDA October Crop Production summary. Forage shortages are of great concern to Read more…

    Drought experienced through much of Wisconsin during the summer has reduced the states dry alfalfa inventory by 32% and other dry forage by 1% as of the 2012 USDA October Crop Production summary. Forage shortages are of great concern to livestock producers. The high cost of many forms of feed caused unexpected financial challenges for livestock producers. New forage production strategies will help rebuild the low forage inventories across the state.

    One such strategy is the potential to raise double crop forages after winter wheat harvest. Farms scattered across Wisconsin tried growing emergency forages and double crop soybeans after winter wheat during the 2012 drought with mixed results. Rather than growing emergency forages during the wheat fallow gap in the growing season, planned double crop forage can increase the likelihood of success.

  • Authors:  Amanda Gevens, Anna Seidl, Amilcar Perez

    Late blight is a potentially destructive disease of potatoes and tomatoes caused by the fungal-like organism, Phytophthora infestans. This pathogen is referred to as a ‘water mold’ since it thrives under wet conditions. Symptoms include leaf lesions beginning as pale Read more…

    Late blight is a potentially destructive disease of potatoes and tomatoes caused by the fungal-like organism, Phytophthora infestans. This pathogen is referred to as a ‘water mold’ since it thrives under wet conditions. Symptoms include leaf lesions beginning as pale green or olive green areas that quickly enlarge to become brown-black, water-soaked, and oily in appearance. Lesions on leaves can also produce pathogen sporulation which looks like white-gray fuzzy growth. Stems can also exhibit dark brown to black lesions with sporulation. Tuber infections are dark brown to purple in color and internal tissues are often reddish brown in color and firm to corky in texture. The time from first infection to lesion development and sporulation can be as fast as 7 days, depending upon the weather.

  • Authors:  Bruce Vincent

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

  • Authors:  Alison Robertson

    Goss’s wilt is a disease of corn caused by the Gram positive bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis (Cmn). The disease was first identified in Nebraska in Dawson County in 1969 (Clafin, 1999). Over the next decade, the disease was reported Read more…

    Goss’s wilt is a disease of corn caused by the Gram positive bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis (Cmn). The disease was first identified in Nebraska in Dawson County in 1969 (Clafin, 1999). Over the next decade, the disease was reported in 53 Nebraska counties and five of the six bordering states where it resulted in substantial (40 to 60 %) yield loss. Corn breeders successfully identified genetic resistance in field corn, and thereafter the disease occurred sporadically and rarely caused yield loss.

  • Authors:  Mark Renz

    Weed suppression can be important during alfalfa establishment as weeds can reduce stand life, alfalfa biomass, and forage quality. To reduce these impacts producers commonly apply herbi-cides to establishing alfalfa. A range of options exist, but the most common applications Read more…

    Weed suppression can be important during alfalfa establishment as weeds can reduce stand life, alfalfa biomass, and forage quality. To reduce these impacts producers commonly apply herbi-cides to establishing alfalfa. A range of options exist, but the most common applications include imazamox (Raptor) or imazethapyr (Pursuit). These compounds have traditionally given the best control of common weeds (e.g., lambsquarter & foxtail species) and can be applied post emer-gent. With the introduction of Roundup Ready® alfalfa, producers now have an additional choice for weed management.

  • Authors:  Carrie A.M. Laboski

    There is a strong possibility that there will excess (carryover or residual) N in the soil profile after the 2012 corn crop is harvested because the corn was too affected by drought to use all of the applied N. If soybean is Read more…

    There is a strong possibility that there will excess (carryover or residual) N in the soil profile after the 2012 corn crop is harvested because the corn was too affected by drought to use all of the applied N. If soybean is the previous crop, there is a low likelihood of excess N remaining in the soil profile. Regardless of previous crop, some of the P and K applied last year will be available for the 2013 crop if the field was impacted by drought.

    UW Madison, Soil Science Department
    Managing Nutrients After a Drought
    nutrient management
  • Authors:  Carrie A.M. Laboski, William Jokela, T.W. Andraski

    Ammonia (NH3) nitrogen (N) losses from surface-applied manure can be large, reducing the amount of N available to the crop and, therefore, the economic value as a fertilizer N credit. Ammonia emission into the atmosphere can also contribute to environmental problems. Ammonia emission Read more…

    Ammonia (NH3) nitrogen (N) losses from surface-applied manure can be large, reducing the amount of N available to the crop and, therefore, the economic value as a fertilizer N credit. Ammonia emission into the atmosphere can also contribute to environmental problems. Ammonia emission can contribute to eutrophication of surface waters (especially marine and estuarine) via atmospheric deposition. The decreased amount of available N in manure reduces the N:P ratio and leads to a more rapid build-up of P in the soil for a given amount available N. And ammonia in the atmosphere can combine with fine particulates to lower air quality.

    UW Madison, Soil Science
    Dairy Manure Application Methods: N Credits, Gaseous N Losses, and Corn Yield
    nutrient management
  • Authors:  Kathy Mathers

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

  • Authors:  Christina DiFonzo

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

  • Authors:  Ann MacGuidwin

    Heterodera glycines, the soybean cyst nematode (SCN), is the most important disease of soybean in the United States (Wrather and Koenning, 2006). Fifty-four counties in Wisconsin are infested with SCN and many fields suffer yield losses due to this pest. Read more…

    Heterodera glycines, the soybean cyst nematode (SCN), is the most important disease of soybean in the United States (Wrather and Koenning, 2006). Fifty-four counties in Wisconsin are infested with SCN and many fields suffer yield losses due to this pest. The most efficient and economical tactic to manage SCN is host resistance. Sources of SCN resistance for soybean group 0 – group 2 varieties derive from three sources, PI 548402 (“Peking”), PI 88788, and PI 437654. The PI 88788 source of resistance is the most common background in commercial varieties and it is effective for maintaining yield in fields with disease potential due to SCN.

  • Authors:  John Sawyer, Brian Lang, Daniel Barker

    Sulfur (S) is often classified as a “secondary” plant essential element, mainly due to a smaller plant requirement but also because it is less frequently applied as a fertilizer compared to other nutrients like the “macronutrients” nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), Read more…

    Sulfur (S) is often classified as a “secondary” plant essential element, mainly due to a smaller plant requirement but also because it is less frequently applied as a fertilizer compared to other nutrients like the “macronutrients” nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K). This has certainly been the case in Iowa where research for many years had not documented S deficiency or fertilization need for optimal corn or soybean production. However, if deficient, S can have a dramatic effect on plant growth and crop productivity – more than the classification “secondary” would imply.

  • Authors:  John Peters, Patrick Hoffman, Michael Bertram

    Wisconsin dairy producers and heifer growers rear over one million dairy replacement heifers at a cost of 825 million dollars annually. In addition, Wisconsin dairy heifers annually consume 18 million tons of feed and produce 61 million tons of manure. Read more…

    Wisconsin dairy producers and heifer growers rear over one million dairy replacement heifers at a cost of 825 million dollars annually. In addition, Wisconsin dairy heifers annually consume 18 million tons of feed and produce 61 million tons of manure. For each individual dairy producer or heifer grower the management objective is to reduce cost and the environmental impact of rearing dairy replacement heifers without compromising future milk production. A new innovation in feeding dairy heifers is to limit-feed dairy heifers a more nutrient dense diet. Because heifers are fed less feed under limit feeding, feed cost and manure excretion are reduced simultaneously.

  • Authors:  Dan Undersander

    Research is developing new understanding of forage, fiber, and the animal’s ability to use them. We have also increased understanding of the genetics of alfalfa to allow improved variety selection methods and enhanced performance for the farmer. This paper will Read more…

    Research is developing new understanding of forage, fiber, and the animal’s ability to use them. We have also increased understanding of the genetics of alfalfa to allow improved variety selection methods and enhanced performance for the farmer. This paper will consider both topics.

    Generally dairymen have perceived grasses to be too high in fiber for high producing dairy cows. But, with knowledge of digestible fiber, we have learned that the fiber of grass is more digestible than that of alfalfa. This has opened some new opportunities for dairymen and many have begun to incorporate some grass into their rations.

  • Authors:  Christian Krupke

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

  • Authors:  Matt Ruark, Larry Bundy, Todd Andraski, Art Peterson

    Long-term experiments provide an opportunity to evaluate the sustainability of agricultural practices (Jenkinson, 1991). Evidence of sustainability in continuous corn production systems would include stable or increasing productivity over time as indicated by crop yields and maintenance or enhancement of Read more…

    Long-term experiments provide an opportunity to evaluate the sustainability of agricultural practices (Jenkinson, 1991). Evidence of sustainability in continuous corn production systems would include stable or increasing productivity over time as indicated by crop yields and maintenance or enhancement of key soil fertility factors such as soil organic matter content. The objectives of this paper are to present results from a 50-yr experiment showing the effects of long-term continuous corn and N-fertilizer use on corn yields, response to applied N and lime treatments, and effects of the long-term treatments on soil organic matter content and soil pH.

  • Authors:  Craig Grau

    White mold of soybean continues to be an important disease of soybean. The boom or bust nature of white mold is problematic for developing a management plan for this disease. Defensive trait packages have improved dramatically for soybean varieties the Read more…

    White mold of soybean continues to be an important disease of soybean. The boom or bust nature of white mold is problematic for developing a management plan for this disease. Defensive trait packages have improved dramatically for soybean varieties the past 10 to 20 years. However, this is not the case for white mold. Complete and stable resistance white mold has yet to be incorporated into a commercial soybean variety. There are several factors that contribute to this situation. First, not all seed companies consider white mold as a primary defensive trait. Although numerous sources of resistance are available, most sources are ancestral varieties and are primitive for yield and other agronomic traits. A major bottleneck appears to be the difficulty of moving white mold resistance into high yield potential varieties. Lastly, many varieties are rated as tolerant to white mold, but few provide a consistent performance from field to field in years with high white mold potential.

  • Authors:  Paul Esker, Bill Halfman, Bryan Jensen

    Current trends in agronomic field crop production (corn and soybean) have been towards the use of foliar fungicides to increase yield in the absence of disease to promote “plant health.” Trials conducted across Wisconsin and the region has indicated very Read more…

    Current trends in agronomic field crop production (corn and soybean) have been towards the use of foliar fungicides to increase yield in the absence of disease to promote “plant health.” Trials conducted across Wisconsin and the region has indicated very inconsistent results. Recently, Headline® (BASF, Research Park Triangle, NC) was approved for use in alfalfa. We have received numerous questions from growers and university researchers regarding the benefits of foliar fungicide use in alfalfa grown for hay. Many of these questions have been focused on the use of a fungicide in a tank mix combination with an insecticide with the hope of providing a positive synergistic yield response. Thus, the objective of this study was to conduct field research trials in Wisconsin to examine the benefit of using a foliar fungicide, foliar insecticide, or both in alfalfa.

  • Authors:  Paul Mitchell

    U.S. crop producers derive substantial economic benefits from atrazine and the other triazine herbicides (simazine and propazine). These herbicides generate yield gains for U.S. crop farmers, and in many cases, also reduce total costs for herbicides. Atrazine, the most widely Read more…

    U.S. crop producers derive substantial economic benefits from atrazine and the other triazine herbicides (simazine and propazine). These herbicides generate yield gains for U.S. crop farmers, and in many cases, also reduce total costs for herbicides. Atrazine, the most widely used triazine herbicide, is the keystone of herbicide-based weed control in corn and other regionally important crops in the U.S. Corn acreage, yields and prices have increased over time so that the 3- year average value of corn produced in the U.S. has increased more than 2.7 times, from $18.6 billion in 1990 to 1992 to $54.3 billion in 2008 to 2010. Over this same period, crop production practices also evolved, including the widespread adoption of transgenic crops and reduced tillage systems. Given these and other changes since previous economic assessments of the producer benefits from triazine herbicides, an updated economic assessment of the benefits of atrazine and the other triazine herbicides seemed warranted.

  • Authors:  Doug Smith

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

  • Authors:  Matt Ruark, Allison Madison, Eric Cooley, Todd Stuntebeck, Matt Komiskey

    Subsurface P loss is of greatest concern in areas with P-rich flat, clayey soils and P-rich tile-drained soils (Beauchemin et al., 1998). Eastern Wisconsin farmland fits the criteria for high subsurface P emitting soils. Soil tests conducted between 1995 and Read more…

    Subsurface P loss is of greatest concern in areas with P-rich flat, clayey soils and P-rich tile-drained soils (Beauchemin et al., 1998). Eastern Wisconsin farmland fits the criteria for high subsurface P emitting soils. Soil tests conducted between 1995 and 1999 indicated that the average soil P levels in eastern Wisconsin counties were in excess of the recommended levels for most crops (Laboski et al, 2006). Additionally, considerable portions of eastern Wisconsin’s cultivated acres are tile-drained. The highest concentration of tile drainage is along the shore of Lake Michigan. The 1992 United States Census of Agriculture estimates the portion of cultivated acres that are tile drained to range from 20 to 60% among all of Wisconsin’s far-eastern counties (Kewaunee, Manitowoc, Sheboygan, Ozaukee, Milwaukee, Racine, and Kenosha).

  • Authors:  Joe Lauer

    Research is a systematic investigation, including research development, testing and evaluation, designed to develop or contribute to generalized knowledge. So, research can lead to knowledge, but only if it’s done well. Done “well” means using accepted scientific methods, which often Read more…

    Research is a systematic investigation, including research development, testing and evaluation, designed to develop or contribute to generalized knowledge. So, research can lead to knowledge, but only if it’s done well. Done “well” means using accepted scientific methods, which often include statistics. If we “just don’t like” research outcomes, that does not mean it isn’t science!

  • Authors:  Shawn Conley, John Gaska, Mark Martinka, Paul Esker

    Though growers across WI enjoyed record soybean yields (50.5 bu/a, Source: USDA-NASS) in 2010, questions continue to be asked about the small incremental yield gain observed over time. As the WI Soybean Research program continues to investigate the main yield Read more…

    Though growers across WI enjoyed record soybean yields (50.5 bu/a, Source: USDA-NASS) in 2010, questions continue to be asked about the small incremental yield gain observed over time. As the WI Soybean Research program continues to investigate the main yield limiting factors affecting soybean (SCN, white mold, SDS, BSR, soybean aphid, stress, etc), it is also clear that we must also address the question of input interactions.

  • Authors:  Jed Colquhoun, Daniel Heider, Richard Rittmeyer

    Concern exists among specialty crop producers and processors related to the potential introduction of agronomic crops tolerant of synthetic auxin type herbicides. While anecdotal observations of synthetic auxin herbicide drift on specialty crops have been reported, quantitative data on injury Read more…

    Concern exists among specialty crop producers and processors related to the potential introduction of agronomic crops tolerant of synthetic auxin type herbicides. While anecdotal observations of synthetic auxin herbicide drift on specialty crops have been reported, quantitative data on injury and crop yield is often lacking. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of simulated synthetic auxin drift on potatoes and snap (green) beans. In potatoes, simulated dicamba drift was evaluated at three rates (1.4, 4.2 and 7.0 g ae/ha) and two timings. In snap beans, 2,4-D and dicamba were evaluated individually at the same rates described above but at one application timing. When dicamba was applied to 25 cm tall potatoes, visual injury 10, 24 and 30 days after treatment (DAT) increased with application rate, but by 38 DAT injury was greater than in the non-treated control only at the highest application rate. Potato tuber size distribution was variable and total yield did not differ among treatments and the non-treated control. In snap beans, injury from dicamba 7 DAT ranged from 19% at the low application rate to 45% at the high application rate. By 18 DAT, injury from 2,4-D was similar to the non-treated control. However, early-season injury delayed snap bean flowering and reduced crop yield compared to the non-treated control for all treatments except where the lowest rate of 2,4-D was applied. Snap bean injury from dicamba was greater than that from 2,4-D at all visual rating timings and crop yield was reduced compared to where 2,4-D was applied and the non-treated control.

  • Authors:  Jim VandenBrook, Pat Murphy, Andrew Craig

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

  • Authors:  Natalia Leon

    About 6.4% of the ~87 million acres of corn harvested in the U.S were dedicated to silage production in 2010. Of those, approximately 750,000 acres were located in Wisconsin, the largest silage producing state in the U.S. (USDA, 2010). Maize Read more…

    About 6.4% of the ~87 million acres of corn harvested in the U.S were dedicated to silage production in 2010. Of those, approximately 750,000 acres were located in Wisconsin, the largest silage producing state in the U.S. (USDA, 2010). Maize silage is produced by ensiling the whole plant harvested a few weeks prior to physiological maturity. The starch from the grains and the complex carbohydrates in the cell walls are the primary sources of energy for the complex community of anaerobic microbes that reside in the gastrointestinal tract of ruminant animals (Van Soest, 1994; Coors and Lauer, 2001). Substantial improvements in forage digestibility have been achieved through traditional breeding in maize (Frey et al, 2004; Gustafson et al, 2010) as well as through the incorporation of large mutations such as the brown midrib3 (Sattler et al., 2010).

  • Authors:  Roger Schmidt

    Mobile internet use is changing how global and local agriculture operate and expand their businesses. This presentation will demonstrate how the University of Wisconsin Nutrient and Pest Management (NPM) program and the UW Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program are working Read more…

    Mobile internet use is changing how global and local agriculture operate and expand their businesses. This presentation will demonstrate how the University of Wisconsin Nutrient and Pest Management (NPM) program and the UW Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program are working with a ‘mobile first’ attitude to help Wisconsin’s agricultural community benefit in this changing environment.

  • Authors:  Seth McClure

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

  • Authors:  Eric Cooley, Dennis Frame

    Nitrogen contributions to the Gulf of Mexico have increased hypoxia issues in recent years. Numerous efforts have targeted the reduction of nitrogen loads to the Mississippi River drainage basin to control the hypoxic zone. Agricultural tile drainage is a major Read more…

    Nitrogen contributions to the Gulf of Mexico have increased hypoxia issues in recent years. Numerous efforts have targeted the reduction of nitrogen loads to the Mississippi River drainage basin to control the hypoxic zone. Agricultural tile drainage is a major contributor to nitrogen loads in the Mississippi River. Research performed by the University of Wisconsin – Discovery Farms Program in collaboration with the United States Geologic Survey has established the importance of nitrogen fertilizer and manure application rate and timing with potential loss of nitrogen to tile drains. Manure applied to fields soon after corn silage was harvested resulted in a high conversion to nitrate and subsequent loss to tile drains in late fall through early spring. Abnormally high fall soil temperatures allowed for conversion of ammonium and organic nitrogen to nitrate and subsequent late fall and early spring precipitation carried nitrate to tile drains.

  • Authors:  Bill Jokela, Wayne Coblentz, Pat Hoffman

    Livestock manure is considered a waste product from the perspective of the animal operation, but it can be an important resource for crop production by providing valuable nutrients and enhancing soil quality. However, manure application to cropland can also have Read more…

    Livestock manure is considered a waste product from the perspective of the animal operation, but it can be an important resource for crop production by providing valuable nutrients and enhancing soil quality. However, manure application to cropland can also have adverse environmental effects, in particular ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions and impairment of surface and ground water quality. The benefits of manure can be enhanced and the potential environmental risks minimized by employing improved manure and soil management practices (Sharpley et al., 1994; Jokela et al., 2004). In this article we discuss the results of integrated research to evaluate several of these “best management practices” for their effect on runoff P losses: a) prompt incorporation of manure, aimed at controlling N losses by ammonia volatilization and protecting manure from runoff losses of P and N, b) application of manure at rates that do not exceed crop nutrient need (typically N or P, depending on crop needs and soil P test level), c) avoiding build-up of soil test P to excessive levels can contribute to runoff P losses even if manure and fertilizer are not applied, and d) eliminating unnecessary P supplementation of dairy diets, a practice that can have economic benefits and can help balance whole-farm P budget, thereby helping prevent soil P build-up.

  • Authors:  Panel

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

  • Authors:  Joe Lauer, Guanming Shi, Jean-Paul Chavas, Matt LaForge

    Farmers have adopted biotechnology and genetically engineered (GE) crop technologies quickly. Yield data were analyzed from field experiments over the period 1990-2010 to test the hypothesis that GE corn technologies reduces production risk. GE technology can increase yield, but it Read more…

    Farmers have adopted biotechnology and genetically engineered (GE) crop technologies quickly. Yield data were analyzed from field experiments over the period 1990-2010 to test the hypothesis that GE corn technologies reduces production risk. GE technology can increase yield, but it also decreases yield for some GE traits. A significant part of the benefits of GE technology comes from protecting corn yield and reducing risk exposure. Gene interactions affect corn productivity through “yield lag” and “yield drag” effects. Often 3 to 4 years are required for new technologies to be equivalent to yields of conventional hybrids.

  • Authors:  Dave Stoltenberg

    Giant ragweed resistance to glyphosate has been confirmed in several Midwest states, including the neighboring states of Minnesota and Iowa. In Minnesota as well as Ohio, giant ragweed has developed resistance to more than one herbicide mode of action (glyphosate Read more…

    Giant ragweed resistance to glyphosate has been confirmed in several Midwest states, including the neighboring states of Minnesota and Iowa. In Minnesota as well as Ohio, giant ragweed has developed resistance to more than one herbicide mode of action (glyphosate and ALS inhibitors). In Wisconsin, we’ve identified three giant ragweed populations that are suspected of being resistant to glyphosate. Results of preliminary experiments on a giant ragweed population from southwest Wisconsin (Grant County) and a second population from southeast Wisconsin (Rock County) were reported at the 2011 Wisconsin Crop Management Conference. A third population of giant ragweed with suspected resistance to glyphosate was identified in south-central Wisconsin (Columbia County) in 2011. Seeds were collected from this giant ragweed population for investigation of resistance to glyphosate and other herbicide modes of action. The results of greenhouse experiments conducted over the last 12 months to more fully characterize the whole-plant response of the Grant County and Rock County populations to glyphosate will be presented.

  • Authors:  Vince Davis

    Field horsetail (Equisetum arvense) is in the Equisetaceae family which was comprised by over 30 species some 230 million years ago. The horsetail family was the dominant plant group in that time period. Currently, two surviving species from the family Read more…

    Field horsetail (Equisetum arvense) is in the Equisetaceae family which was comprised by over 30 species some 230 million years ago. The horsetail family was the dominant plant group in that time period. Currently, two surviving species from the family which many of us today call weeds are E. arvense and E. hyemale, or scouring rush. Therefore, these ‘weeds’ have been around a long time so it’s obvious they have a tremendous ability to adapt to their environment. Field horsetail is a perennial weed that vegetatively re-propagates by spreading rhizomes. It is additionally unique because it is a non-flowering plant so it does not reproduce my seed, but rather, it reproduces by spores. The reproduction by spores occurs early in the spring when a single, fertile brownish stalk emerges and produces a ‘cone-like’ structure which releases the spores at the top of the main stalk. This early growth is followed by a single, sterile green stalk and then branched, green plants as shown in Figure 1.

  • Authors:  Vince Davis

    Glyphosate resistant crops, first released in 1996, have been the most rapidly adopted agriculture technology by the farming community in the U.S. The technology was rapidly adopted because weed management systems were drastically simplified. Weed management was simplified because glyphosate Read more…

    Glyphosate resistant crops, first released in 1996, have been the most rapidly adopted agriculture technology by the farming community in the U.S. The technology was rapidly adopted because weed management systems were drastically simplified. Weed management was simplified because glyphosate is a highly efficacious, non-selective postemergence herbicide for control of annual and perennial weed species, and when used in conjunction with glyphosate-resistant crops, a high-level of crop safety was ensured. Additionally, glyphosate is also safer for the environment, safer for humans and animals, cheaper, and slower to develop resistance in comparison to many other herbicide options. All of those reasons have contributed to make glyphosate an herbicide that growers and applicators prefer to use.

  • Authors:  Dave Stoltenberg

    Research was conducted from 1998 through 2009 to determine the effects of crop sequence, tillage system, and glyphosate use frequency on weed community composition and management risks in glyphosate-resistant corn and soybean. Weed communities tended to be dominated by a Read more…

    Research was conducted from 1998 through 2009 to determine the effects of crop sequence, tillage system, and glyphosate use frequency on weed community composition and management risks in glyphosate-resistant corn and soybean. Weed communities tended to be dominated by a few highly abundant weed species. Common lambsquarters, giant foxtail, and redroot pigweed were abundant across cropping sequence and tillage treatments over time. In contrast, giant ragweed was not observed in 1998, but increased over time, particularly in chisel plow and no-tillage systems, to become the most abundant weed species in most treatments by 2009. Giant ragweed abundance was similar between continuous corn and corn-soybean rotation after 12 years, but there were fewer instances over time of high densities of giant ragweed and crop yield loss in corn-soybean rotation than continuous corn. In both continuous corn and cornsoybean rotation, giant ragweed increased over time in treatments that did not provide adequate control, particularly control of later flushes of giant ragweed (e.g., those that emerged after the typical postemergence application timing). Giant ragweed abundance was affected greatly by tillage system. In the moldboard plow system, total weed densities (including giant ragweed) were very low over time across cropping sequence and weed management treatments. In contrast, giant ragweed abundance increased over time in chisel plow and no-tillage systems, particularly in treatments that did not provide adequate control of late flushes as noted above. However, the greatest crop yield losses associated with crop-weed competition occurred in the continuous corn, chisel plow system. Weed management treatments that effectively targeted the range of giant ragweed emergence (from early to late flushes) were associated with the lowest total weed densities and lowest crop yield loss risks across cropping sequence and tillage systems over time.

  • Authors:  Carrie Laboski, Todd Andraski, Shawn Conley, John Gaska

    Manganese (Mn) deficiency in crops has occasionally been noted in Wisconsin and is most common on soils with high pH (>7.0) and/or high organic matter (>6.0 %). Soils that meet these criteria are typically, but not exclusively, found in Eastern Read more…

    Manganese (Mn) deficiency in crops has occasionally been noted in Wisconsin and is most common on soils with high pH (>7.0) and/or high organic matter (>6.0 %). Soils that meet these criteria are typically, but not exclusively, found in Eastern Wisconsin. Soybean has a relatively high requirement for Mn. Current University of Wisconsin nutrient application guidelines (Laboski et al., 2006) for Mn are based on research conducted in the early 1970s (Randall et al., 1975) when soybean was gaining popularity as a crop in Wisconsin. These guidelines indicate that for soils with OM ≤ 6.0% a soil test for Mn coupled with the relative crop need for Mn should be considered to determine fertilizer Mn needs. For crops with a high relative need for Mn, like soybean, grown on soils with OM > 6.0%, starter fertilizer containing Mn or foliar Mn application is recommended.

  • Authors:  John Sawyer, Daniel Barker

    Precision agriculture technologies are an integral part of many crop production operations. However, implementation for N application has lagged, primarily due to lack of a viable system for variable N rate decisions. Active canopy sensors have been developed as a Read more…

    Precision agriculture technologies are an integral part of many crop production operations. However, implementation for N application has lagged, primarily due to lack of a viable system for variable N rate decisions. Active canopy sensors have been developed as a tool to determine plant N stress deficiency and provide an on-the-go decision for implementing variable rate. There are two general approaches. One is to conduct canopy sensing each year, with a reduced N rate applied preplant, at planting, or early sidedress and then sensing at mid-vegetative growth to determine additional application need. A second is to conduct sensing only if conditions result in N loss from the primary N application, or other factors change expected crop requirements. Both approaches could address variable N fertilization and seasonal conditions.

  • Authors:  Dan Undersander

    Establishment of dense vigorous stands of alfalfa is essential for long-term profitability, but establishment can be challenging because seedling alfalfa is vulnerable to competition from annual weeds and wind and water erosion. Roundup Ready Alfalfa was re-introduced last year as Read more…

    Establishment of dense vigorous stands of alfalfa is essential for long-term profitability, but establishment can be challenging because seedling alfalfa is vulnerable to competition from annual weeds and wind and water erosion. Roundup Ready Alfalfa was re-introduced last year as a new tool available to farmers growing high quality alfalfa. While not for everyone, it will be useful for many alfalfa growers.

    A first and important question is concerning the yield potential of RR varieties. While the RR trait was generally put in better germplasms, early trials (planted in 2006) showed a range of yield potential for RR varieties. It is too early to tell definitely for the next generation of RR varieties since we only have seeding year data from 2011, however it appears again that there will be a range of yields with some RR varieties in the top yielding group and some doing less well. It will be important to check variety trials to select high yielding varieties.

  • Authors:  Mark Renz

    Alfalfa is a key crop in Wisconsin, but if not successfully removed it can be troublesome in subsequent crops. This is especially true in no-till systems. Currently most no-till systems rely on glyphosate to remove the alfalfa prior to planting Read more…

    Alfalfa is a key crop in Wisconsin, but if not successfully removed it can be troublesome in subsequent crops. This is especially true in no-till systems. Currently most no-till systems rely on glyphosate to remove the alfalfa prior to planting rotational crops the following spring. Glyphosate however will not be effective at removing Roundup Ready alfalfa, as it is engineered to tolerate this herbicide. In these situations other active ingredients will need to be used to remove the alfalfa crop. Detailed results from a Wisconsin study that evaluated the effectiveness of growth regulator herbicides in removing alfalfa are summarized below. This information as well as other data from across the United States will be presented along with specific recommendations for the upper-midwest.

  • Authors:  David Combs

    Alfalfa and corn silage are the primary forages grown and fed to dairy cattle in the Midwest, however, there is renewed interest in incorporating perennial and annual grasses into forage cropping systems. High quality grass silages could be a good Read more…

    Alfalfa and corn silage are the primary forages grown and fed to dairy cattle in the Midwest, however, there is renewed interest in incorporating perennial and annual grasses into forage cropping systems. High quality grass silages could be a good fit with diets formulated with high quality corn silage and alfalfa. Intensively-managed grass silages are high yielding forages that contain moderate concentrations of fiber (NDF) and low concentrations of non fiber carbohydrate (NFC).

    Diets formulated with excellent quality corn silage are often marginal in fiber, and high in NFC content. To balance these diets, it becomes necessary to incorporate feeds that are highly digestible yet contain relatively low amounts of NFC and high amounts of digestible fiber. While alfalfa can provide for some of the deficiencies of corn silage, today’s high quality alfalfas often do not contain much more fiber than corn silage and the lower NFC levels in alfalfa are offset by the high amount of ruminally fermented protein contained in these forages. The nutrient profile of high quality grass silage complement the excesses and deficiencies of rations formulated with excellent quality corn silage and alfalfa.

  • Authors:  Matthew Digman

    There are many ways to save fuel in tillage field operations: not tilling, choosing a minimum tillage operation over a heavier one, and ensuring your tractor and implement are set up properly. As with any farm operation, the value of Read more…

    There are many ways to save fuel in tillage field operations: not tilling, choosing a minimum tillage operation over a heavier one, and ensuring your tractor and implement are set up properly.

    As with any farm operation, the value of tillage must be weighed against its cost. The first costs to consider are labor, fuel and machinery. These costs are estimated to range from $9 to $19 per acre, depending on the field operation and equipment used [1]. Additionally, tillage can increase costs of subsequent field operations as loose soil reduces tractive efficiency adding further cost to operations such as planting. Finally, some tillage costs are harder to quantify, including the risk of soil erosion and nutrient loss. Conversely, tillage can have many positive impacts on crop production. These impacts can include remediating soil compaction, managing crop residues and providing favorable spring planting conditions.

  • Authors:  Christian Krupke

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

  • Authors:  Christina DiFonzo

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

  • Authors:  Krista Hamilton

    Larval populations remained historically low in 2011. The seventieth annual fall abundance survey in September revealed a state average of 0.09 borer per plant, the fourth lowest since record-keeping began in 1942. Minor population reductions from 2010 were charted in Read more…

    Larval populations remained historically low in 2011. The seventieth annual fall abundance survey in September revealed a state average of 0.09 borer per plant, the fourth lowest since record-keeping began in 1942. Minor population reductions from 2010 were charted in the southwest, central and northeast agricultural districts and increases occurred in the south-central, southeast, east-central, north-central and northwest areas. Larval densities in the south-central district increased to 0.20 per plant, or 20 larvae per 100 plants. On the basis of the fall survey results, a continued low population trend is expected for 2012.

  • Authors:  Stephen Jordan, Amanda Gevens

    On vegetable and potato crops, the water molds, or fungus-like, oomycetous plant pathogens, which threaten the greatest crop losses include Pseudoperonospora cubensis (causal agent of downy mildew on cucumbers), and Phytophthora infestans (causal agent of late blight on potatoes and Read more…

    On vegetable and potato crops, the water molds, or fungus-like, oomycetous plant pathogens, which threaten the greatest crop losses include Pseudoperonospora cubensis (causal agent of downy mildew on cucumbers), and Phytophthora infestans (causal agent of late blight on potatoes and tomatoes). Downy mildew and late blight can both be aerially dispersed over long distances and genotypes identified in the region are not known to be soilborne at this time (1, 3). Initial inoculum and infection occurs as the result of movement of spores in the air from diseased fields to healthy, infected seed or transplants, or by overwintering plant tissues harboring the pathogen from the previous year (e.g. volunteers, cull piles, compost piles). In Wisconsin in 2011, both diseases made minor appearance on vegetable crops.

  • Authors:  A.J. Bussan

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

  • Authors:  Joseph Spang

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

  • Authors:  Ed Liegel, Dave Buss, Jeff Polenske

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

  • Authors:  Carl Bradley

    Goss’s wilt, caused by the bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis, has made a resurgence through Midwestern corn fields recently. In affected fields, yields have been decreased, and many are scratching their heads on why this disease is making a reappearance Read more…

    Goss’s wilt, caused by the bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis, has made a resurgence through Midwestern corn fields recently. In affected fields, yields have been decreased, and many are scratching their heads on why this disease is making a reappearance in the Midwest.

  • Authors:  Adrian Barta, Anette Phibbs, Sue Lueloff

    The Pest Survey Program of the Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection conducts monitoring and detection surveys for targeted exotic and key endemic agricultural and wildland plant pests. For more information on programs and results, please visit http://pestsurvey.wi.gov/

    The Pest Survey Program of the Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection conducts monitoring and detection surveys for targeted exotic and key endemic agricultural and wildland plant pests. For more information on programs and results, please visit http://pestsurvey.wi.gov/

  • Authors:  Carl Bradley

    Beginning in the mid-2000s the use of foliar fungicides in field crops such as corn and soybean has increased dramatically. In 2007, approximately 20% of the corn grown in the Midwest was sprayed with a foliar fungicide (Munkvold et al., Read more…

    Beginning in the mid-2000s the use of foliar fungicides in field crops such as corn and soybean has increased dramatically. In 2007, approximately 20% of the corn grown in the Midwest was sprayed with a foliar fungicide (Munkvold et al., 2008), and this percentage has remained steady with perhaps some slight increase. In some cases, fungicides are applied solely for hopes of a yield benefit with no regard to disease risk (Bradley and Ames, 2010). With high commodity prices, this non-IPM use of foliar fungicides may increase, which increases the risk of fungicide resistance.

  • Authors:  Scott Rowntree, Shawn Conley, Paul Esker

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] yields in the United States have improved at a rate of 0.35 bu yr⁻¹ (23.4 kg yr⁻¹) since national soybean yield data was first recorded in 1924 (USDA-NASS, 2010). The consistent annual yield gain observed Read more…

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] yields in the United States have improved at a rate of 0.35 bu yr⁻¹ (23.4 kg yr⁻¹) since national soybean yield data was first recorded in 1924 (USDA-NASS, 2010). The consistent annual yield gain observed in soybean has been attributed to continued varietal improvement via plant breeding and the adoption of improved agronomic practices by U.S soybean producers (Specht and Williams, 1984). Previous research has found that past genetic improvements have resulted in an annual increase in soybean yield of 0.15-0.44 bu ac⁻¹ yr⁻¹ (10- 30 kg ha⁻¹ yr⁻¹), or approximately 0.5-1.0% yr⁻¹ (Specht et al., 1999). The relative contribution of genetic improvement made by soybean breeders towards overall yield gain is estimated to be 0.184 bu ac⁻¹ yr⁻¹ (12.5 kg ha⁻¹ yr⁻¹), or 50%, among hybridized cultivars released post-1940 (Specht and Williams, 1984).

  • Authors:  R.A. Larson

    Managing manure as a fertilizer source is an important factor to maintain a profitable and sustainable food production system. The greater management incorporated into understanding the nutrient cycling throughout the entire system can greatly increase crop yields, reduce chemical fertilizer Read more…

    Managing manure as a fertilizer source is an important factor to maintain a profitable and sustainable food production system. The greater management incorporated into understanding the nutrient cycling throughout the entire system can greatly increase crop yields, reduce chemical fertilizer needs, reduce manure handling and processing costs, and limit the environmental impacts. Many manure management processes can impact the availability of nutrients and should be factored into manure management plans to realize the potential benefits. Anaerobic digestion and solid/liquid separation (including bedding recovery units) are increasing in on-farm use around the United States as a component of manure management systems. Anaerobic digestion is a proven waste to energy technology which produces biogas and digestate from anaerobic microbial degradation of organic sources. Nearly all on-farm systems in the United States have a mechanical solid/liquid separation system following digestion which fractions the digestate into a solid and a liquid product. Solid/liquid separators known as bedding recovery units use aerobic processes to degrade organic material also resulting in a similar solid and a liquid portion following processing. Processing of manure using digestion and/or a solid/liquid separation process can impact the nutrient and pathogen content of each stream. Digestion results in mineralization of nutrients and pathogen reductions based on system design of temperature and retention time. Separation (including bedding recovery units) can result in fractioning of nutrients as well as moisture, resulting in increased control of nutrient streams for increased management of manure. The liquid fraction following separation has increased content of soluble nutrients and is commonly land applied as a fertilizer source. The solid fraction is commonly used on-farm as a bedding source, but as it contains concentrated organic nutrients can also be sold as a value added product. However, the lack of data for real world performance has limited the use of these end products and has reduced revenues and resulted in operational problems for many dairies in Wisconsin.

  • Authors:  Paul Mitchell

    The debate surrounding the 2012 Farm Bill has been building as the current 2008 Farm Bill is set to expire. The primary message out of Washington has been that budget cuts will come, including to the USDA and the Farm Read more…

    The debate surrounding the 2012 Farm Bill has been building as the current 2008 Farm Bill is set to expire. The primary message out of Washington has been that budget cuts will come, including to the USDA and the Farm Bill. This presentation will present some of the main proposals that have been floated so far and offer insights on what to expect in terms of where the expected cuts will come. Of course, all bets are off as to what the politicians will finally decide.

  • Authors:  David Moll

    Last year a strong bull market run continued in grain prices, new all-time highs in corn futures prices were set. Does 2012 have the same momentum behind it? Let’s take a look at some of the factors that allowed the Read more…

    Last year a strong bull market run continued in grain prices, new all-time highs in corn futures prices were set. Does 2012 have the same momentum behind it? Let’s take a look at some of the factors that allowed the bull market to stay in place. Ultimately when the bull market started during July 2010, demand driven markets propelled prices higher. Demand from both domestic and foreign markets was picking up following for wheat, corn and soybeans. World wheat supplies stumbled with the drought that the Black Sea region faced. As the fall of 2010 unfolded US corn production failed to meet expectations and producers harvested a 12.4 billion bushel crop. The strong demand ate away the crop to a tight 840 million bushels, resulting in a very tight 6.6% ending stocks to total use. For 2011 crop prospects, there was the possibility to pick up more corn acres during the spring but wet growing conditions in the eastern Corn Belt and some delays in planting throughout the Midwest meant plantings were about 92 million acres. That is the 2nd largest US acreage. If more acres were planted though it could have softened the market as extra acreage would make ample supply less risky. That could be a huge factor in 2012, if returns per acre remain where they are, at much higher returns from corn than the competing crop (typically soybeans) then there could be another big shift in acreage this spring. Time will tell if the US surpasses the record 93 million planted corn acres of 2007. If demand is held constant and 94 or 95 million acres of corn were planted how much less risk is there in 2012 production meeting demand needs?

  • Authors:  Kevin Shelley

    Cover crops can be planted to provide soil cover during otherwise idle intervals, or fallow periods, in a given crop rotation – that is, between harvest and planting of commodity or feed crops. In Wisconsin, a cover crop might be Read more…

    Cover crops can be planted to provide soil cover during otherwise idle intervals, or fallow periods, in a given crop rotation – that is, between harvest and planting of commodity or feed crops. In Wisconsin, a cover crop might be planted after harvest of a short season crop such as a small grain or vegetable crop. Cover crops are grown to benefit the soil by preventing erosion, adding organic carbon, recycling or adding plant nutrients, and by enhancing microbiological communities associated with biological diversity. Some plant species used as cover crops provide pest management functions within a crop rotation. The term “cover crop” is really a catch-all phrase for numerous uses associated with soil improvement and conservation, nutrient management (green manure), pest management (weed and disease suppressors) and reduced reliance on purchased fertilizers and pesticides. Plant species best suited to use as cover crops tend to be fast, aggressive growers for which affordable seed is readily available. Other desirable traits depend on the desired function, such as erosion control, nitrogen fixation, nutrient scavenging, soil carbon addition (soil builder), weed suppression or disease suppression.

  • Authors:  Chris Williamson

    American elms succumbed to the Dutch elm disease in 1970s, consequently maples and ash dominate the urban landscape, and account for more than 40% of Wisconsin’s urban forest. And history tends to repeat itself; to this end, an invasive insect Read more…

    American elms succumbed to the Dutch elm disease in 1970s, consequently maples and ash dominate the urban landscape, and account for more than 40% of Wisconsin’s urban forest. And history tends to repeat itself; to this end, an invasive insect called Emerald ash borer (EAB) now threatens ash trees in North America. EAB is an exotic insect (beetle) from Asia and was first discovered in southeast Michigan in 2002. Since its discovery, the beetle has destroyed more than 50 million ash trees in the Midwest region, including Wisconsin in 2008.

  • Authors:  Amanda Gevens

    Phytophthora crown and fruit rot of vegetable crops, caused by the oomycete Phytophthora capsici has the potential to cause significant yield losses in cucurbit, solanaceous, and legume crops worldwide. In Wisconsin, Phytophthora crown and fruit rot has been a sporadic Read more…

    Phytophthora crown and fruit rot of vegetable crops, caused by the oomycete Phytophthora capsici has the potential to cause significant yield losses in cucurbit, solanaceous, and legume crops worldwide. In Wisconsin, Phytophthora crown and fruit rot has been a sporadic disease in vegetable production for the past 20 years. In the previous 10 years, weather patterns were generally dry and the disease was limited to small parcels of susceptible crops throughout Wisconsin.

  • Authors:  Ken Frost, Russell Groves, Amanda Gevens, Ann MacGuidwin, Randy Van Haren, Scott Chapman, Zsofia Szendrei, Adam Byrne, Jeffrey Krumm, Greg Miller, Paul Miller

    Concern exists among specialty crop producers and processors related to the potential introduction of agronomic crops tolerant of synthetic auxin type herbicides. While anecdotal observations of synthetic auxin herbicide drift on specialty crops have been reported, quantitative data on injury Read more…

    Concern exists among specialty crop producers and processors related to the potential introduction of agronomic crops tolerant of synthetic auxin type herbicides. While anecdotal observations of synthetic auxin herbicide drift on specialty crops have been reported, quantitative data on injury and crop yield is often lacking. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of simulated synthetic auxin drift on potatoes and snap (green) beans. In potatoes, simulated dicamba drift was evaluated at three rates (1.4, 4.2 and 7.0 g ae/ha) and two timings. In snap beans, 2,4-D and dicamba were evaluated individually at the same rates described above but at one application timing. When dicamba was applied to 25 cm tall potatoes, visual injury 10, 24 and 30 days after treatment (DAT) increased with application rate, but by 38 DAT injury was greater than in the non-treated control only at the highest application rate. Potato tuber size distribution was variable and total yield did not differ among treatments and the non-treated control. In snap beans, injury from dicamba 7 DAT ranged from 19% at the low application rate to 45% at the high application rate. By 18 DAT, injury from 2,4-D was similar to the non-treated control. However, early-season injury delayed snap bean flowering and reduced crop yield compared to the non-treated control for all treatments except where the lowest rate of 2,4-D was applied. Snap bean injury from dicamba was greater than that from 2,4-D at all visual rating timings and crop yield was reduced compared to where 2,4-D was applied and the non-treated control.

  • Authors:  Kerry Denson

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

  • Authors:  Mark Borchardt

    Manure from livestock and fecal wastes from humans are economically and environmentally valuable. Applied to agricultural crops, fecal wastes contribute macro and micronutrients, enhance soil tilth, and aid soil carbon sequestration. Manure spreading, and the on-farm nutrient recycling it facilitates, Read more…

    Manure from livestock and fecal wastes from humans are economically and environmentally valuable. Applied to agricultural crops, fecal wastes contribute macro and micronutrients, enhance soil tilth, and aid soil carbon sequestration. Manure spreading, and the on-farm nutrient recycling it facilitates, is the quintessential practice of sustainability. However, these benefits can only be fully realized when the wastes are managed to avoid contamination of non-target sites. Best management practices primarily focus on nutrients. Pathogens are also found in fecal wastes, but research and development are limited in identifying those practices that help avoid pathogen contamination issues that can lead to disease transmission.

  • Authors:  Carrie A.M. Laboski, Paulo Pagliari

    Because of increasing environmental concerns related to manure disposal, some farms are adopting manure handling systems that diminish the potential environmental problems associated with the large amount of manure produced in relatively small areas. For example, in Wisconsin as of 2007, there were Read more…

    Because of increasing environmental concerns related to manure disposal, some farms are adopting manure handling systems that diminish the potential environmental problems associated with the large amount of manure produced in relatively small areas. For example, in Wisconsin as of 2007, there were 20 farms with fully operational anaerobic manure digesters with an average of 1,474 cows in each farm (USDA, 2010). Manure liquid-solid separation is another alternative option to manure handling. The separated liquid can be reused in barns as flush water, a crop nutrient source, or irrigation water; whereas, the separated solids can be recycled as bedding, used as nutrient source for crop production, or sold off farm as a horticultural amendment (personal communication with farmers). Manure composting has been used as an alternate manure handling process. Composting decreases the total amount of manure through water loss and also eliminates most of the pathogens in manures (Rynk et al., 1992). In-barn composted bedded packs are an alternative option to complete composting and consist of bedding layers (e.g., saw dust) that are constantly added to the barn floor without removal of the older layer. The bedded pack is aerated daily to stimulate microbial decomposition.

    UW Madison, Soil Science
    Dairy Manure Treatment Effects on Soil Test Phosphorus
    nutrient management
  • Authors:  Mark McCloskey

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

  • Authors:  Paul Esker, Nancy Koval, Bryan Jensen

    Foliar fungicide applications on corn remain a controversial topic. There continues to be debate regarding the economic use of foliar fungicides, and more recently, discussions have ensued about the use of foliar fungicides during vegetative growth stages, specifically at the Read more…

    Foliar fungicide applications on corn remain a controversial topic. There continues to be debate regarding the economic use of foliar fungicides, and more recently, discussions have ensued about the use of foliar fungicides during vegetative growth stages, specifically at the V5 to V6 growth period coinciding with post-emergence herbicides applications. In soybean, the use of tank mixes has been discussed extensively in terms of avoiding the mixing of herbicidesinsecticides-fungicides based on several factors like application equipment (nozzle type), coverage, and timing as well as the use of thresholds for insects like aphids (see: http://www.planthealth.info/pdf_docs/trimix_05.pdf). We feel that these same considerations need to be made about the use of tank mixes for corn. However, in corn less is known about the effect of early-season fungicide applications on disease development and late season stalk health

  • Authors:  Dan Undersander

    Generally dairymen have perceived grasses to be too high in fiber for high producing dairy cows since grasses tend to have higher NDF than alfalfa. But, with knowledge of digestible fiber, we have learned that the fiber of grass more Read more…

    Generally dairymen have perceived grasses to be too high in fiber for high producing dairy cows since grasses tend to have higher NDF than alfalfa. But, with knowledge of digestible fiber, we have learned that the fiber of grass more digestible than that of alfalfa. This has opened some new opportunities for dairymen and many have begun to incorporate some grass into their rations.

  • Authors:  Mark Renz

    Weeds can affect the establishment of any perennial system, especially forages. For example Hoy et al. (2002) found alfalfa fields with high densities of weeds resulted in reduced alfalfa plant densities > 50%, and others have documented similar results (Lanini Read more…

    Weeds can affect the establishment of any perennial system, especially forages. For example Hoy et al. (2002) found alfalfa fields with high densities of weeds resulted in reduced alfalfa plant densities > 50%, and others have documented similar results (Lanini et al., 1991; Simmons et al. 1995). Researchers attributed the loss in establishment from competition for soil moisture and light (Lanini et al., 1991; Simmons et al., 1995). Fortunately Wisconsin’s climate during typical establishment periods is favorable and typically soil moisture is adequate to prevent reductions in establishment. While light can be limiting, mowing/harvesting the first cutting at the appropriate timing can limit this effect. So why do we still manage weeds in establishing forages? These weeds can result in reductions in establishment in abnormally dry years and lower forage quality in the first and sometime second cutting.

  • Authors:  Amanda Gevens, Anna Seidl, Rosemary Clark

    Late blight is a potentially destructive disease of tomatoes and potatoes caused by the fungal-like organism, Phytophthora infestans. This pathogen is referred to as a ‘water mold’ since it thrives under wet conditions. Symptoms of tomato and potato late blight Read more…

    Late blight is a potentially destructive disease of tomatoes and potatoes caused by the fungal-like organism, Phytophthora infestans. This pathogen is referred to as a ‘water mold’ since it thrives under wet conditions. Symptoms of tomato and potato late blight include leaf lesions beginning as pale green or olive green areas that quickly enlarge to become brown-black, water-soaked, and oily in appearance (Fig. 1 and 2). Lesions on leaves can also produce pathogen sporulation which looks like white-gray fuzzy growth (Fig. 1 and 2). Stems can also exhibit dark brown to black lesions with sporulation (Fig. 2). Tomato fruit symptoms begin small, but quickly develop into golden to chocolate brown firm lesions or spots that can appear sunken with distinct rings within them (Fig. 1); the pathogen can also sporulate on tomato fruit giving the appearance of white, fuzzy growth. On potato tubers, late blight symptoms include firm, brown, corky textured tissue (Fig. 2). The time from first infection to lesion development and sporulation can be as fast as 7 days, depending upon the weather (1). Control of late blight in the field is a critical component of long term disease prevention, as infected plant parts, if unexposed to winter killing frost conditions, can carry the pathogen from one growing season to the next (Fig. 3).

  • Authors:  Bill Jokela

    Soil quality, or soil health, has been defined as “the capacity of a specific kind of soil to function within natural or managed ecosystem boundaries to sustain plant and animal productivity, maintain or enhance water and air quality, and support Read more…

    Soil quality, or soil health, has been defined as “the capacity of a specific kind of soil to function within natural or managed ecosystem boundaries to sustain plant and animal productivity, maintain or enhance water and air quality, and support human health and habitation” (Karlen et al., 1997) or, more simply, the ability of a soil to perform functions that are essential to people and the environment (D. Karlen, personal communication, 2009). Whatever the specific definition, the goal is to manage soils so as to assure long-term productive and environmental sustainability. Soil does this by performing five essential functions: nutrient cycling, water relations, biodiversity and habitat, filtering and buffering, and physical stability and support (Andrews et al., 2004).

  • Authors:  Brandon Furseth, Shawn Conley

    Rhizobia are responsible for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) when in symbiosis with a host legume such as soybean. Though evidence suggests that legumes prefer to use mineralized sources of nitrogen (N) in the soil before spending energy on a symbiotic Read more…

    Rhizobia are responsible for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) when in symbiosis with a host legume such as soybean. Though evidence suggests that legumes prefer to use mineralized sources of nitrogen (N) in the soil before spending energy on a symbiotic relationship with rhizobia, total plant N derived from BNF is typically between 25 and 75% for soybean (Zapata et al., 1987). Rhizobia inoculant application is the primary strategy employed by soybean producers to promote adequate levels of BNF. Inoculant recommendations differ by state and are largely driven by crop history. Conley and Santini (2007) conducted a survey of 1,134 farmers in Indiana and found 18% to use rhizobia inoculants. Wisconsin inoculant use was shown to be much higher, at 85% (n=168) (Conley, unpublished data, 2008).

  • Authors:  Sue Porter, Laura Good

    Snap-Plus version 1.132 was released in September, 2010. It includes improved report packages, more problem flagging to guide planning, and 39 new crops. The 2011 release will be updated software (version 2). Over the next several years, GIS mapping capabilities Read more…

    Snap-Plus version 1.132 was released in September, 2010. It includes improved report packages, more problem flagging to guide planning, and 39 new crops. The 2011 release will be updated software (version 2). Over the next several years, GIS mapping capabilities will be added to version 2.

  • Authors:  William Bland

    Irrigation is fundamentally the act of distributing water onto soil that is not quite wet enough to keep crop plants growing at their best. But as the old saying goes, there is no free lunch. We pay for irrigation in Read more…

    Irrigation is fundamentally the act of distributing water onto soil that is not quite wet enough to keep crop plants growing at their best. But as the old saying goes, there is no free lunch. We pay for irrigation in some obvious ways–equipment, energy–but also in some harderto-count ways. Irrigation water has to come from somewhere–what are the impacts of this extraction? How much irrigation is too much?

  • Authors:  John Panuska

    Agricultural drainage is used throughout the North America and in Wisconsin to improve crop production by removing excess surface (flooding) and subsurface (root zone) water from fields. This discussion focuses on the operating principals and design considerations of subsurface (tile) Read more…

    Agricultural drainage is used throughout the North America and in Wisconsin to improve crop production by removing excess surface (flooding) and subsurface (root zone) water from fields. This discussion focuses on the operating principals and design considerations of subsurface (tile) drain systems. In addition, a basic framework is introduced to evaluate the cost and benefit for drain tile installation. Crop production on certain soil types and landscapes is significantly enhanced by subsurface drainage. This includes areas with low permeability soils, isolated low pockets and lands with low slope gradients. Only water draining freely from the soil profile by gravity is removed by drain tiles. Tile drains are intended to function at atmospheric pressure as gravity flow systems. Flow occurs as a result of differences in the water surface elevation (e.g., the water table and tile elevations), thus making a positive (free flowing or pumped) outlet critical to their operation. The initial flow collector in the tile drain system is the perforated lateral. The depth to which tile laterals will lower the water table and water removal rate are a function of drain depth, spacing, soil permeability. Drain depth typically ranges from 3 to 6 ft and spacing from 30 to 100 ft. Laterals drain to mains and submains where the flow rate is governed by inside pipe roughness, pipe size and slope. Mains and submains must be sized to convey the flow from all upstream laterals. Tile drain systems eventually discharge into a surface water conveyance system or ditch. These ditches can be part of a legal (Wis. Stat. Chap. 88) public drainage system or county drainage system administered by a county drainage board. The drainage board oversees the maintenance on the county ditch system and assesses benefited land owners to cover the costs.

  • Authors:  Robert Weihrouch

    Nearly half of the original wetlands in the U.S. have been lost. Many were drained and converted to agriculture production. The beneficial functions and values that wetlands provide to society are now universally recognized. The Food Security Act of 1985 Read more…

    Nearly half of the original wetlands in the U.S. have been lost. Many were drained and converted to agriculture production. The beneficial functions and values that wetlands provide to society are now universally recognized. The Food Security Act of 1985 (’85 Farm Bill), as amended, required persons who wanted to participate in USDA programs and receive benefits to be in compliance with the Highly Erodible Lands (HEL) and Wetland Conservation provisions of the Law. “Swampbuster” provided an incentive for landowners to not drain/convert wetlands for commodity crop production.

  • Authors:  David Moll

    The 2010 growing season can be summarized by an early planting, higher temperatures, consistent rains, early harvest and record yields. As of December 10, 2010 USDA forecasted the Wisconsin corn crop at 162 bushels per acre, a new state record Read more…

    The 2010 growing season can be summarized by an early planting, higher temperatures, consistent rains, early harvest and record yields. As of December 10, 2010 USDA forecasted the Wisconsin corn crop at 162 bushels per acre, a new state record and 50 bushel per acre soybeans. Nationally, the corn crop is pegged at 154.3 and soybeans at 43.9. Grain prices traded downward from planting season until the mid-summer when demand for U.S. grains became stronger. There were production shortfalls in the world in China and Russia, which resulted in Russia placing an embargo on wheat exports. The growth in demand outpaced the large production levels resulting in a tighter year-over-year ending stocks situation. Corn ending stocks-to-use ratio is at historic lows. Moving into 2011, the tight ending stocks will continue to keep the grain markets at relatively higher price levels, but will also allow for high daily price volatility, as well as large price swings.

  • Authors:  Joe Lauer

    Buying corn hybrids is more confusing than ever. In the past corn was sold as dent corn and farmers had to worry about performance issues whether it was a single-cross, three-way cross, or double-cross. Then specific markets emerged and waxy, Read more…

    Buying corn hybrids is more confusing than ever. In the past corn was sold as dent corn and farmers had to worry about performance issues whether it was a single-cross, three-way cross, or double-cross. Then specific markets emerged and waxy, high-oil, brown midrib, leafy and nutrient dense hybrids were marketed. Today we still have many of these hybrids with genes targeted for specific uses. Most of the confusion today about hybrid selection is due to the combinations of available transgenes that protect yield better than ever before.

  • Authors:  Shawn Conley, John Gaska, Mark Martinka

    Soybean seed price will continue to be a major driver of seed sales in 2011. Preliminary quotes on base seed price (minus discounts, seed treatment, and promotions) have ranged from the mid $30’s (conventional) to the high-$50’s (RR2Y®) on a Read more…

    Soybean seed price will continue to be a major driver of seed sales in 2011. Preliminary quotes on base seed price (minus discounts, seed treatment, and promotions) have ranged from the mid $30’s (conventional) to the high-$50’s (RR2Y®) on a per-bag, untreated basis. Growers are also challenged with a multitude of seed treatment offerings that not only confound variety selection, but also significantly increase seed price. Such a huge discrepancy in price and seed treatment options has growers struggling over their 2011 variety selection decisions.

  • Authors:  Joe Lauer

    Numerous in-season management decisions need to be made growing corn. Some inputs are relatively easy decisions to make and must be legally followed, i.e. pesticide applications. Other decisions are more difficult with no clear guidelines due to the unpredictability of Read more…

    Numerous in-season management decisions need to be made growing corn. Some inputs are relatively easy decisions to make and must be legally followed, i.e. pesticide applications. Other decisions are more difficult with no clear guidelines due to the unpredictability of environmental influences. For example, irrigating for the last time during a growing season is influenced by the growth stage, the amount of plant green leaf area, the yield potential of the crop, the amount of rainfall predicted, the amount of stored water in the soil profile and the air temperature and humidity which will drive the evapotransporation process to cool the plant if needed. Some things can be measured like green leaf area, yield potential, and stored water, but other things are vague yet need to be considered in the decision.

  • Authors:  Dave Stoltenberg

    In Wisconsin, nearly 70% of farmers perceive that weeds have become more difficult to control with glyphosate over time, including both common lambsquarters and giant ragweed. Many have reported variable or inconsistent response of common lambsquarters to glyphosate. One of Read more…

    In Wisconsin, nearly 70% of farmers perceive that weeds have become more difficult to control with glyphosate over time, including both common lambsquarters and giant ragweed. Many have reported variable or inconsistent response of common lambsquarters to glyphosate. One of our goals has been to investigate the variable response of common lambsquarters to glyphosate, including potential resistance to glyphosate. We have characterized the response of more than 40 common lambsquarters populations to glyphosate from across southern Wisconsin. We have not found any of these populations to be resistant to glyphosate. However, we have observed variable responses among these populations to glyphosate. Our results suggest that variability of common lambsquarters to glyphosate is most apparent following treatment with low rates of glyphosate (e.g., 0.375 lb ae/acre). Such variability is much less or not apparent following treatment with higher rates of glyphosate (e.g., 1.5 lb ae/acre), at which shoot biomass is greatly reduced and injury is severe relative to non-treated check plants. We’ve also found that the relationship between a field history of exposure to glyphosate and less sensitivity to glyphosate was inconsistent. That is, in some instances less sensitivity (to low rates of glyphosate) was associated with a field history of previous glyphosate use, but in other instances, such a relationship was not apparent. We think it’s likely that our results reflect natural or inherent variability among common lambsquarters populations to glyphosate.

  • Authors:  Timothy Trower, Mark Renz, Bryan Jensen, Larry Binning

    Common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) and field horsetail (Equisetum arvense) continue to be troublesome weeds in Wisconsin and are common in no-till fields. Two factors contributing to a resurgence of these weed species are reduced tillage and changes in herbicide programs Read more…

    Common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) and field horsetail (Equisetum arvense) continue to be troublesome weeds in Wisconsin and are common in no-till fields. Two factors contributing to a resurgence of these weed species are reduced tillage and changes in herbicide programs in corn and soybeans. We have conducted on-farm trials on dandelion and off-farm trials on field horsetail for the past several years, the results of which will be presented here.

  • Authors:  Richard Wolkowski, Carrie Laboski

    Maintaining the proper soil pH through liming agricultural soils is a hallmark of modern crop production. Benefits of liming include the optimization of nutrient availability and utilization, the reduction of available levels of Al and Mn, the enhancement of N2 Read more…

    Maintaining the proper soil pH through liming agricultural soils is a hallmark of modern crop production. Benefits of liming include the optimization of nutrient availability and utilization, the reduction of available levels of Al and Mn, the enhancement of N2 fixation in legumes, and improvement in the microbial-aided process of organic matter breakdown. The most common liming material by far in Wisconsin is crushed dolomitic limestone or aglime. Deposits of dolomitic limestone are common in the western, southern, and eastern portion of the state. Few, if any, deposits of limestone are found in the central and northern areas. Other lime sources include various by-product materials and calcitic lime, which is not indigenous to the state and therefore must be transported at significant expense. Lime should be applied according to recommendations that are based on a current soil test. The recommended rate is determined by soil pH desired for the most demanding crop in the rotation, the pH buffering potential of the soil, the soil pH, and the neutralizing index of the lime. The neutralizing index reflects both the purity of the lime relative to calcium carbonate and how finely it has been ground. Obviously purer and more finely ground materials, having more surface area, will react faster pound for pound compared to impure or coarser materials.

  • Authors:  Kevan Klingberg, Curtis Weisenbeck

    Wisconsin farmers have begun using a new generation of vertical tillage implements designed to conduct shallow tillage and better distribute crop residue. These machines cause minimal soil inversion. Their main working component is a set of straight and/or wavy coulters, Read more…

    Wisconsin farmers have begun using a new generation of vertical tillage implements designed to conduct shallow tillage and better distribute crop residue. These machines cause minimal soil inversion. Their main working component is a set of straight and/or wavy coulters, which directs soil disturbance downward in slots, a couple of inches wide by a couple of inches deep. Some crop producers are interested in shallow vertical tillage because current corn hybrids have stalks that slowly decompose due to genetic enhancements for insect resistance. The high levels of previous year corn residue in 1-pass no-till planting systems can reduce yields due to cool wet soils, slow seed germination and the physical challenges of planting into previous year(s) crop residue. Crop consultants and farmers have recognized the value of conducting a small amount of tillage in order to size the existing residue, condition the seedbed, and/or incorporate livestock manure, lime or other nutrients. Some farmers are considering replacing their 1-pass no-till planting system with a 1-pass shallow vertical tillage + plant system.

  • Authors:  Matthew Ruark

    With winter wheat acreage in Wisconsin expected to rise, now is a good time to review what nutrient management considerations should be made. Winter wheat is a crop managed during two growing seasons, so careful attention to soil testing and Read more…

    With winter wheat acreage in Wisconsin expected to rise, now is a good time to review what nutrient management considerations should be made. Winter wheat is a crop managed during two growing seasons, so careful attention to soil testing and fertilizer inputs should be made.

  • Authors:  Al Mulhall

    Volatility has been a feature of fertilizer markets over recent years and up to the present. The presentation, “The Global Fertilizer Outlook” addresses the many questions associated with this volatility. What was the effect of the financial crisis on global Read more…

    Volatility has been a feature of fertilizer markets over recent years and up to the present. The presentation, “The Global Fertilizer Outlook” addresses the many questions associated with this volatility. What was the effect of the financial crisis on global fertilizer markets? What was the knock-on effect on global crop production? How have global crop markets responded? What does this mean to farmers and to fertilizer dealers? When will things return to normal? Is there still a normal? What is the outlook for the markets for each of the nutrients N, P, and K?

  • Authors:  P.C. Hoffman, R.D. Shaver

    Grain quality is a nebulous term that means different things to corn producers, crop consultants, dairy producers or ruminant nutritionist. In commercial grain sales, grain quality is often defined in terms of moisture content, test weight, kernel size, total damaged Read more…

    Grain quality is a nebulous term that means different things to corn producers, crop consultants, dairy producers or ruminant nutritionist. In commercial grain sales, grain quality is often defined in terms of moisture content, test weight, kernel size, total damaged kernels, heat damage, broken kernels or breakage susceptibility. Foreign material in grain such as molds, mycotoxins, insect fragments, and other foreign material are also used to define grain quality. Likewise, nutritional properties of corn grain such as fat, protein, hardness, density, and starch content define corn quality characteristics. In short corn grain quality is defined primarily by the end users intended use. If the end user of the grain is a dairy cow, then grain quality factors related to milk production best define grain quality.

  • Authors:  Mike Rankin

    Ever since the demise of the Wisconsin Green Gold Program in 1996 there has been no public source of on-farm alfalfa yield data. Unlike corn and soybeans, obtaining accurate yield information for forage crops involves considerable planning, time, and effort Read more…

    Ever since the demise of the Wisconsin Green Gold Program in 1996 there has been no public source of on-farm alfalfa yield data. Unlike corn and soybeans, obtaining accurate yield information for forage crops involves considerable planning, time, and effort on behalf of the person collecting the yield data and the farmer. Historically, few producers had the capacity or patience during harvest to undertake such a task. Further, past efforts to measure alfalfa yield were usually limited to the best small area of the best field. In the past ten years, many larger dairies have installed on-farm scales for measuring purchased production of forages and/or feed commodities. These scales now make it relatively easy to weigh production not just from small areas of fields, but entire fields over the course of several years.

  • Authors:  Paul Esker, Shawn Conley

    With the wheat commodity prices staying high, the interest in wheat in the state remains very strong. Over the past few years, we have discussed many issues associated with managing wheat in Wisconsin (Esker et al. 2008), in particular knowledge Read more…

    With the wheat commodity prices staying high, the interest in wheat in the state remains very strong. Over the past few years, we have discussed many issues associated with managing wheat in Wisconsin (Esker et al. 2008), in particular knowledge of the following factors for use of foliar fungicides as part of an IPM program: (i) active scouting of fields, (ii) knowledge of growth stage, (iii) knowledge of disease risk, (iv) knowledge of the variety planted, (v) estimating stand quality post-dormancy, (vi) overall crop development in the spring, (vii) weather, (viii) understanding the different fungicides and targeted diseases, and (ix) commodity prices. However, linking both genetics and fungicides is not a trivial set of research questions. For example, in 2009 and 2010, the winter wheat variety trial at Janesville was duplicated in size thus enabling the application of a fungicide at flag leaf emergence (fungicide: Quilt). However, results from that trial indicated that there was no evidence of an effect of foliar fungicide nor an interaction of variety and fungicide (Lackermann, 2010). One explanation was that the disease intensity at Janesville was relatively low in both years but this also highlights that the appropriate use of a foliar fungicide should be for disease control.

  • Authors:  Amanda Gevens

    The group “water molds,” or oomycetous plant pathogens, is comprised of both foliar and soilborne organisms with the potential to cause great destruction of a number of economically valuable crops when environmental conditions are wet and warm. Water molds are Read more…

    The group “water molds,” or oomycetous plant pathogens, is comprised of both foliar and soilborne organisms with the potential to cause great destruction of a number of economically valuable crops when environmental conditions are wet and warm. Water molds are distinguished from true fungi, the classification of most plant pathogenic organisms, by several features including 1) lack of cell walls in hyphae resulting in the coenocytic condition, 2) diploid nuclei of vegetative cells, 3) cell walls composed of beta-1,3 and beta-1,6 glucans rather than chitin in true fungi, and 4) many species produce biflagellated swimming spores termed zoospores in structures called sporangia (3). The distinguishing features of water molds make their control on agricultural crops a challenge unique from that of true fungi. On vegetable and potato crops, the water molds which threaten the greatest crop losses include Phytophthora infestans (causal agent of late blight on potatoes and tomatoes), Phytophthora capsici (causal agent of Phytophthora crown and fruit rot on tomatoes, peppers, squash, and cucumbers), and Pseudoperonospora cubensis (causal agent of downy mildew on cucumbers).

  • Authors:  Adrian Barta, Anette Phibbs

    This is a summary of disease surveys conducted by plant pathologists at the Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection (DATCP). In 2010, field surveys focused on the following crops and diseases: Phytophthora Root Rot of seedling soybeans, Viruses of Read more…

    This is a summary of disease surveys conducted by plant pathologists at the Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection (DATCP). In 2010, field surveys focused on the following crops and diseases: Phytophthora Root Rot of seedling soybeans, Viruses of snap beans and soybeans, foliar diseases of winter wheat; and Stewart’s wilt of Seed Corn. Laboratory diagnosis was provided by DATCP’s Plant Industry Laboratory.

  • Authors:  Paul Esker, Mike Ballweg, Bob Halfman, Richard Halopka, Matt Hanson, Steve Huntzicker, Jon Zander, Paul Sturgis

    With corn prices high, the use of foliar fungicides as a means to enhance corn yield remains a topic of great debate. In our previous trial years that have included both small and large strip trials, there has not been Read more…

    With corn prices high, the use of foliar fungicides as a means to enhance corn yield remains a topic of great debate. In our previous trial years that have included both small and large strip trials, there has not been a consistent benefit from the use of a foliar fungicides (Grau et al., 2008; Esker et al., 2009). In order to provide the most comprehensive data to stakeholders in the state, staff at the University of Wisconsin Cooperative Extension Service and UW College of Agricultural and Life Sciences have continued a coordinated effort to generate data from replicated large on-farm strip trials and small plot trials.

  • Authors:  Alvin Bussan

    Water is one of the most essential resources necessary for crop production and its stewardship is becoming more critical with continued population growth and shifts in land management. Agriculture, or food production, is responsible for 70 to 80% of the Read more…

    Water is one of the most essential resources necessary for crop production and its stewardship is becoming more critical with continued population growth and shifts in land management. Agriculture, or food production, is responsible for 70 to 80% of the water consumption across the landscape. Even in Wisconsin with annual precipitation in excess of 30” on average, sustainable water use is becoming more critical. Increasing number of irrigation pivots and more acres of irrigated vegetable production across Wisconsin have led some to believe that increased irrigation pumping is impacting depth to groundwater. Declines in water table can have adverse effects on surface waters and lakes.

  • Authors:  Russell Groves, Scott Chapman

    Wisconsin has a history in the production of fresh market and processing fruits and vegetables including cucurbit crops, succulent beans, sweet corn, peas, carrots, and potatoes. While acreages and crops have changed over the years, growers have adapted and remained Read more…

    Wisconsin has a history in the production of fresh market and processing fruits and vegetables including cucurbit crops, succulent beans, sweet corn, peas, carrots, and potatoes. While acreages and crops have changed over the years, growers have adapted and remained leaders in several of these primary crops. The goal of this project is to replace current insect management programs in key segments of the production region, which rely on frequent foliar applications of broad spectrum insecticides, with an economically viable reduced-risk system. This system has focused on EPA classified reduced-risk (RR) and organophosphate (OP)-replacement insecticides and application technology to minimize worker exposure to pesticides and mitigate adverse effects on human health, the environment, and non-target organisms, including biological control agents and pollinators. Specifically, this project focuses on potato in field production systems and is transferable to other fresh and direct market segments. Focus on this crop results from their heavy reliance on high insecticide inputs, the high degree of oversight and management needed to grow and harvest crops, and their economic importance in the region. Outcomes of the work include new pest management strategies devised for the potato crop to improve production efficiency and profitability, reduce human health and societal costs associated with pest management, and increase the long-term sustainability of these crops.

  • Authors:  Jed Colquhoun

    Soybeans with resistance to synthetic auxin herbicides, such as 2,4-D and dicamba, are currently in development and may be considered for commercial release in some areas in the near future. While these traits may improve the weed control spectrum and Read more…

    Soybeans with resistance to synthetic auxin herbicides, such as 2,4-D and dicamba, are currently in development and may be considered for commercial release in some areas in the near future. While these traits may improve the weed control spectrum and options in soybean, concern has been expressed by specialty crop producers that expanded use of synthetic auxin herbicides may increase risk of off-target herbicide movement. The intent of this paper is to review specialty crop production, with a focus on Wisconsin, and to pose potential components of an “ideal” herbicide stewardship program for discussion.

  • Authors:  Matthew Ruark

    Sweet corn production represents over 80,000 acres of Wisconsin cropland and is grown for processing and fresh market production. In addition, sweet corn is grown on irrigated sandy soils as well as rain-fed fine-textured soils. Our current nitrogen (N) fertilizer Read more…

    Sweet corn production represents over 80,000 acres of Wisconsin cropland and is grown for processing and fresh market production. In addition, sweet corn is grown on irrigated sandy soils as well as rain-fed fine-textured soils. Our current nitrogen (N) fertilizer recommendations were developed several decades ago and may not fully represent N need of new varieties, seeding densities, use of multiple split applications to improve nitrogen use efficiency and implications toward groundwater quality. The objectives of this research were to: (1) re-evaluate our current N recommendations for sweet corn and (2) evaluate sweet corn response to N rate, N timing, variety, and seeding density.

  • Authors:  Fabian Fernandez, Robert Hoeft, Gyles Randall

    Diammonium phosphate (18-46-0) (DAP) and monoammonium phosphate (11-52-0) (MAP) are the two most common phosphorus (P) fertilizers in the US corn-belt. These granular fertilizers are excellent P sources because they are highly water-soluble, contain a high P concentration, and are Read more…

    Diammonium phosphate (18-46-0) (DAP) and monoammonium phosphate (11-52-0) (MAP) are the two most common phosphorus (P) fertilizers in the US corn-belt. These granular fertilizers are excellent P sources because they are highly water-soluble, contain a high P concentration, and are easy to handle and store (Fixen, 1990). In addition, they represent a relatively low-cost source of supplemental N.

  • Authors:  Laura Good, Pat Sutter, Curt Diehl, Katie Songer, Kim Meyer

    There are a number of projects underway in Wisconsin to investigate the relationship between field management and runoff phosphorus (P) losses and P loads from agricultural watersheds. This paper focuses on the field runoff P loss risk distribution found in Read more…

    There are a number of projects underway in Wisconsin to investigate the relationship between field management and runoff phosphorus (P) losses and P loads from agricultural watersheds. This paper focuses on the field runoff P loss risk distribution found in one of those projects located in two similar watersheds within the Pecatonica River Basin. The Pecatonica River pilot project is testing Wisconsin Buffer Initiative recommendations for using targeted strategies in small agricultural watersheds (5,000 to 25,000 acres) to achieve water-quality improvement goals (http://www.nelson.wisc.edu/people/nowak/wbi/). This small watershed scale was chosen as optimal for identifying nonpoint pollution sources, implementing strategies, and measuring success.

  • Authors:  Dean Volenberg

    Since first being detected in 2005, Western Bean Cutworm (WBC), Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) has become a pest throughout most of Wisconsin. WBC was first detected in corn in southern Wisconsin and by 2006 WBC had spread into several Read more…

    Since first being detected in 2005, Western Bean Cutworm (WBC), Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) has become a pest throughout most of Wisconsin. WBC was first detected in corn in southern Wisconsin and by 2006 WBC had spread into several counties in the state. Populations are most prevalent south of highway 29/Interstate 94 based on 2010 pheremone trap captures (Pestwatch, 2010). Since WBC initial collection and identification (Smith, 1887) in the late 1800s in the western United States, the pest has continued to migrate both to the north and east.

  • Authors:  Fred Madison

    What’s changed in 40 years? Certainly not the soils! What about the soil scientist? Let’s take a few minutes and review the learning process, the application years and what is there about the soils in Wisconsin that is worth passing Read more…

    What’s changed in 40 years? Certainly not the soils! What about the soil scientist? Let’s take a few minutes and review the learning process, the application years and what is there about the soils in Wisconsin that is worth passing on. Has it all been worth it?

  • Authors:  John Peters

    The Khorana Program was established by the University of Wisconsin-Madison to promote long-term linkages between the UW and India. The program honors Har Gobind Khorana, the Indian-born scientist who won the Nobel Prize in 1968 while a member of the Read more…

    The Khorana Program was established by the University of Wisconsin-Madison to promote long-term linkages between the UW and India. The program honors Har Gobind Khorana, the Indian-born scientist who won the Nobel Prize in 1968 while a member of the UW Biochemistry faculty. Under the umbrella of this program the University of Wisconsin-Madison applied for and received a grant of $950,000 from the United States Agency for International Development. The grant allowed the UW to partner with Mahindra and Mahindra and the Rajiv Gandhi Charitable Trust to promote rural development in India. In addition to the funding received by the UW, the two partners provided over three million dollars. “This represents the latest approach to development, linking university expertise with the private sector’s financial power and on-the-ground experience,” says project leader Kenneth Shapiro, former associate dean in the UW College of Agricultural and Life Sciences and professor of Agricultural and Applied Economics. “This approach is especially appropriate for India, where rapid economic growth has benefited 300 million, but 800 million, mostly rural residents, are left behind, and over 25% of children are malnourished, leading to tragically high rates of infant mortality and mental and physical stunting.”

  • Authors:  Laura Paine

    Wisconsin is a national leader in the small, but rapidly growing organic sector of agriculture. The number of organic farms in the state has more than tripled since 2002 to over 1200 farms today (Figure 1). We are second in Read more…

    Wisconsin is a national leader in the small, but rapidly growing organic sector of agriculture. The number of organic farms in the state has more than tripled since 2002 to over 1200 farms today (Figure 1). We are second in numbers of organic farms after California, and first in the nation in numbers of organic dairy farms (National Agricultural Statistics Service 2008). We are also in the top ten in numbers of organic farms producing livestock, vegetables, grain, and forages. In 2008, farmgate sales totaled over $132 million (Table 1).

  • Authors:  Kevin Shelley

    Organic farming, when done correctly, is more than just producing crops and livestock without synthetic chemicals, fertilizers and pharmaceuticals. Most definitions of organic farming emphasize production practices that conserve, protect and enhance natural resources, encourage biological diversity, foster cycling of Read more…

    Organic farming, when done correctly, is more than just producing crops and livestock without synthetic chemicals, fertilizers and pharmaceuticals. Most definitions of organic farming emphasize production practices that conserve, protect and enhance natural resources, encourage biological diversity, foster cycling of nutrients, build soil organic matter and minimize use of offfarm inputs. I like to think of organic crop production as an integrated system of cultural, biological, ecological and mechanical practices, much like the traditional definition of integrated pest management, without most, or usually any, of the chemical practices. With very limited chemical tools at their disposal, organic farmers have to develop and continually hone their skills and practices in these other management areas.

  • Authors:  Darwin Frye

    The Arlington Agricultural Research Station (AARS) is the largest of 12 UW-Madison Research Stations. It supports a wide cross section of research and programs for 10 different departments in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences (CALS). The station consists Read more…

    The Arlington Agricultural Research Station (AARS) is the largest of 12 UW-Madison Research Stations. It supports a wide cross section of research and programs for 10 different departments in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences (CALS). The station consists of approximately 2100 acres of cropland and 14 different crop and livestock units. Approximately 1000 acres is devoted to crop research and the remaining 1100 acres is used as feed for the research livestock units. AARS annually grows approximately 600 acres of corn, 400 acres of forages, 200 acres of soybeans and 100 acres of small grains. This includes the ~80 acres of Certified Organic land.

  • Authors:  Robin Mittenthal, Eileen Cullen

    Because organic farmers have relatively few control options when insect pest populations reach problem levels, a preventive approach to pest management is essential in organic systems. However, given the limited research base regarding relationships between soil fertility, plant health, and Read more…

    Because organic farmers have relatively few control options when insect pest populations reach problem levels, a preventive approach to pest management is essential in organic systems. However, given the limited research base regarding relationships between soil fertility, plant health, and insect growth and reproduction, it’s unclear in many situations exactly what this should mean to farmers in terms of inputs and practices.

    What do we know so far? In general, mineral nutrition status is known to influence factors such as growth and yield of crop plants by affecting changes in growth pattern, plant morphology and anatomy, and particularly chemical composition. For example, thickness of epidermal cells, degree of lignification, sugar concentrations, amino acid content in phloem sap, and levels of defensive compounds are all influenced by nutritional status of the plant, and in turn either affect or are presumed to affect resistance to insects (Marschner, 1995, Patriquin et al., 1995). Much of the work done to explore plant-insect relationships has involved aphids and nitrogen. For example, there is substantial evidence that aphid reproduction is increased by high levels of soluble N (e.g., amines, amides, amino acids) in host plant leaves (McKee 1962; Auclair, 1963, 1965; van Emden et al., 1969).

  • Authors:  Carrie A.M. Laboski, Todd Andraski, Joe Lauer

    The number of acres planted to corn rootworm (Diabrotica spp.) (CRW) resistant corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids have increased in recent years. The CRW resistant corn hybrids may have a greater yield potential because of reduced stress from CRW larval feeding resulting Read more…

    The number of acres planted to corn rootworm (Diabrotica spp.) (CRW) resistant corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids have increased in recent years. The CRW resistant corn hybrids may have a greater yield potential because of reduced stress from CRW larval feeding resulting in larger root systems. Many agronomists believe higher N rates are needed to achieve the greater yield potential associated with these hybrids. However, larger root systems of CRW resistant hybrids could result in greater N use efficiency and perhaps a reduced N fertilizer need compared to non-CRW resistant hybrids.

    UW Madison, Soil Science
    Do Corn Hybrid Traits Affect Nitrogen Use Efficiency
    nutrient management
  • No abstract provided.

    UW Madison, Soil Science
    The More Things Change, the More They Stay the Same: Advances in Soils and Agronomy over 50 Years
    nutrient management
  • Authors:  Carrie A.M. Laboski

    Nitrogen management continues to be one of the biggest challenges facing crop managers. High fertilizer prices, confusion about fertilizer technologies, and weather uncertainties are just a few of the issues encountered when trying to balance economic and environmental sustainability. The purpose of this Read more…

    Nitrogen management continues to be one of the biggest challenges facing crop managers. High fertilizer prices, confusion about fertilizer technologies, and weather uncertainties are just a few of the issues encountered when trying to balance economic and environmental sustainability. The purpose of this paper is to outline how understanding the N cycle is the most important tool that you can use to make profitable N management decisions.

    UW Madison, Soil Science
    The Most Important Tool in the Nitrogen Management Toolbox
    nutrient management
  • Authors:  Phil Pellitteri

    Whether you work as a consultant, agronomist, landscaper or co-op, people ask questions about all kinds of things . We all have the sensation from time to time of something biting us. Sometimes you look down and see a critter Read more…

    Whether you work as a consultant, agronomist, landscaper or co-op, people ask questions about all kinds of things . We all have the sensation from time to time of something biting us. Sometimes you look down and see a critter sometimes there seems to be nothing there. What about when you wake up and find bites all over you and you wonder who did that? Have you ever had a person that believed they were infested with some type of bug or worm and were looking to you for help?

    The first question is – are their visible bites? This is a starting point. In Wisconsin most of the things that bite will be active during the late spring to early fall. It is very difficult to diagnose the cause of the bite without looking at the history and circumstances surrounding the problem. Were has the person been in the last 48 hr? Where are the bites located and how long have they had them? Do they have pests?

  • Authors:  Krista Hamilton

    The annual survey in August documented a decrease in the state average number of beetles per plant for the first time in five years. Population declines were charted in every district, with the largest reductions occurring in the southeast, east-central Read more…

    The annual survey in August documented a decrease in the state average number of beetles per plant for the first time in five years. Population declines were charted in every district, with the largest reductions occurring in the southeast, east-central and north-central areas. The state average of 0.6 beetle per plant compares to 1.0 last season and a 5-year average of 1.1 per plant. District counts were as follows: northwest 0.4, north-central 0.4, northeast 0.5, west-central 0.5, central 0.4, east-central 0.6, southwest 0.7, south-central 1.1, and southeast 0.3. Populations in 77% of surveyed fields were below the 0.75 beetle per plant level which indicates root injury potential in 2010 if some form of control is not used.

    The causes of the decline in beetle numbers are not certain. It is presumed that widespread use of stacked Bt hybrids is a major contributing factor, both in Wisconsin and across the Midwest where populations of the western species were greatly reduced this season. Wet soil conditions last spring also may have caused some degree of larval mortality, thus lowering adult numbers. The map below shows the locations of 229 fields sampled in August. Areas with an elevated risk of root injury to non-Bt, continuous corn are represented by red and yellow circles.

  • Authors:  Scott Sturgul

    Soil nutrients that are essential to plants are categorized into three broad groupings: (1) Macronutrients: carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O) – supplied by air and water – nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K). (2) Secondary Nutrients: calcium (Ca), magnesium Read more…

    Soil nutrients that are essential to plants are categorized into three broad groupings: (1) Macronutrients: carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O) – supplied by air and water – nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K). (2) Secondary Nutrients: calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sulfur (S). (3) Micronutrients: boron (B), chlorine (Cl), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn). Regardless of category, all these elements are critical to crop production.

    The only variance is the relative demand level of plants for the given nutrient. Macronutrient requirements of plants are relatively high; whereas, the secondary nutrients are often added to soils incidentally with lime, manure, precipitation, etc. and usually do not limit crop growth as frequently as N, P, or K deficiencies. Soil micronutrients, on the other hand, are needed by plants in small quantities. This does not diminish their importance in crop production. This paper will focus on the major micronutrients and their role in crop production.

  • Authors:  Carrie Laboski

    Plant analysis can be a useful tool for troubleshooting plant nutrition related crop production problems during the growing season. From a troubleshooting standpoint, plant analysis can confirm visual symptomology of nutrient deficiencies or toxicities, reveal early stages of nutrient deficiencies, Read more…

    Plant analysis can be a useful tool for troubleshooting plant nutrition related crop production problems during the growing season. From a troubleshooting standpoint, plant analysis can confirm visual symptomology of nutrient deficiencies or toxicities, reveal early stages of nutrient deficiencies, and determine the availability of nutrients for which a reliable soil test does not exist or soil test calibration has not been completed. Plant analysis can also be used to assess a crop’s response to applied nutrients, particularly where different treatments may have been applied in the same field (e.g., strips with and without sulfur addition).

    Over the past several years, agronomists have become increasingly interested in using plant analysis to help troubleshoot problem fields or identify slight nutrient deficiencies that might hinder a producer from achieving high yields. This is evidenced by the fact that plant samples submitted to the UW Soil & Plant Analysis Lab doubled each year since 2007 (Table 1). While plant analysis sample submission has increased, the number of soil samples submitted in conjunction with plant samples has remained relatively steady since 2005. An analysis of some of the plant analysis data since 2005 revealed that plant analysis may not be well understood by some agronomists. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to describe the use and limitations of plant analysis for troubleshooting fields.

  • Authors:  Eric Spandl

    Evaluating and choosing the right spray nozzles and adjuvant for crop protection applications can be a challenge. Many factors, like nozzles and adjuvants, affect the spray pattern and droplet distribution and subsequently potential for drift and product efficacy. Personal observations Read more…

    Evaluating and choosing the right spray nozzles and adjuvant for crop protection applications can be a challenge. Many factors, like nozzles and adjuvants, affect the spray pattern and droplet distribution and subsequently potential for drift and product efficacy. Personal observations and field experience are quite useful in evaluating results. Visual evaluation of nozzles of spray pattern and droplet distribution in real time can be useful but provides limited information. You can observe large changes in pattern distribution and if there is significant drift or movement of spray droplets.

    Some “high tech” equipment has allowed us to evaluate in much greater detail the affects of nozzles, adjuvants, and other factors on spray droplet size, distribution pattern and movement. A laser analyzer provides a concise measurement of spray droplet size and quantity within a given range. This is especially useful for showing how much of the spray is small droplets, such as those under 105 microns. Droplets this size have a higher potential to move off-target. Laser droplet analysis is useful for showing how various factors affect droplet size. However, presentation is usually limited to tables or graphs.

  • Authors:  Christian Krupke

    Soybean aphid has been a pest of soybeans in the upper Midwest for nearly a decade. There have been some significant changes over that time, both in the biology of this pest and in the way we manage it. An Read more…

    Soybean aphid has been a pest of soybeans in the upper Midwest for nearly a decade. There have been some significant changes over that time, both in the biology of this pest and in the way we manage it.

    An overview will be given of some of the newest information in soybean aphid biology and management, with focus on discussing what happened in 2009 ― a remarkable year in our short history with this insect. This will include discussion of aphid overwintering hosts, both past and present, and focus on interpreting the 250 aphid/plant threshold at advanced growth stages (R5-R6).

  • Authors:  Mark Renz

    The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources Invasive species law (NR40) established a classification and regulatory system for invasive species restricting actions such as sales, transportation, planting, or releasing listed species to the wild without a permit. While none of these Read more…

    The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources Invasive species law (NR40) established a classification and regulatory system for invasive species restricting actions such as sales, transportation, planting, or releasing listed species to the wild without a permit. While none of these plants classified by the rule have any direct agronomic value as a crop, producers will need to ensure that they are not transporting viable propagules (seeds or perennial tissue that can resprout) of prohibited and restricted species as this is illegal (unless a permit is obtained). While the rule exempts people who incidentally or unknowingly transport, possess, transfer or introduce a listed invasive species, knowledgeable producers must demonstrate that they took reasonable precautions to prevent movement of listed species. An example of this situation would be haying a field filled with listed plants like spotted knapweed or Canada thistle and transporting the bales to another location off farm. Producers can transport plant tissue of these species, but they must be incapable of reproducing/propagating. So harvesting these fields before any viable seeds are produced would be considered an adequate practice to prevent spread by DNR as the producer took steps to prevent movement of propagules of known listed plants.

  • Authors:  Paul Esker, Shawn Conley

    As seed input prices increase in 2010, there are many questions regarding the use and need of seed treatment fungicides, insecticides, and nematicides. There are both new seed treatments that will be out for the 2010 growing season for some Read more…

    As seed input prices increase in 2010, there are many questions regarding the use and need of seed treatment fungicides, insecticides, and nematicides. There are both new seed treatments that will be out for the 2010 growing season for some companies (Accerlon™ from Monsanto (soybean and corn) and Avicta® from Syngenta (corn)) or will be forthcoming for the 2011 growing season from other companies. With a continued increase in the number of products available, the decision-making process can become very confusing. This is especially relevant when considering if a nematicide seed treatment is warranted.

  • Authors:  Russell Groves, David Lowenstein, Bill Halfman

    Wisconsin has a history in the production of fresh market and processing fruits and vegetables including cucurbit crops such as melons, cucumber, squash, and pumpkins. While acreages and crops have changed over the years, growers have adapted and remained leaders Read more…

    Wisconsin has a history in the production of fresh market and processing fruits and vegetables including cucurbit crops such as melons, cucumber, squash, and pumpkins. While acreages and crops have changed over the years, growers have adapted and remained leaders in several crops. Additionally, small-acreage fresh market production, particularly organic, continues to expand in Wisconsin. A special focus of this section of the research will emphasize surveys of domestic and native pollinators. To date, we have documented significant reductions in both populations of cucumber beetles and the bacterial pathogen they transmit in susceptible vine crops using these tactics. In addition, we have identified several species of native pollinators which appear to be regularly abundant in fields treated for cucumber beetles. The seasonal abundance and species composition of insect pollinators varied among farm locations with Apis and Bombus spp occurring most frequently. We have demonstrated the ability to significantly reduce the reliance on broad spectrum insecticides by incorporating IPB-based, cultural practices that prevent damaging beetle feeding.

  • Authors:  Paul Esker, Angie Peltier, Nancy Koval, John Gaska, Mark Marinka, Shawn Conley

    Across Wisconsin in 2009, the number one soybean disease observed was Sclerotinia stem rot (SSR), or white mold. Weather conditions around flowering were quite favorable for infection and subsequent development of SSR in 2009 (Figure 1). In Figure 2, we Read more…

    Across Wisconsin in 2009, the number one soybean disease observed was Sclerotinia stem rot (SSR), or white mold. Weather conditions around flowering were quite favorable for infection and subsequent development of SSR in 2009 (Figure 1). In Figure 2, we show examples of differences in symptoms we observed throughout the state for SSR and these symptoms will be discussed in more detail in the next section.

  • Authors:  Sue Porter, Laura Ward Good

    The 2009 release of Snap-Plus has features that can make setting up new farms in Snap-Plus and updating nutrient management plans significantly quicker and easier. Almost all field management information can now be entered through the Rotation Wizard for multiple Read more…

    The 2009 release of Snap-Plus has features that can make setting up new farms in Snap-Plus and updating nutrient management plans significantly quicker and easier. Almost all field management information can now be entered through the Rotation Wizard for multiple fields and years at a time, saving many hours of data entry, particularly for large farms with many fields and long rotations. You can use the Rotation Wizard to enter planned manure and fertilizer applications along with crops and tillage for all years in a rotation for any number of fields. You can also update previously entered crop, tillage, soil test, and application information. For a complete description and instructions, look for the link in the “Important News” (red) box on the Snap-Plus home page www.snapplus.net.

  • Authors:  Matt Ruark

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of three often-asked questions related to slow-release nitrogen: (1) what are slow-release fertilizers, (2) why should I use slow-release fertilizers and (3) when should I use slow-release fertilizers? It is Read more…

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of three often-asked questions related to slow-release nitrogen: (1) what are slow-release fertilizers, (2) why should I use slow-release fertilizers and (3) when should I use slow-release fertilizers? It is important to note that products mentioned in this paper do not reflect an endorsement of the product, but simply to inform which products are currently available for crop production in WI. Likewise, a lack of mention of specific products does not imply that a product is not recommended or available for use.

    What Are Slow-Release Fertilizers?

    Slow-release is an often overused term that encompasses several N fertilizer products which include: uncoated slow-release fertilizers (SRF), coated SRF, and bio-inhibitors. The term “controlled-release” is often used synonymously with slow-release, but has also been used to identify coated SRF or more specifically, polymer-coated urea (PCU, often referred to as poly-coated) products. Thus, a more appropriate nomenclature that encompasses all of these products is fertilizer technologies. The debate will continue for some time regarding how much “control” each technology has on releasing N to the plant.

  • Authors:  Richard Zollinger

    POST herbicide effectiveness depends on spray droplet retention, deposition, and herbicide absorption by weed foliage. Adjuvants and spray water quality influence POST herbicide efficacy. Adjuvants are not needed with PRE herbicides unless weeds have emerged and labels include POST application. Read more…

    POST herbicide effectiveness depends on spray droplet retention, deposition, and herbicide absorption by weed foliage. Adjuvants and spray water quality influence POST herbicide efficacy. Adjuvants are not needed with PRE herbicides unless weeds have emerged and labels include POST application.

    Spray adjuvants generally consist of surfactants, oils and fertilizers. The most effective adjuvant will vary with each herbicide, and the need for an adjuvant will vary with environment, weeds, and herbicide used. Adjuvant use should follow label directions and be used with caution as they may influence crop safety and weed control. An adjuvant may increase weed control from one herbicide but not from another. To compare adjuvants and determine adjuvant enhancement herbicide rates should be used at marginal weed control levels. Effective adjuvants will enhance herbicides at reduced rates and provide consistent results under adverse conditions. However, use of below-labeled rates exempts herbicide manufacturers from liability for nonperformance.

  • Authors:  Jed Colquhoun

    Pesticide drift to sensitive sites is a very rare occurrence, but can involve a high liability when it does occur given the value of specialty crops. The topic of pesticide drift has been addressed for many years in Wisconsin, and Read more…

    Pesticide drift to sensitive sites is a very rare occurrence, but can involve a high liability when it does occur given the value of specialty crops. The topic of pesticide drift has been addressed for many years in Wisconsin, and applicators are generally very aware of such risk. However, the landscape is changing in Wisconsin and therefore warrants a reminder of the extent and distribution of sensitive specialty crops in the state.

    In general, the number of Wisconsin specialty crop producers has increased in recent years, while the number of grain growers has decreased over a similar time period (Table 1). There are a few common threads among these farms that increase risk when considering pesticide drift. The average specialty crop farm is small, ranging from an average size of 0.9 acre in floriculture to 90 acres for vegetables. Given the small acreage, these farms are not often “on the radar.” These farms are also interspersed among agronomic crops throughout the state. There is no consolidated specialty crop production area. Finally, specialty crops tend to be tremendously high in value. Cranberries, for example, cost about $35,000 per acre to establish, and production may exceed up to $24,000 per acre in gross value.

  • Authors:  Eric Cooley, Matthew Ruark, John Panuska

    Subsurface drainage is used for agricultural, residential and industrial purposes to remove excess water from poorly drained land. An important feature statewide, drainage enhances Wisconsin agricultural systems, especially in years with high precipitation. Drainage systems improve timeliness of field operations, Read more…

    Subsurface drainage is used for agricultural, residential and industrial purposes to remove excess water from poorly drained land. An important feature statewide, drainage enhances Wisconsin agricultural systems, especially in years with high precipitation. Drainage systems improve timeliness of field operations, enhance growing conditions for crop production, increase crop yields on poorly drained soils and reduce yield variability. In addition to agronomic benefits, subsurface drainage can improve soil quality by decreasing soil erosion and compaction. To maintain agricultural productivity and protect water quality, producers, consultants and agency personnel must understand tile drainage, locate drainage systems and properly maintain them.

    In Wisconsin, drainage systems were originally constructed using short (1-foot) segments of clay or cylindrical concrete “tiles.” Tiles were initially installed manually, requiring hand excavation. Modern drain tiles are corrugated, perforated plastic pipes typically installed mechanically using a trencher. These plastic pipes are available in a variety of diameters to accommodate different flow rates. They are typically installed at a depth of 3 to 6 feet below the soil surface and discharge into drainage ditches, streams or wetlands. The majority of tile-drained land in Wisconsin is located in the eastern and southern portions of the state, although county records indicate that tile drainage is prevalent statewide. In Wisconsin’s rolling landscape, tile drains are often installed in a random pattern, following depressional areas.

  • Authors:  John Panuska, Peter Kleinman

    Land application is the most common method of animal waste management in Wisconsin. A significant risk of land spreading manure is its entry into streams, lakes and groundwater. Oxygen demanding organic matter, bacteria, pathogens and nutrients from manure can be Read more…

    Land application is the most common method of animal waste management in Wisconsin. A significant risk of land spreading manure is its entry into streams, lakes and groundwater. Oxygen demanding organic matter, bacteria, pathogens and nutrients from manure can be transported into surface and groundwater posing significant public health and environmental risks. The most common and readily apparent transport pathway for surface-applied liquid manure into surface waters is via surface runoff. To reduce odors and runoff risk and to capture maximum fertilizer value, many producers inject liquid manure directly into field soils. For nontiled fields surface application and injection are appropriate methods of manure application when soil conditions (moisture, slope, frost, etc.) are right and when done at application rates appropriate for soil assimilation. The existence of tile drains may, however, render surface application and injection inappropriate by providing direct transport pathways for liquid manure to surface waters. Manure can enter tile drains via surface inlets, open cavities created by tile blow-outs and via soil macro-pores (earthworm holes, soil structural cracks and former root channels).

  • Authors:  Eric Ronk, Kevin Erb

    Since 2002, the Professional Nutrient Applicators Association of Wisconsin (PNAAW) and UW Extension have conducted 15 live action field events to train applicators, farmers, first responders and agency staff how to respond in the event of a manure spill or Read more…

    Since 2002, the Professional Nutrient Applicators Association of Wisconsin (PNAAW) and UW Extension have conducted 15 live action field events to train applicators, farmers, first responders and agency staff how to respond in the event of a manure spill or release. As these sessions have evolved and training materials developed, the question of how many spills or incidents occur per year and what impact they actually have on the environment is repeatedly asked. While many citizen groups and agency staff collected some information, there is no comprehensive Wisconsin-specific database of manure-related incidents available to help farmers and applicators prepare for and prevent manure spills.

  • Authors:  Joe Lauer, Justin Hopf

    Identifying management zones (MZs) within a field is challenging because crop yields typically vary over space and time (Lamb, 1997). In-field variability is the focus of precision agriculture – how to manage it, diminish it, or overcome it. In-field variability Read more…

    Identifying management zones (MZs) within a field is challenging because crop yields typically vary over space and time (Lamb, 1997). In-field variability is the focus of precision agriculture – how to manage it, diminish it, or overcome it. In-field variability reduces the ability to determine consistent yield patterns, and thus management zones.

    Producers have expressed frustration in obtaining value from yield maps. Griffin (2000) states, “farmers were struggling to find direct benefits from the yield information that they were spending time and effort gathering.” Reasons yield maps are often not generated include: (i) the yield monitor might not be accompanied by GPS, (ii) problems associated with the data analysis, and (iii) owner operators who do little or no field work do not benefit as much from yield maps as those having direct experience with field conditions (Griffin, 2004). Reasons for not utilizing generated data such as yield maps are numerous and include; time to learn electronic skills in order to operate equipment and software, lack of training for producers and industry, uncertainty with using analyzed data to influence decision making, lack of local experts for technical assistance, working with data of differing formats, lack of basic research on yield and soil relationships, and need for a precision agricultural equipment (Kitchen, 2002). Griffin (2004) states, “the inability to process the gathered yield information into meaningful decisions, leads to apathy and discontinuance of future data collection.”

  • Authors:  M. Digman, J. Phelan

    Yield monitors have become very common on combines in the last decade. The primary goal of these devices is to help the producer monitor variability occurring in his or her fields. Utilizing GPS, this data can be saved spatially and Read more…

    Yield monitors have become very common on combines in the last decade. The primary goal of these devices is to help the producer monitor variability occurring in his or her fields. Utilizing GPS, this data can be saved spatially and downloaded to the producer’s computer to build an almanac that may be used to better understand how field inputs and growing conditions over a number of years (e.g., wet years, dry years) affect yield variability. Producers have also used this technology to conduct on-farm trials assessing economic return of various hybrids or management inputs.

    The combine automates yield monitoring by aggregating data from various sensors, including speed, position, header height and width, mass-flow and moisture. Each of these sensors contributes an essential piece of data necessary to the production of an accurate yield map.

  • Authors:  Christian Krupke

    Since the release of the first Bt corn hybrids targeting rootworms in 2003-04, the technology has undergone numerous changes, including novel traits, stacking of traits with other Bt toxins and herbicide tolerance, and alterations to the refuge structure. Although Bt Read more…

    Since the release of the first Bt corn hybrids targeting rootworms in 2003-04, the technology has undergone numerous changes, including novel traits, stacking of traits with other Bt toxins and herbicide tolerance, and alterations to the refuge structure. Although Bt hybrids generally provide excellent control of larvae, there is consistent adult emergence from these plants meaning that a refuge is critical to delay resistance development. In fact, full resistance to these toxins has been generated in just a few generations of rearing Western corn rootworm in laboratory studies. Once it has developed, this resistance is fixed, meaning that the beetles will not revert to the susceptible type once that type of Bt corn is no longer planted.

    Preserving the efficacy of existing Bt toxins is critical. We do not fully understand how insects survive, but they do albeit in relatively low numbers currently. The risk of resistance is real and there are several possible paths for widespread resistance to develop, including sub-lethal exposure. This type of exposure may be favored by a number of scenarios including exposure to low-toxin level plants (volunteer corn) and/or exposure to Bt hybrids late in larval life, when the larvae are able to withstand a greater dose of toxin.

  • Authors:  Mike Ballweg, Ted Bay, Greg Blonde, Joe Bollman, Carl Duley, BIll Halfman, Richard Halopka, Mike Rankin, Peg Reedy, Nick Schneider, Jim Stute, Trish Wagner

    Corn rootworm larval damage has been suspected or confirmed in Wisconsin corn fields planted to Bt CRW hybrids. This has prompted concern among crop advisors regarding recognition, severity and distribution of the problem. To help answer these concerns, a survey Read more…

    Corn rootworm larval damage has been suspected or confirmed in Wisconsin corn fields planted to Bt CRW hybrids. This has prompted concern among crop advisors regarding recognition, severity and distribution of the problem. To help answer these concerns, a survey was conducted to evaluate corn rootworm larval damage to Bt CRW hybrids. Cooperators were asked to submit five (5) corn roots/field that were at least second year corn and planted to a Bt CRW hybrid. Field background requested from each field included, county, hybrid and Bt event. There were no attempts to single out commercial hybrids or Bt events. Approximately 110 fields were surveyed in 18 counties (Fig. 1). Range of fields sampled/county were from 1 to 21.

  • Authors:  Shawn Conley, Paul Esker, John Gaska

    Hail damage is common across many soybean and corn producing areas in the United States (National Crop Insurance Service, 2008). Since 2003, the National Crop Insurance Service has paid claims on an average of 2.3 million acres of soybean per Read more…

    Hail damage is common across many soybean and corn producing areas in the United States (National Crop Insurance Service, 2008). Since 2003, the National Crop Insurance Service has paid claims on an average of 2.3 million acres of soybean per year at an average cost of $53.5 million. Over the same period of time, the NCIS estimates approximately $36 to $59 million in annual claims due to hail damage in corn (Bradley and Ames, 2010). With increasing global temperatures, more extreme and unpredictable weather patterns have been suggested; therefore; grower risk for severe hail damage may increase (Kajfez Bogataj, 2005).

    In 2009, severe hail damage was reported in Southwest WI and across large sections of Iowa. Following this hail event, growers, retailers, and agronomists alike were asking if these acres needed to be treated with a fungicide. Much of this was prompted by BASF’s supplemental label for Headline® that states, “the plant health benefits may include improved host plant tolerance to yield-robbing environmental stresses, such as drought, heat, cold temperatures, and ozone damage” and for corn, “improved stalk strength and better harvestability, inducted tolerance to stalk diseases, better tolerance to hail, more uniform seed size.”

  • Authors:  Anette Phibbs, Adrian Barta

    This is a summary of disease surveys conducted by plant pathologists at the Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection (DATCP). In 2009, field surveys focused on the following crops and diseases: Phytophthora Root Rot of Soybean Seedlings, Viruses of Read more…

    This is a summary of disease surveys conducted by plant pathologists at the Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection (DATCP). In 2009, field surveys focused on the following crops and diseases: Phytophthora Root Rot of Soybean Seedlings, Viruses of Snap beans, Foliar Diseases of Winter Wheat; and Stewart’s wilt of Seed Corn. Laboratory diagnosis was provided by DATCP’s Plant Industry Laboratory.

  • Authors:  A.J. Bussan, Michael Copas, Michael Drilias

    Wisconsin is one of the leading producers of vegetable crops for processing in the United States. Wisconsin ranks third nationally in potato production, first in snap bean production, and third in sweet corn production, and result in $304 million in Read more…

    Wisconsin is one of the leading producers of vegetable crops for processing in the United States. Wisconsin ranks third nationally in potato production, first in snap bean production, and third in sweet corn production, and result in $304 million in gate receipts for Wisconsin framers. Proper nitrogen supply is critical to all crop growth, but is particularly important in high input vegetable systems due to a shortened season for snap bean and sweet corn and a lower rate of return on investment relative to potatoes. Nitrogen is also a problem in much of the vegetable production areas due to its susceptibility to leaching rains resulting in groundwater contamination by nitrates. The price of nitrogen has been extremely volatile in recent years and producers have searched for alternative management strategies to reduce their reliance on fertilizer nitrogen.

  • Authors:  Jed Colquhoun

    From environmentally-concerned groups to buyers, retailers and consumers, “sustainability” is certainly the current buzzword in many industries, including agriculture. Several retailers and agricultural industries are independently developing sustainability standards, indices, and certification programs for their businesses and others throughout the Read more…

    From environmentally-concerned groups to buyers, retailers and consumers, “sustainability” is certainly the current buzzword in many industries, including agriculture. Several retailers and agricultural industries are independently developing sustainability standards, indices, and certification programs for their businesses and others throughout the supply chain. Additionally, national sustainability standards, which would ultimately encompass all agricultural crops, have been proposed or are in development by multiple groups. The intent of this presentation is to give an overview and update on national sustainability standards, and to outline potential implications on Wisconsin’s agricultural industries.

    While the concept of sustainable agriculture has been a point of discussion for several years, the desire to use it as a marketing tool or to add value to products in the marketplace is a relatively recent development. Individual retailers and suppliers, such as Walmart, are developing sustainability scorecards and standards. For example, McDonald’s recently agreed to comply with a shareholder request to look at ways to reduce pesticide use in potatoes and document such progress. As a result, growers may be required to fill out several surveys to sell to multiple buyers, in addition to current requirements for good agricultural practice (GAP) surveys.

  • Authors:  Dan Undersander

    The benefits of using new breeding techniques for alfalfa improvement are just being developed. These GMO alfalfa varieties will revolutionize the using and management of alfalfa. This paper presents information on the development of two GMO alfalfa traits (Roundup Ready Read more…

    The benefits of using new breeding techniques for alfalfa improvement are just being developed. These GMO alfalfa varieties will revolutionize the using and management of alfalfa. This paper presents information on the development of two GMO alfalfa traits (Roundup Ready and Low Lignin Alfalfa) that will provide new tools for many farmers. It will mention some other research/development being conducted.

  • Authors:  Shawn Conley, Paul Esker, John Gaska, Mark Martinka

    It is commonly stated as fact that soybean is experiencing a yield plateau. However, multiple sources of information from plant breeders, to yield trials, to the USDA suggest that soybean yield is increasing as a modest rate of 0.4 to Read more…

    It is commonly stated as fact that soybean is experiencing a yield plateau. However, multiple sources of information from plant breeders, to yield trials, to the USDA suggest that soybean yield is increasing as a modest rate of 0.4 to 0.5 bu/a per year. Soybean yield can be explained by genetic potential, agronomic management, and environment. If growers are experiencing a yield plateau then it is critical to identify the source of this yield loss. For the purposes of this discussion, we will focus on the factors that growers and managers can control; genetic potential and management.

  • Authors:  Joe Lauer, Kent Kohn, Thierno Diallo

    One of the most important decisions corn producers make is the selection of high performing, adapted hybrids. Selecting the correct hybrid can often mean the difference between profit and loss. Plant breeders and agronomists test thousands of commercial and experimental Read more…

    One of the most important decisions corn producers make is the selection of high performing, adapted hybrids. Selecting the correct hybrid can often mean the difference between profit and loss. Plant breeders and agronomists test thousands of commercial and experimental hybrids for several years at many locations over a range of plant populations and other management practices. These corn hybrid performance trials determine which hybrids have yielding ability superior to current hybrids and estimate disease resistance and other important characteristics.

    The reason for conducting hybrid performance trials is to understand Genotype by Environment (GxE) interactions. If GxE did not exist we could conduct one trial at one location and use the best hybrid to plant across the entire state. Hybrids (genotypes) often respond (or interact) differently in different environments due to soils, diseases, insects, fertility, and especially weather! GxE is called different things by seed companies: “Fix / Flex,” “Offensive / Defensive,” and “Racehorse / Workhorse” hyrbids. Seed companies benefit greatly from on-farm hybrid trials that producers establish. They get hundreds of test plots per year, hundreds of weather patterns per year, and hundreds of disease situations per year.

  • Authors:  kelly kearns

    Invasive species are those plants, animals and disease organisms that are not native to a region, yet when introduced, can cause significant harm. The term is generally used for those species that cause ecological harm to our native fish, wildlife, Read more…

    Invasive species are those plants, animals and disease organisms that are not native to a region, yet when introduced, can cause significant harm. The term is generally used for those species that cause ecological harm to our native fish, wildlife, plants, lakes, forests and other natural areas. Many species are weedy or pests in agricultural areas, but not in wild lands. Conversely, many of the invasive plants and animals affect only wild areas species, and do not harm crops or livestock. However, there are a number of species such as Canada thistle that do double duty. It is important for persons involved with agriculture to know about invasive species, as they can be both the victims of this harm, and may unwittingly introduce or spread invasive species.

    There are a number of factors that are causing a rapid increase in the number of species invading Wisconsin. These include rapidly growing global trade, the public’s insatiable desire for new landscaping plants and global climate change. In addition, those invaders already in the area are accidentally moved around by roadside mowing, logging and farm equipment, tourists and outdoor recreationalists. The majority of people introducing or spreading these harmful species around are unaware of the harm they are causing. Many efforts have been underway for a number of years to raise the public’s awareness of the species of concern and what they can do to minimize their spread. Outreach efforts alone have not been sufficient to stem the tide of these invaders. Over the last few years groups of foresters, right-of-way managers, recreation enthusiasts and landscape industry members have been working together to create a series of voluntary Best Management Practices to help people in their fields to minimize the accidental spread of invasives. Agriculture is another large area of the economy that may benefit from developing similar voluntary practices.

  • Authors:  Nathanael Fickett, David Stoltenberg, Chris Boerboom, Clarissa Hammond

    In a postemergence herbicide program, the application of the herbicide can easily be delayed by weather, time constraints, equipment availability, and other such causes. However, if weeds are not controlled early enough, there is potential for yield loss from early Read more…

    In a postemergence herbicide program, the application of the herbicide can easily be delayed by weather, time constraints, equipment availability, and other such causes. However, if weeds are not controlled early enough, there is potential for yield loss from early season weed competition. This is true even when herbicides provide high levels of efficacy.

    It has been observed that a large number of corn and soybean fields in Wisconsin are currently being managed with postemergence programs. Thus, the potential for significant yield loss due to early-season weed competition exists. This became more evident after an initial survey of grower’s fields was taken in 2008. In this survey, weeds were controlled at an average height of 2 inches taller than the recommended critical heights for weed removal (4-inch weed height in corn and 6-inch weed height in soybean).

    In order to better understand the potential for yield loss from early season weed competition in Wisconsin corn and soybean fields managed with postemergence herbicide programs, in-field surveys of weed populations were conducted in 2008 and 2009. Individual field data from these surveys was used to estimate yield loss using a computer program called WeedSOFT®. A possible solution in soybean was also evaluated using on-farm trials comparing a single pass glyphosate program with a half rate of a preemergence broadleaf herbicide followed by glyphosate.

  • Authors:  Mark Renz

    Herbaceous perennial weeds are common pests in agricultural production systems. Plants with this life history have proven to be especially competitive as they have the ability to regenerate from perennial organs that persist belowground. This trait allows plants to tolerate Read more…

    Herbaceous perennial weeds are common pests in agricultural production systems. Plants with this life history have proven to be especially competitive as they have the ability to regenerate from perennial organs that persist belowground. This trait allows plants to tolerate management methods, compete with other plants, and survive stressful growing conditions. These traits can cause significant reductions in crop yield and may account for why herbaceous perennial weed species are increasing in frequency throughout Canada, the Midwestern United States and Wisconsin.

    Herbicides, mowing, tillage, burning, seeding competitive plants, and biological control have been effective in managing perennial weeds if applied correctly. Management methods typically target reducing stored resources in perennial storage organs and shading of shoots. Often combining techniques that integrate both strategies work the best. Due to the range of species biology and phenology, no recommendations are effective across all weed species. Often, it is useful to determine if perennial weeds are simple or creeping perennial weeds as biology and spread have subtle, but important differences for each life history. Correct identification of this type of life history is also useful in selecting the appropriate management methods. Below is a summary of biology, spread, and general management recommendations for simple and creeping perennial weeds along with a table of common perennial weeds found in Wisconsin. This presentation will provide an overview of the biology of perennial weeds and important factors to consider when using a range of management methods for these weed species.

  • Authors:  Amber Radatz, Birl Lowery, William Bland, Mack Naber, Dwight Weisenberger

    Significant decline in depth to the water table in the Wisconsin Central Sand Plain (WCSP), especially Portage and Waushara counties, has caused concern over the increase in land area devoted to irrigated agricultural crop production. The decrease in groundwater elevation, Read more…

    Significant decline in depth to the water table in the Wisconsin Central Sand Plain (WCSP), especially Portage and Waushara counties, has caused concern over the increase in land area devoted to irrigated agricultural crop production. The decrease in groundwater elevation, lake levels, and stream flows, has significant impacts on aquatic ecosystems, recreational uses of streams and lakes, and property values of riparian lands (Fig. 1). Since 2002, water table levels in parts of the WCSP have dropped over 30 cm per year. Thus, we conducted a study to investigate the interactions between vegetation (irrigated agricultural crops, prairie, and forest) and depth to groundwater in the WCSP. The purpose of this study is to understand the degree to which these groundwater fluctuations are driven by climate changes or increasing irrigated agriculture. After collecting over 18 months of continuous water table elevation data under several vegetation types, we can see effects of vegetation cover and irrigation practices on fluctuation patterns in the water table. The data show clear differences in recharge and discharge behavior of the water table under irrigated crops and natural vegetations. The groundwater monitoring site location within the groundwatershed also influenced recharge characteristics. The impact of seasonal changes on the water table is also apparent. We will continue to expand our current database of groundwater elevations to further understand vegetation and irrigation impacts on groundwater levels.

  • Authors:  Richard Wolkowski

    The interest in “vertical tillage” management has increased throughout the grain production region of the US in the past several years. The perception exists that certain traditional tillage practices create compacted layers and may reduce soil quality relative to crop Read more…

    The interest in “vertical tillage” management has increased throughout the grain production region of the US in the past several years. The perception exists that certain traditional tillage practices create compacted layers and may reduce soil quality relative to crop production. These layers basically restrict root development into the soil; whereas vertical tillage systems “open up” the soil to better root growth down into the soil. Many companies now promote their tillage equipment as vertical tillage implements. However, it is likely that the practice means different things to different people. It has been suggested that vertical tillage could be conducted shallow, at a depth of 3 to 4 inches using tools that are equipped with specialized disks or harrow attachments or deep to depths well beyond 12 inches using subsoiling-like knives that create slots and do not invert the soil.

    Perhaps it is easier to describe what is understood to not be vertical tillage (i.e., horizontal tillage). Such practices are those that shear the soil horizontally using a moldboard plow, field cultivator, or similar tools designed to cut and lift the soil often across the full tillage width. A chisel plow equipped with sweeps could be considered a horizontal tillage tool, while the same implement with straight points would provide vertical tillage. The principal effect is that there is a downward force associated with their operation that compresses the soil underneath as it cuts and lifts the soil, thereby creating a tillage pan. According to Dr. Randall Reeder, an agricultural engineer at The Ohio State University, negative factors associated with horizontal tillage practices include surface soil compaction, poorer root growth, increased erosion potential, and greater energy requirement to prepare a seedbed.

  • Authors:  Kevin Shelley, Jim Stute

    A cover crop is a crop grown to benefit the soil and other crops in the rotation and is usually not intended for harvest. The term cover crop is really a catchall phrase for numerous uses ranging from soil conservation, Read more…

    A cover crop is a crop grown to benefit the soil and other crops in the rotation and is usually not intended for harvest. The term cover crop is really a catchall phrase for numerous uses ranging from soil conservation, nutrient retention and environmental protection, improving soil quality and reducing use of purchased inputs. As such, a cover crop is usually planted to provide soil cover during otherwise idle intervals, or fallow periods, in a given crop rotation – that is, between harvest and planting of commodity or feed crops. In some cases, “living covers” may be inter-planted to grow with the commodity crop.

    Cover crops are widely recognized as an integral component of organic production systems but also have great potential in conventional agriculture where several cover crops systems have been successfully implemented by producers. The right cover crop can provide multiple benefits while other uses and benefits are mutually exclusive. For example, a green manure crop grown to provide nitrogen (N) will not increase soil organic matter because it’s biomass must rapidly decompose to release N to the following crop.

  • Authors:  Emily Bernstein, Josh Posner, Dave Stoltenberg, Janet Hedtcke

    Organic soybean and corn production in Wisconsin has rapidly increased to meet demand of the expanding organic dairy industry (USDA-ERS, 2006). A major challenge that organic row crop growers face is the intensive tillage needed for successful weed management (Posner Read more…

    Organic soybean and corn production in Wisconsin has rapidly increased to meet demand of the expanding organic dairy industry (USDA-ERS, 2006). A major challenge that organic row crop growers face is the intensive tillage needed for successful weed management (Posner et al., 2008), spurring interest by growers in improving weed management techniques (Walz, 1999). The use of a rye cover crop to facilitate no-till organic soybean production may improve weed management for organic growers, and provide additional ecosystem services including reduced soil erosion and runoff, increased soil organic matter and water infiltration, and trapping of excess nitrogen. This organic no-till rye mulch system has been limited in part due to uncertainty regarding the reliability of mechanical methods of terminating the cover crop, difficulty in establishing soybeans in the rye residue (Williams et al., 2000; Reddy et al., 2003), and the potential risk of competition between the rye cover crop and soybeans for soil moisture and nutrients resulting in reduced yields and economic returns (De Bruin et al., 2005; Westgate, 2005).

    We conducted research to determine some of the agronomic, economic, and environmental risks associated with the use of winter rye cover crop in no-till organic soybean production systems. Our objectives were to determine the effect of rye management (plowing, crimping, and mowing), and soybean planting date (mid-May or early June) on soil moisture availability, soybean stand establishment, weed suppression, and soybean yield. Treatment effects on economic gross margins, soil loss, and soil quality were also predicted.

  • Authors:  David Hogg, Claudio Gratton

    Soybean aphid population dynamics are influenced by a number of factors, most notably the “top down” effects of natural enemies (predators, parasitoids, and pathogenic fungi) and the “bottom up” effects of the host soybean plant. As for the latter, host Read more…

    Soybean aphid population dynamics are influenced by a number of factors, most notably the “top down” effects of natural enemies (predators, parasitoids, and pathogenic fungi) and the “bottom up” effects of the host soybean plant. As for the latter, host plant effects can include things such as plant stage or maturity, and plant nutritional status. For example, plant nitrogen has been found to be an important factor in cotton aphid growth and reproduction on cotton plants (Nevo and Coll, 2001). In the case of the soybean aphid, following the 2000 discovery of this pest in Wisconsin, entomologists and agronomists noticed that infestations in soybean seemed to be more severe in potassium deficient fields.

  • Authors:  Peter Nowak

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

  • Authors:  Kenneth Olson

    The 2008 spring rains in Illinois, Missouri, and Indiana delayed planting, drowned corn and soybean plants and resulted in significant re-planting. From May 30, 2008 to June 12, 2008, the previously saturated soils could not retain any more rainfall and Read more…

    The 2008 spring rains in Illinois, Missouri, and Indiana delayed planting, drowned corn and soybean plants and resulted in significant re-planting. From May 30, 2008 to June 12, 2008, the previously saturated soils could not retain any more rainfall and the wetlands, potholes and depressions in the upland landscape filled with water and then began to runoff through waterways and into small streams. As much as 30% of the upland soils in south central Illinois, northern Missouri, and southern Indiana were affected by ponding. Approximately 1/3 of that ponded acreage was not re-planted in 2008. As overland flow started to occur so did sheet, rill and gully erosion. Where significant topsoil loss occurs, it can eventually result in the erosion phase change of the soil. Any soil erosion phase change from slightly to moderately or severely eroded can reduce the crop yield potential from 5 to 15 bu/ac depending on whether the soils have favorable or unfavorable subsoils for rooting. One year’s erosion events do not change the erosion phase of the soil unless gullying occurs. However, the 2008 soil loss, when added to the soil loss from erosion in previous years, could eventually result in a soil erosion phase change.

  • Authors:  Paul Esker, Shawn Conley

    As wheat production continues to increase in Wisconsin (Fig. 1), the management of wheat diseases, especially with the use of foliar fungicides, has become an even more important topic of discussion (Fig. 1). With estimated foliar fungicide prices in the Read more…

    As wheat production continues to increase in Wisconsin (Fig. 1), the management of wheat diseases, especially with the use of foliar fungicides, has become an even more important topic of discussion (Fig. 1). With estimated foliar fungicide prices in the $25-30/acre range (application cost plus fungicide cost) for 2009, an integrated management approach for controlling wheat diseases is important. What does it mean to take an integrated management approach for controlling wheat diseases? This is a multi-step process of decisions (Esker et al., 2008a; Hollier and Hershman, 2008) and includes: (i) scouting fields, (ii) identifying the growth stage, (iii) knowledge of the disease risk, (iv) knowledge of the disease reaction of the variety planted (Conley et al. 2008), (v) stand quality coming out of dormancy, (vi) crop development, (vii) weather, (viii) knowledge of the types and differences in foliar fungicides, and (ix) wheat prices.

  • Authors:  Carrie A.M. Laboski

    Nitrogen is a very important nutrient for corn production and agronomists invest a lot of time in determining an appropriate application rate/time, assessing N credits from manure and legumes, and worrying about N losses. All aspects of N management impact profitability and environmental Read more…

    Nitrogen is a very important nutrient for corn production and agronomists invest a lot of time in determining an appropriate application rate/time, assessing N credits from manure and legumes, and worrying about N losses. All aspects of N management impact profitability and environmental quality. Phosphorus is another agronomically important nutrient, which, in recent years, has become a driving force in nutrient management plans. So much focus is placed on N and P, that at times, other nutrients may not be given adequate attention. The goal of this paper is to highlight two nutrients, which will likely have increasing agronomic importance in Wisconsin cropping systems.

    UW Madison, Soil Science
    2010 Nutrient Watch List
    nutrient management
  • Authors:  Lauren F. Vitko, Carrie A.M. Laboski, Todd W. Andraski

    Soil tests are an important tool to guide farmers in determining an appropriate fertilizer application rate. The interpretation of K soil test results are complicated by the fact that STK levels are known to fluctuate throughout the year (Blakemore, 1966; Read more…

    Soil tests are an important tool to guide farmers in determining an appropriate fertilizer application rate. The interpretation of K soil test results are complicated by the fact that STK levels are known to fluctuate throughout the year (Blakemore, 1966; Childs and Jencks, 1967; Liebhardt and Teel, 1977). Therefore, the time of soil sampling may impact fertilizer recommendations. Fluctuations in soil test K (STK) have been attributed to clay mineralogy and environmental conditions, like soil moisture status, wetting and drying cycles, and freezing and thawing cycles (Childs and Jencks, 1967).

    Soils high in 2:1 type clay minerals (micas and vermiculites) have the ability to fix K (i.e., trap K in the clay interlayer) or release potassium depending on the STK level and soil moisture status (Goulding, 1987). Soil tests only measure the solution and exchangeable forms of soil potassium, and do not measure the potassium that is ‘fixed’ in the interlayer of 2:1 clay minerals. Leubs et al. (1956) measured exchangeable K levels in the top ½ inch of two Iowa fields from June through August and found exchangeable K to be inversely related to soil moisture. In laboratory investigations, an increase in the number of wetting and drying or freezing and thawing cycles has been found to either increase or decrease the magnitude of fixation or release of potassium (Graham and Lopez, 1969; Zeng and Brown, 2000). However, the response of STK levels to environmental conditions differs widely among different soils; therefore it is important to evaluate how STK levels may fluctuate in the major soil groups of Wisconsin.

    UW Madison, Soil Science
    Effect of Sampling Time on Soil Test Potassium Levels
    nutrient management
  • Authors:  Paul Kivlin, Dennis Frame, Fred Madison

    Wisconsin is one of the nation’s leading poultry producers. Manure generated by poultry has the potential to negatively impact the state’s water resources if not properly managed. A common management practice associated with poultry manure handling is “headland stacking”. Headland Read more…

    Wisconsin is one of the nation’s leading poultry producers. Manure generated by poultry has the potential to negatively impact the state’s water resources if not properly managed. A common management practice associated with poultry manure handling is “headland stacking”. Headland stacking involves temporarily storing poultry manure on field edges until the field is available for manure spreading (after the crop is harvested). As defined by a Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) WPDES permit for a poultry operation, headland stacking occurs when poultry manure is piled in fields for 11 to 365 days prior to spreading. In practice, most headland manure stacks remain in place fewer than 3 months.

  • Authors:  Paul Esker, Mike Ballweg, Greg Blonde, Joe Bollman, Jerry Clark, Dave Fischer, Carla Hargrave, Steve Huntzicker, Bryan Jensen

    Foliar fungicide use on corn has increased in recent years. Insufficient Midwest field data have encouraged a series of small- and large-scale research plots implemented by UW-Madison and Extension personnel in 2007 and 2008. Large-scale field plots have advantages and Read more…

    Foliar fungicide use on corn has increased in recent years. Insufficient Midwest field data have encouraged a series of small- and large-scale research plots implemented by UW-Madison and Extension personnel in 2007 and 2008. Large-scale field plots have advantages and disadvantages when compared to small scale plots. Advantages of small-plot research include the ability to control variables such as soil type/texture, drainage, soil compaction and pest interactions. It also allows the researcher to evaluate several different treatments in a small area. However, the value of large-scale on-farm research is that the previously mentioned variables are not singled out and those results better represent “real world” scenarios. Both research methodologies should be considered vital and important steps in the research process.

  • Authors:  Madeline Gotkowitz

    In June 2008, overland flow of storm water and a rise in groundwater levels contributed to flooding 4,380 acres in Spring Green, Wisconsin. The affected area, which is located over a mile from the Wisconsin River floodplain, remained flooded for Read more…

    In June 2008, overland flow of storm water and a rise in groundwater levels contributed to flooding 4,380 acres in Spring Green, Wisconsin. The affected area, which is located over a mile from the Wisconsin River floodplain, remained flooded for 5 months.

  • Authors:  Sara Walling

    On-farm nutrient management begins with a good understanding of fieldspecific soils and their ability to accept nutrients and manure for optimal crop production while protecting water quality. DATCP is partnering with several federal and state agencies to develop two new Read more…

    On-farm nutrient management begins with a good understanding of fieldspecific soils and their ability to accept nutrients and manure for optimal crop production while protecting water quality. DATCP is partnering with several federal and state agencies to develop two new tools to help farmers protect water resources when land spreading manure.

    The first is online WI “590” Nutrient and Manure Application Restriction Maps which all of the mappable “590” spreading restrictions including slope and nitrogen restricted soils, and surface water quality management areas. These maps are currently available at http://www.datcp.state.wi.us/arm/agriculture/landwater/conservation/manure-mngmt/index.jsp.

  • Authors:  A.J. Bussan, Michael Copas, Michael Drilias

    Cover crops play a vital role in the management of processing vegetables in the Central Sands region of Wisconsin. The use of cover crops to reduce soil losses due to wind erosion has become a common practice following the harvest Read more…

    Cover crops play a vital role in the management of processing vegetables in the Central Sands region of Wisconsin. The use of cover crops to reduce soil losses due to wind erosion has become a common practice following the harvest of a given cash crop by producers in the region. The management of these cover crops focuses on erosion control and limits development of the crop beyond vegetative stages through tillage or herbicide control. Currently cereal rye is the most common species used in vegetable production fields as a cover crop. Cereal rye is advantageous for erosion control due to its rapid establishment and the ability to grow at cooler temperatures in fall following harvest.

  • Authors:  Phil Morrow

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

  • Authors:  Paul Mitchell

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

  • Authors:  Russell Groves, A.J. Bussan, Amy Chardowski, Tim Rehbein, Bill Halfman

    Wisconsin has a history in the production of fresh market and processing fruits and vegetables including cucurbit crops such as melons, cucumber, squash, and pumpkins. While acreages and crops have changed over the years, growers have adapted and remained leaders Read more…

    Wisconsin has a history in the production of fresh market and processing fruits and vegetables including cucurbit crops such as melons, cucumber, squash, and pumpkins. While acreages and crops have changed over the years, growers have adapted and remained leaders in several crops. Additionally, small-acreage fresh market production, particularly organic, continues to expand in Wisconsin. The demographics of these growers are also in transition in the state. Increasingly, a growing proportion of Amish growers are resettling in Wisconsin from Eastern states. These growers are contributing to an expanding fresh market produce industry through establishment of regional produce markets, multi-farm cooperatives and produce auctions. The geographic and social isolation of Amish communities creates a unique extension challenge in providing integrated pest management training for key pests. A key limiting factor for all cucurbit farmers includes cucumber beetles (e.g., cucumber beetles, Acalymma vittatum) and subsequent transmission of the bacterial wilt pathogen, Erwinia tracheiphila. This project focuses on the development of enhanced IPM practices for cucurbit production employing a combination of novel cultural and pest management practices. A special focus has been to emphasize practices that limit impacts on domestic and native pollinators. To date, we have documented significant reductions in both populations of cucumber beetles and the bacterial pathogen they transmit in susceptible vine crops using these tactics. Specifically, mean incidence of bacterial wilt was 2-3 X less prevalent among grower cooperators who implemented a combination of IPM-based practices when compared to both commercial and organic farm operators. The seasonal abundance and species composition of insect pollinators did vary among farms locations with Apis and Bombus spp occurring most frequently. We have demonstrated the ability to significantly reduce the reliance on broad spectrum insecticides by incorporating IPBbased, cultural practices that prevent damaging beetle feeding.

  • Authors:  Kenneth Bradbury

    Carbonate rocks (rock formations composed primarily of limestone or dolomite) underlie about one-third of Wisconsin. These formations occur in a U-shaped belt beginning in southern Polk County in the northwest, extending through most of southern Wisconsin, and covering the entire Read more…

    Carbonate rocks (rock formations composed primarily of limestone or dolomite) underlie about one-third of Wisconsin. These formations occur in a U-shaped belt beginning in southern Polk County in the northwest, extending through most of southern Wisconsin, and covering the entire eastern side of the state from the Illinois border to the Door Peninsula. These rocks are fractured, and vertical and horizontal fractures are the primary pathways for groundwater movement. These rocks are also soluble, and percolating water from precipitation can enlarge some fractures to form conduits, caves and sinkholes that are the hallmarks of a karst landscape.

  • Authors:  Sue Porter, Laura Good

    Snap-Plus version 1.128 was released in December, 2008. It can be downloaded from the Snap-Plus website (www.snapplus.net). This version includes many improvements requested by users. One of the major changes is implementation of an on-line Help system. Press F1 on Read more…

    Snap-Plus version 1.128 was released in December, 2008. It can be downloaded from the Snap-Plus website (www.snapplus.net). This version includes many improvements requested by users. One of the major changes is implementation of an on-line Help system. Press F1 on any Snap- Plus screen to bring up the Help system window. You can use the Help system to learn about the new features listed below.

  • Authors:  Paul Esker, Bill Halfman, Bryan Jensen

    Interest in using foliar fungicides continues to increase. Foliar fungicides have always been considered an effective management tactic when disease pressure warrants the application (Boerboom et al., 2008). Recently, however, foliar fungicides are being marketed for things like Plant Health Read more…

    Interest in using foliar fungicides continues to increase. Foliar fungicides have always been considered an effective management tactic when disease pressure warrants the application (Boerboom et al., 2008). Recently, however, foliar fungicides are being marketed for things like Plant Health or Plant Performance. Therefore, it is critical to further our understanding regarding if and when a foliar fungicide is effective for corn production in Wisconsin. Estimates for 2008 indicate that the number of acres in Wisconsin that received a foliar fungicide increased over 2007, when approximately 10% of the acreage was sprayed (400,000- 500,000 acres). Across the U.S., management of corn diseases is a process that requires decisions at multiple hierarchies (Table 1), including decisions made both pre- and post-planting. In this hierarchy is the use of foliar fungicides. The same factors that are used for managing corn diseases can be applied to determine the relative efficacy of an application of a foliar fungicide. Hybrid susceptibility is the number one factor to consider, followed by production practices like continuous corn and no-tillage corn, and having a high risk for leaf diseases.

  • Authors:  Fabian Fernandez, David Mengel, John Sawyer

    Correct nitrogen (N) management is essential for sustainable corn (Zea mays L.) production. While N fertilizer is an expensive input, this nutrient is critical since corn is in general very responsive to N fertilization. Proper N management is important not Read more…

    Correct nitrogen (N) management is essential for sustainable corn (Zea mays L.) production. While N fertilizer is an expensive input, this nutrient is critical since corn is in general very responsive to N fertilization. Proper N management is important not only in terms of profitability but also environmental protection. Anhydrous ammonia (NH3) is an important source of N fertilizer in much of the US Corn Belt, with some states applying close to fifty percent of their N in this form. This source of N is injected in the soil during fertilization to reduce losses to the atmosphere. Nitrogen losses to the atmosphere have negative effects to the environment and represent a lost input to the farmer. For these reasons, there have been many studies conducted to determine the appropriate depth, speed, and soil conditions to minimize losses (Jackson and Change, 1947; Stanley and Smith, 1956; Baker et al., 1959; Wagner and Smith, 1958; Abo-Abda, 1985). There is growing pressure to move N application from fall to spring and sidedress times to try to reduce the potential of N loss. This pressure (which also shrinks time of application to a smaller time-frame) comes at a period when farm size is increasing, the use of no-till or other tillage systems with minimal crop-residue disturbance is desired for soil conservation purposes, and reduction in fuel consumption is important to reduce production costs and carbon emissions. All these factors makes it necessary to investigate the possibility of applying anhydrous ammonia with equipment that allows faster application, lower fuel consumption, and minimal disturbance of the soil. Applications at shallow depths, as long as ammonia losses are maintained at an acceptable low level, may be a possible way to achieve these desired outcomes. Recently, a high speed low draft (HSLD) applicator, most commonly known as John Deere 2510H, was developed to inject anhydrous ammonia at shallow depth with minimal soil disturbance. Our objectives were to: compare a prototype of the HSLD injection system to a John Deere conventional till knife (TRAD) applicator; to compare corn plant stand, growth, and grain yield response to the two application systems; and to evaluate the impact of ammonia application method, timing, and rate on plant N status and grain yield.

  • Authors:  Joe Lauer

    Transgenic corn has dramatically changed the way Wisconsin farmers produce corn. The amount and cost of pesticides used for corn production has decreased, while weed and insect control has improved. Fewer nontransgenic hybrid options are available to farmers (Figure 1). Read more…

    Transgenic corn has dramatically changed the way Wisconsin farmers produce corn. The amount and cost of pesticides used for corn production has decreased, while weed and insect control has improved. Fewer nontransgenic hybrid options are available to farmers (Figure 1). Early adopters of transgenic hybrids have often perceived lower yields, and in general for most transgenic events this observation is accurate. But, within a short period of time transgenic hybrids yield above the average of nontransgenic hybrids more frequently. This “yield drag” or “yield lag” as it has been called by farmers is a major obstacle limiting early adoption of transgenic hybrids.

  • Authors:  Joe Lauer

    Farmers today have an increasing number of tools for managing crops. New developments in precision farming technologies, biotechnology, and advancements in pesticides, equipment, and other ag inputs are converging and arriving at the farm-gate at an unprecedented rate. Sifting through Read more…

    Farmers today have an increasing number of tools for managing crops. New developments in precision farming technologies, biotechnology, and advancements in pesticides, equipment, and other ag inputs are converging and arriving at the farm-gate at an unprecedented rate. Sifting through the overwhelming milieu of technologies to find the tools that really work is a challenge for farmers and the consultants and agronomists that serve and support production agriculture.

  • Authors:  Paul Mitchell

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

  • Authors:  Joe Diller

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

  • Authors:  Dennis Busch, Randy Mentz, Dave Owens

    The paired-basin approach was developed to evaluate impacts of forestry management on water quality, and has been adopted by researchers to evaluate management practices in agricultural land use settings. The methodology requires that two basins (control and treatment) are monitored Read more…

    The paired-basin approach was developed to evaluate impacts of forestry management on water quality, and has been adopted by researchers to evaluate management practices in agricultural land use settings. The methodology requires that two basins (control and treatment) are monitored for two time periods (calibration period and treatment period). If the two basins react in a consistent predictable manner while under similar management and climate during the calibration period, an alternate practice can be applied to one basin during the treatment period, and if the relationship between the basins changes, it is due to the treatment (Clausen 1993). The University of Wisconsin-Platteville’s Pioneer Farm has installed surface-water monitoring gauging stations in four agricultural basins and collected surface-water quality and quantity data for use in calibrating the basins for paired-basin research.

  • Authors:  Chris Boerboom

    The simplest part of weed management is selecting the right herbicide or mix of herbicides to control a specific weed complex. It is more difficult to understand and predict the timing and severity of weed competition with corn and soybeans. Read more…

    The simplest part of weed management is selecting the right herbicide or mix of herbicides to control a specific weed complex. It is more difficult to understand and predict the timing and severity of weed competition with corn and soybeans. Given the uncertainty of weed growth and crop yields each year and the uncertainly of crop price, it becomes even more difficult to predict the most economically profitable weed management program that a grower should use in each field. I could argue that the investment in a good weed management program has the highest or one of the highest returns on investment next to purchasing seed (i.e., a given since a grower must purchase seed to get any return). Without weed management, corn and soybean yields can be reduced by 50% or more so weed management protects a substantial portion of gross returns. While it is wise to be as economical as possible with herbicide expenditures, the goal and achievement of yield protection cannot be forgotten and appropriate investments in weed management programs should be made. Even before the substantial increases in seed, fertilizer, and land input costs in 2008 and 2009, herbicide costs were a relatively small percentage of the total production costs of corn and soybean and herbicides protect a large percentage of the gross value relative to their costs (Table 1).

  • Authors:  Mark Renz, Marie Schmidt, Richard Proost

    The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) was initially established as a cropland set-aside program offered by the United States Department of Agriculture in the 1985 Farm Bill. Over the past twenty years, priorities for this program shifted to support wildlife habitat, Read more…

    The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) was initially established as a cropland set-aside program offered by the United States Department of Agriculture in the 1985 Farm Bill. Over the past twenty years, priorities for this program shifted to support wildlife habitat, specifically nesting habitat, food and cover for upland birds. Due to this shift, many fields that are monocultures of cool season grasses such as smooth brome are now considered improper habitat for this program. Recently, the Farm Service Agency (FSA) has required owners of these properties to suppress cool season grasses and diversify the plant species present by inter-seeding the fields with desirable forbs. This management is intended to enhance wildlife habitat by increasing plant species and structural diversity as well as remove duff and control woody vegetation. While options for management are provided by the National Resource Conservation Service (NRCS), limited information exists on the effectiveness of herbicides and tillage in suppressing cool season grasses, establishing desirable forbs, and how these treatments can affect soil loss.

  • Authors:  Jerry Clark, Bob Cropp, Carl Duley, Bill Halfman, Steve Huntzicker, Trisha Wagner, Jon Zander

    On-Farm biodiesel production has gained interest in the past few years as volatile energy costs impact Wisconsin farmers. Dairy and other livestock production continues to be very important in western Wisconsin and on-farm biodiesel production may be one way for Read more…

    On-Farm biodiesel production has gained interest in the past few years as volatile energy costs impact Wisconsin farmers. Dairy and other livestock production continues to be very important in western Wisconsin and on-farm biodiesel production may be one way for livestock farmers to lower their costs both of fuel and protein inputs. Very little, if any, applied research is available for farmers regarding production, costs or safety of biodiesel production. University of Wisconsin Cooperative Extension Agriculture Agents in the Western District have developed a complete system for evaluating small scale on-farm biodiesel production including growing different oilseed crops to processing the oil into ATSM quality biodiesel. On-Farm Biodiesel Options for Livestock Farms is a program the extension agents have designed to provide farmers with unbiased information to make informed decisions regarding production of biodiesel. Information gathered from the program also includes quality and economics of feeding the protein meal byproduct to dairy cattle and other livestock.

  • Authors:  Michael Casler

    In 1992, the U.S. Department of Energy initiated its feedstock development program by choosing two model species upon which to develop a nationwide research infrastructure. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) was chosen as the herbaceous model plant and poplar (Populus spp.) was Read more…

    In 1992, the U.S. Department of Energy initiated its feedstock development program by choosing two model species upon which to develop a nationwide research infrastructure. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) was chosen as the herbaceous model plant and poplar (Populus spp.) was chosen as the woody model plant. Switchgrass was chosen for several reasons that included: (1) broad species adaptation within the USA including suitability on a wide range of marginal lands; (2) its native status; (3) relatively high biomass yields and high drought tolerance; (4) high seed production potential, ease of processing seed, and previous existence of a viable seed industry; and (5) its value in natural resource conservation programs. The principal accomplishment of the 10-year program was a projected 25% reduction in production costs for switchgrass biomass crops, achieved by (1) selection of the most adapted varieties within many regions of the USA, (2) optimization of harvest timing and frequency, and (3) reduction of nitrogen fertilization levels to minimize nitrate losses to groundwater. Most studies have shown that two harvests per year will increase biomass yields, but generally not enough to offset the increased production costs associated with a second harvest. Optimal nitrogen fertilization rates are about 100-120 lb N/A (110-130 kg N/ha) to achieve a balance between maximizing biomass yield and minimizing nitrate leaching into groundwater. Although switchgrass can be grown from Mexico to Canada, the range of adaptation of individual varieties is much more limited. Most varieties should not be moved more than one hardiness zone north or south of their origin. Likewise, eastern and western varieties are generally best adapted within their respective regions, east or west of the Mississippi River. A system of switchgrass gene pools has been proposed as a mechanism to classify and deploy switchgrass germplasm for breeding, marketing, and conservation purposes. A number of new varieties have been developed with increased biomass yield potential and these gains will continue as new switchgrass breeding programs have been established in strategic regions of the USA and as new genetic technologies come into play

  • Authors:  Paul Mitchell, Eric Birschbach, David West, Bill Schaumberg

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

  • Authors:  William Tracy

    The most troublesome diseases of sweet corn in our region continue to be northern corn leaf blight (Exserohilum turcicum) and common rust (Puccinia sorghi). From central Illinois south, Stewart’s wilt (Erwinia stewartii) can also be a problem. In certain environments Read more…

    The most troublesome diseases of sweet corn in our region continue to be northern corn leaf blight (Exserohilum turcicum) and common rust (Puccinia sorghi). From central Illinois south, Stewart’s wilt (Erwinia stewartii) can also be a problem. In certain environments and years maize dwarf mosaic and sugar cane mosaic virus can cause problems. With increased minimum tillage anthracnose (Colletotrichum graminicola) and Goss’s wilt (Clavibacter michiganense subsp. nebraskensis) can occur. For most of these diseases, sources of resistance exist and commercial cultivars have been developed with resistance. However, we know from experience that for many of these diseases the casual organisms can rapidly evolve virulence in response genetic resistance. The UW sweet corn breeding program continues to screen exotic germplasm to look for more diverse sources of resistance and incorporate these genes into adapted material.

  • Authors:  Tim Cox, Jim Leverich, Richard Wolkowski

    Recent increases crop acres managed by individual producers, rising fuel and equipment costs, the desire to plant crops in a timely manner, and catastrophic erosion events have renewed interest in conservation tillage systems. Historically, no-till management has been a challenge Read more…

    Recent increases crop acres managed by individual producers, rising fuel and equipment costs, the desire to plant crops in a timely manner, and catastrophic erosion events have renewed interest in conservation tillage systems. Historically, no-till management has been a challenge for corn production in Wisconsin because residue has slowed the warming of the soil in the spring. Residue can also physically impair planting by plugging within the planting unit and “hair-pinning” in the seed slot. Therefore most no-till corn planters have been modified to include some type of in-row residue management attachment, either as finger coulters or disks that are designed to move some residue from the row, without substantial contact with the soil. Many producers are now considering more aggressive attachments or separate tillage operations that not only address residue concerns, but till the soil to some degree with the goal of capturing the production advantages of full-width tillage, while offering the soil conservation benefits of no-till. This practice has come to be known as strip-tillage.

  • Authors:  David Hogg, Camila Botero, Rachel Mallinger

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, is a serious pest of soybean in Wisconsin and the upper Midwest. An import from China, the initial detection in 2000 of the soybean aphid in North America was in Wisconsin (Wedberg et al., 2001). Read more…

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, is a serious pest of soybean in Wisconsin and the upper Midwest. An import from China, the initial detection in 2000 of the soybean aphid in North America was in Wisconsin (Wedberg et al., 2001). Midwestern entomologists responded to the challenge of soybean aphid management by working together to determine a treatment threshold (Ragsdale et al., 2007) to use in conjunction with insecticidal control. In addition, research on soybean plant resistance is underway and is showing great potential as a tool for soybean aphid management (Hill et al., 2006a,b, Diaz-Martin et al., 2007). A third important management tactic, and the topic of this report, is biological control (or biocontrol) of the soybean aphid. We use the term biological control in its broadest context to include the actions of all types of aphid natural enemies – predators, parasitoids and pathogens – and species that are naturally occurring as well as those under human manipulation. We will focus our comments on predators and parasitoids. Soybean aphid is attacked by a number of pathogenic fungi (Nielsen and Hajek, 2005), but we have not observed pathogens to be a significant source of aphid mortality in Wisconsin.

  • Authors:  Scott Sturgul, Greg Kerr, Paul Knutzen, Paul Sturgis

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

  • Authors:  Dennis Cosgrove

    Species selection is an important first step in obtaining high yielding, long lasting pastures. There are a large number of productive pasture grasses and legumes to choose from. Each has advantages and disadvantages. Below is a brief description of the Read more…

    Species selection is an important first step in obtaining high yielding, long lasting pastures. There are a large number of productive pasture grasses and legumes to choose from. Each has advantages and disadvantages. Below is a brief description of the most common pasture grasses and legumes in Wisconsin.

  • Authors:  Mark Renz

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

  • Authors:  Brian Doherty

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

  • Authors:  Ann MacGuidwin

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

  • Authors:  Dick Wolkowski, Mike Stanek, Randy Puttkamer, Steve Huntzicker, Kevin Semke

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

  • Authors:  Judy Derrick

    Planning for normal rainfall events has been part of doing business on Wisconsin farms for centuries. In recent years, we are observing more intense rainfall events on localized areas of the state sometimes approaching rainfall factors that should only occur Read more…

    Planning for normal rainfall events has been part of doing business on Wisconsin farms for centuries. In recent years, we are observing more intense rainfall events on localized areas of the state sometimes approaching rainfall factors that should only occur every 100 years. Dealing with those intense storm events are very challenging and not planning for them results in amazing damage from erosion and offsite deposition of soil and nutrients. Natural Resource Conservation Service has several suggestions on reducing risks caused by unexpected rainfall events.

  • Authors:  Arnette Phibbs, Adrian Barta

    Plant Pathologists at the Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection (DATCP) survey Wisconsin’s agricultural crops for plant diseases and nematodes. They check for newly introduced problem organisms and monitor levels of known diseases and nematodes. Samples are tested at Read more…

    Plant Pathologists at the Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection (DATCP) survey Wisconsin’s agricultural crops for plant diseases and nematodes. They check for newly introduced problem organisms and monitor levels of known diseases and nematodes. Samples are tested at DATCP’s Plant Industry Laboratory, providing diagnostic services to facilitate export certification, inspections and surveys. In 2008, field surveys focused on the following crops and diseases: Early Season Diseases of Soybeans and Winter Wheat; Soybean Viruses; Potato Cyst Nematode; Soybean Cyst Nematode and Viruses and Stewart’s wilt of Seed Corn.

  • Authors:  Jeff Postle

    Between January 2007 and June 2007, 398 private drinking water wells were sampled as part of a statewide survey of agricultural chemicals in Wisconsin groundwater. The purpose of the survey was to obtain a current picture of agricultural chemicals in Read more…

    Between January 2007 and June 2007, 398 private drinking water wells were sampled as part of a statewide survey of agricultural chemicals in Wisconsin groundwater. The purpose of the survey was to obtain a current picture of agricultural chemicals in groundwater and to compare the levels in the 2007 survey with levels found in earlier surveys conducted in 1994, 1996 and 2001. Wells were selected using a stratified random sampling procedure and were used to represent Wisconsin groundwater accessible by private wells. Samples were analyzed for 32 compounds including herbicides, herbicide metabolites, one insecticide, and nitrate-nitrogen.

  • Authors:  Joel Pedersen

    Prion diseases comprise a family of inevitably fatal neurodegenerative diseases that affect a variety of mammalian species and include bovine spongiform encephalopathy (“mad cow” disease) in cattle, scrapie in sheep and goats, chronic wasting disease (CWD) in deer and elk, Read more…

    Prion diseases comprise a family of inevitably fatal neurodegenerative diseases that affect a variety of mammalian species and include bovine spongiform encephalopathy (“mad cow” disease) in cattle, scrapie in sheep and goats, chronic wasting disease (CWD) in deer and elk, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. The infectious agents in these diseases, referred to as prions, lack nucleic acid and are composed predominately, if not solely, of a misfolded form of the normal cellular prion protein. Scrapie and CWD appear unique among prion diseases in that animal-to-animal transmission can be mediated by an environmental reservoir of infectivity. Among potential reservoirs for prion infectivity, soil appears the most plausible. The diseaseassociated prion protein binds to a variety of soil minerals and can persist in soils for years. Attachment to soil particles limits migration of the pathogenic prion protein through fine-grained soils and may increase the potential for animal exposure by maintaining prions near the soil surface. Clay mineral-bound prions remain infectious intracerebrally, and soil particle-associated agent is infectious orally. Prion sorption to clay minerals dramatically enhances oral prion disease transmission suggesting an explanation for disease transmission despite the presumably low levels of prions shed by infected animals. Soil may contribute to the environmental spread of prion diseases by increasing the transmissibility of small amounts of infectious agent in the environment. Prions released into soil environments may be preserved in a bioavailable form, perpetuating prion disease epizootics and exposing other species to the infectious agent.

  • Authors:  Daniel Heider, Jed Colquhoun

    Research was conducted in the 2008 growing season to evaluate potential herbicides in several vegetable crops. The intent of this paper is to provide an update on these research projects and new labels available for the 2009 growing season. As Read more…

    Research was conducted in the 2008 growing season to evaluate potential herbicides in several vegetable crops. The intent of this paper is to provide an update on these research projects and new labels available for the 2009 growing season. As always, check and read the label prior to any herbicide use.

  • Authors:  Chris Williamson

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

  • Authors:  Eileen Cullen

    The National Research Council (1989) equated integrated pest management (IPM) adoption in field and forage crops with pest scouting and use of economic thresholds before a decision is made to apply insecticide. Three IPM terms and definitions are important for Read more…

    The National Research Council (1989) equated integrated pest management (IPM) adoption in field and forage crops with pest scouting and use of economic thresholds before a decision is made to apply insecticide. Three IPM terms and definitions are important for discussion purposes and data review during this workshop presentation.

  • Authors:  William F. Tracy

    Legal seed certification processes and organizations developed around the turn of the previous century. The goal of such laws and organizations was to protect farmers by assuring them that the seed they purchased was clean and viable and the variety Read more…

    Legal seed certification processes and organizations developed around the turn of the previous century. The goal of such laws and organizations was to protect farmers by assuring them that the seed they purchased was clean and viable and the variety it was purported to be. These processes also protected plant breeders and reputable seed companies. For many crops most notably corn, over time quality assurance was assumed by the seed companies who’s reputation and business would depend on the quality of the product. Today the traditional purpose of seed certification is still going strong especially for small grains and also newer crops such as prairie plant seeds. But a new dimension has been added to insure that the crop seed meets the claims regarding the presence or absence of transgenes or as they have become known “traits”.

  • Authors:  Shawn P. Conley

    Dramatic increases in soybean seed costs for 2009 (25 to 109%) have many growers rethinking their soybean seed options. The most drastic alternative being floated in the coffee shops is brown bagging or planting “saved” soybean seed. Before a grower Read more…

    Dramatic increases in soybean seed costs for 2009 (25 to 109%) have many growers rethinking their soybean seed options. The most drastic alternative being floated in the coffee shops is brown bagging or planting “saved” soybean seed. Before a grower considers this option we must revisit the legal issues and agronomic considerations associated with this practice. First, we will address the legal issues surrounding planting saved seed. In Wisconsin alone 90% of the soybean crop planted in 2008 was herbicide tolerant (USDA -ERS, 2008). Herbicide tolerant varieties are classified as patented varieties or possess patented genes. “If the variety is patented or has a patented gene, no seed may be saved for planting purposes and no farmer seed sales are permitted” (Spears and Weisz, 2004). It is likely given the economic climate we are under that field monitoring procedures will be ramped up in 2009 to “catch” growers that plant patented varieties. It is also apparent that those growers that are caught will be prosecuted and fined to the legal extent of the law to discourage other growers from attempting this practice.

  • Authors:  Jim Vanden Brook, Tom Bauman, Pat Murphy

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

  • Authors:  Antonio Mallarino

    Increasing fertilizer prices and awareness of potential impacts of excessive or badly applied nutrients on water quality has renewed interest in fertilizer management strategies that reduce nutrient inputs or improve efficacy. Fertilizer recommendations for phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) in Read more…

    Increasing fertilizer prices and awareness of potential impacts of excessive or badly applied nutrients on water quality has renewed interest in fertilizer management strategies that reduce nutrient inputs or improve efficacy. Fertilizer recommendations for phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) in Iowa and most states of the Corn Belt are based on soil testing and maintenance of desirable soil-test values by applying amounts removed with crop harvest. The typical Iowa farmer applies before planting corn the P and K fertilizer needed for corn-soybean rotations. A few farmers, mainly in the northern regions of the state and those using no-till management, also apply starter fertilizer for corn. Iowa research during the 1960s and 1970s showed that application of P and K fertilizer at rates of 20 lb P2O5 or K2O/acre or higher rates applied with planter attachment besides and below the seeds (commonly referred to as the 2×2 method) seldom was more efficient than similar amounts applied broadcast and seldom increased yield significantly in high-testing soils. Corn response to N-P-K starter was more likely for very early planting dates with wet and cold soil and/or high residue cover. Reports of corn responses to starter have been more frequent in northern regions of the Corn Belt, such as in Minnesota and Wisconsin.

  • Authors:  Carrie Laboski

    Fertilizer prices are at or near record highs. In addition, prices, particularly for nitrogen (N), will likely be volatile through spring. In the current high cost environment, how can, or should, fertilizer management be changed to maximize economic returns? The Read more…

    Fertilizer prices are at or near record highs. In addition, prices, particularly for nitrogen (N), will likely be volatile through spring. In the current high cost environment, how can, or should, fertilizer management be changed to maximize economic returns? The objective of this paper is to briefly outline how to assess fertilizer management practices to ensure profitability.

  • Authors:  Antonio Mallarino

    Many producers are reducing or skipping preplant fertilization for soybean due to high fertilizer prices, and in 2008 many fields were planted late or replanted due to excess rainfall with colder than normal temperatures. Therefore, producers and crop consultants wonder Read more…

    Many producers are reducing or skipping preplant fertilization for soybean due to high fertilizer prices, and in 2008 many fields were planted late or replanted due to excess rainfall with colder than normal temperatures. Therefore, producers and crop consultants wonder if foliar-applied fluid fertilizer could improve soybean growth and grain yield. Prior to the 1990s, research in Iowa and the Midwest had focused mainly on foliar fertilization at late soybean reproductive stages (R4 to R7). Hundreds of trials from the 1970s to the middle 1980s included nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), sulfur (S), and micronutrients treatments. The soybean plant has a sharp decline in root activity during late seed development stages with large nutrient translocation from leaves and pods into the developing seed. Researchers theorized that nutrients applied to the foliage at this time could increase yield by delaying leaf senescence and seed starvation. A few early experiments in Iowa suggested that spraying nutrients in the ratio 10-2.3-3.6-0.5 (N-P2O5-K2O-S) between the R5 and R6 growth stages could increase yield by 7 to 8 bu/acre even after preplant fertilization. However, more than 200 subsequent trials in the region showed inconsistent results, with mostly no yield increases and frequent yield decreases. Work mainly during the late 1990s and early 2000s in rain-fed conditions of the Midwest has shown mostly yield decreases when N sources were sprayed at late growth stages. The more positive results were observed under very high yield conditions and irrigation in some starts of the Great Plains region. These results have discouraged further research and adoption of foliar fertilization of soybean at late reproductive stages. Because of concerns about Asian Soybean Rust spreading north and evidence of soybean grain yield response to midseason application of fungicides, however, some producers are considering mixing fluid fertilizers and fungicides for midseason foliar application to soybean.

  • Authors:  Krista Hamilton

    Field data from the annual survey of adult corn rootworms in August revealed an increase from 2007 populations in 6 of the 9 agricultural reporting districts, including the southwest, southeast, west central, northwest, north central and northeast, and a decrease Read more…

    Field data from the annual survey of adult corn rootworms in August revealed an increase from 2007 populations in 6 of the 9 agricultural reporting districts, including the southwest, southeast, west central, northwest, north central and northeast, and a decrease in populations in the remaining districts. The state average was 1.0 beetle per plant, the same average as in 2007. Average populations by district were as follows: northwest 1.1; north central 1.5; northeast 1.6; west central 1.0; central 0.5; east central 0.6; southwest 0.5; south central 0.9; southeast 0.6 (see table on Page 152). The western species constituted 52% of the state average population, while the northern species made up about 48%. Research entomologists consider an average of 0.75 beetle per plant to indicate an elevated risk for root injury in continuous corn the following year if some form of control is not used, and 38% of 229 fields in the major corn growing counties had such a count or higher. The obvious conclusion from these results is that there is a high potential for rootworm damage to continuous corn next season.

  • Authors:  Shannon Earhart, Carrie Laboski, Christopher Baxter

    There is minimal information on the nitrogen (N) availability and composition of treated manures. Knowing how N availability differs with manure treatment will result in better N crediting guidelines. Raw dairy manure and anaerobically digested manure were incubated with five Read more…

    There is minimal information on the nitrogen (N) availability and composition of treated manures. Knowing how N availability differs with manure treatment will result in better N crediting guidelines. Raw dairy manure and anaerobically digested manure were incubated with five typical Wisconsin soils for 112 d. Net N mineralized from the different N sources were compared. Nitrogen mineralization differed by manure type and also by soil. Overall, the digested slurry and the digested separated liquid mineralized more N than the raw slurry. The digested separated solid mineralized significantly less N than the other manures. Net N mineralization as a percent of total N applied was 39, 58, 49, and 17% for raw, digested slurry, digested separated liquid, and digested separated solids, respectively, when averaged over all soils. C:N ratio of manure was found to be the most useful predictor of manure N mineralization.

  • Authors:  Bill Jokela, John Peters

    Nutrient management planning for a dairy farm is important to maximize utilization of manure nutrients for crop production, as well as to avoid excessive application rates and adverse water quality impacts. The nutrients in manure have become even more valuable Read more…

    Nutrient management planning for a dairy farm is important to maximize utilization of manure nutrients for crop production, as well as to avoid excessive application rates and adverse water quality impacts. The nutrients in manure have become even more valuable recently with dramatic increases in fertilizer prices. But just what is the content of various nutrients in dairy manure? How much is it worth as fertilizer replacement? How variable is the nutrient content from different farms? And have there been changes over time with shifts in feeding or other management practices? Recent summaries of manure analyses run by laboratories in Wisconsin and Vermont can help to answer these questions.

  • Authors:  Ken Albrecht, Tyson Ochsner, Bob Berkevich

    Alfalfa and corn silage, grown in rotation, have long been the primary high quality forages harvested to support the dairy industry in Wisconsin. However, removal of essentially all plant residues with corn silage production results in excessive erosive soil loss Read more…

    Alfalfa and corn silage, grown in rotation, have long been the primary high quality forages harvested to support the dairy industry in Wisconsin. However, removal of essentially all plant residues with corn silage production results in excessive erosive soil loss (Gallagher et al., 1996), prompting the need for alternative soil conserving systems. The proposed removal of stover for biofuel feedstock after corn grain harvest will result in additional land prone to soil and nutrient runoff because of a lack of cover. Furthermore, the ever-increasing cost of nitrogen fertilizer encourages the search for cropping systems that rely on biologically fixed nitrogen for both corn grain and silage production.

  • Authors:  Matthew Ruark, James Stute

    With dramatic fluctuations in feed, fuel, and fertilizer prices, much attention is again being paid toward use of cover crops in agricultural systems. Cover crops provide benefits to agricultural systems such as reductions nitrogen (N) loss and potential reduction in Read more…

    With dramatic fluctuations in feed, fuel, and fertilizer prices, much attention is again being paid toward use of cover crops in agricultural systems. Cover crops provide benefits to agricultural systems such as reductions nitrogen (N) loss and potential reduction in N fertilizer need to maintain crop yields. Cover crops in Wisconsin’s agricultural systems are most often used prior to corn following a short season crop such as winter wheat, potatoes, or vegetables. There are two main types of cover crops used in Wisconsin: (1) cool-season grasses and (2) legumes. Cool-season grasses are primarily used to provide ground cover in cropping systems that leave little residue after harvest in effort to reduce soil erosion. Leguminous cover crops are used to add N into the soil system through biological fixation of atmospheric N. When these legumes are incorporated into the soil, this “fixed” N becomes plant available as the soil tissue decomposes. Legume crops are grown for one season or less, and incorporated into the soil without harvesting, are referred to as green manures. Current UW recommendations are to take N credits when utilizing green manures such as alfalfa, sweet clover, red clover, and hairy vetch (Table 1). However, several field studies conducted in the past decade indicate that cool-season grasses and other green manures such as berseem clover, crimson clover, and medic also impact the economic optimum N fertilizer rate (i.e., the N fertilizer rate that maximizes the economic return to N based on the price ratio of N fertilizer and corn). This paper summarizes recent research related to both cover crop types in Wisconsin.

  • Authors:  Ann MacGuidwin

    There is a renewed interest in nematode pests of corn. Even as producers fine-tune fertility and cultural practices such as planting date and plant density, yields fail to reach the genetic potential of new cultivars in some fields. In many Read more…

    There is a renewed interest in nematode pests of corn. Even as producers fine-tune fertility and cultural practices such as planting date and plant density, yields fail to reach the genetic potential of new cultivars in some fields. In many cases, nematodes are a major contributor to stagnant or declining yields. There is an industry push to bring new nematicides to market, so producers who are knowledgeable about nematodes will be positioned to take advantage of new technology and products.

  • Authors:  Eileen Cullen

    Widespread farmer adoption of Bt corn hybrids and new Bt traits for caterpillar pests in addition to corn rootworm have increased the number of acres where target insect pests are exposed to Bt active ingredients each growing season. The purpose Read more…

    Widespread farmer adoption of Bt corn hybrids and new Bt traits for caterpillar pests in addition to corn rootworm have increased the number of acres where target insect pests are exposed to Bt active ingredients each growing season. The purpose of Insect Resistance Management (IRM) is to maintain the effectiveness of Bt crops as an insect pest management tool by preventing or delaying development of insect resistance to Bt traits. The IRM plan is implemented by planting refuge corn acres on each farm where a Bt corn hybrid is planted. Refuge corn acres do not contain the Bt insect trait used in the Bt planting. A refuge provides a corn crop habitat that allows target pest insects to feed, mate and reproduce without being exposed to the Bt trait. Mating between Bt-susceptible insects from the refuge and potential resistant insect ensures that susceptibility to the Bt toxin is passed on to the next generation. Without a refuge, target insect populations that are exposed to Bt corn each growing season over multiple generations will eventually become resistant to Bt.

  • Authors:  Richard Proost

    Determining if a weed control failure is due to resistance or some other factor is an investigational process that involves asking a lot of questions in order to rule things out. It’s important to remember that weed control failures are Read more…

    Determining if a weed control failure is due to resistance or some other factor is an investigational process that involves asking a lot of questions in order to rule things out. It’s important to remember that weed control failures are usually not an indication of resistance development. Weed control failures can and do occur from multiple and interacting factors including weather and application errors. Resistance should not be assumed to be the cause of a weed control failure; other reasons must be investigated first. This paper presents information that can help you determine if herbicide resistance should be suspected for a weed control failure, or if it is due to other factors.

  • Authors:  Chris Boerboom, Nathanael Fickett, Clarissa Hammond

    Wisconsin corn and soybean growers and their advisors understand that weeds need to be controlled before the critical period of weed removal, which is the time when early-season weeds begin to compete with crops and cause yield loss. Despite this Read more…

    Wisconsin corn and soybean growers and their advisors understand that weeds need to be controlled before the critical period of weed removal, which is the time when early-season weeds begin to compete with crops and cause yield loss. Despite this knowledge, the potential for yield loss from weed competition exists because of cropping systems that rely on postemergence herbicide programs. In particular, the adoption of glyphosate-resistant corn and soybean allows weeds to be controlled exclusively with postemergence glyphosate applications. If glyphosate is applied to these crops before the critical period of weed removal, full yield potential can be achieved. However, if glyphosate applications are delayed, yield losses will occur. The potential for such yield losses is significant in Wisconsin because over 90% of soybeans are glyphosateresistant and estimates of glyphosate-resistant corn may exceed 70%. Of course, the potential for yield losses associated with postemergence herbicide programs can also occur in conventional or LibertyLink crops. The yield loss is a function of the timing of weed management, not the herbicide or genetic trait of the crop.

  • Authors:  Richard Wolkowski

    Residue management should be a focus of every producer’s crop management plan. Crop residue is known to be important for erosion reduction, supplying of organic matter for maintaining soil tilth, and as a sink for plant nutrients that are released Read more…

    Residue management should be a focus of every producer’s crop management plan. Crop residue is known to be important for erosion reduction, supplying of organic matter for maintaining soil tilth, and as a sink for plant nutrients that are released to subsequent crops. The amount of crop residue at the surface has traditionally been linked to soil conservation programs, and it is generally accepted to be the farmer’s best tool for controlling erosion. As the yield potential of crops has increased, the amount of residue has increased. This has been viewed as problematic by some, especially for corn, where the additional residue is considered to be a hindrance to tillage. The greater residue has caused some producers to “size” the residue by chopping or installing chopping heads on their combines. In many instances the crop residue is baled and removed, especially in years like 2010 when crops matured early. Furthermore, traits such as “Bt” have anecdotally been linked to slower residue decomposition and have resulted in more aggressive residue management by producers

  • Authors:  Mike Turner

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

  • Authors:  Tim Ranson, Ernie Sundstrom, Brandon Vogel, Kevin Erb

    Applying just over 3 billion gallons of liquid manure annually, Wisconsin’s 119 for-hire manure applicators are a key component when it comes to implementing the 590 nutrient management plans you write. Yet to the typical professional applicator, the plans they Read more…

    Applying just over 3 billion gallons of liquid manure annually, Wisconsin’s 119 for-hire manure applicators are a key component when it comes to implementing the 590 nutrient management plans you write. Yet to the typical professional applicator, the plans they receive from the farmer are hard to interpret and implement. The Professional Nutrient Applicators Association (PNAAW) and UW Extension surveyed Wisconsin’s applicators in the summer of 2007, and more than half of the applicators gave us their opinion of the industry, it’s needs, nutrient management plans, and the future.

    Looking at the more than 2,500 farms served by the professional applicators, the farmer or their CCA is determining the application rate 79% of the time—the rest of the time the applicator is making the rate determination. Often, the rate a CCA provides is not the rate the farmer tells the applicator. Twenty percent of the applicators say they have never seen a nutrient management plan, and the vast majority see a plan on only a handful of their farmer clients—usually the CAFOs.

  • Authors:  Ed Hopkins

    This presentation will introduce the crop managers and others in the audience to the Wisconsin State Climatology Office (SCO) and describe the role that the office plays in monitoring the climate of the Badger State for more than a century. Read more…

    This presentation will introduce the crop managers and others in the audience to the Wisconsin State Climatology Office (SCO) and describe the role that the office plays in monitoring the climate of the Badger State for more than a century. The talk will show graphical examples of climate variables relevant to the conference theme, excerpted from the SCO web site. Long records of such climate variables as temperature, precipitation and drought will also be shown to illustrate the history of recent climate change. A weather outlook for this coming spring across the Upper Midwest will be provided.

  • Authors:  Dave Fredrickson, Lori Bowman

    The Agrichemical Management Bureau is charged with administering and enforcing Wisconsin’s pesticide, animal feed, fertilizer, soil and plant additive laws. The Bureau also is responsible for the agricultural chemical clean up program and regulates bulk storage of pesticides and fertilizer Read more…

    The Agrichemical Management Bureau is charged with administering and enforcing Wisconsin’s pesticide, animal feed, fertilizer, soil and plant additive laws. The Bureau also is responsible for the agricultural chemical clean up program and regulates bulk storage of pesticides and fertilizer products. The last year has seen some significant changes in our programs and the fees we collect. Lori Bowman, Director of the Bureau, will provide an update on fee changes made in the last budget. The budget also made changes to our Clean Sweep and reimbursement programs. Plans for revisions to administrative rules will be discussed.

  • Authors:  Craig Grau, Paul Esker, Mike Ballweg, Jerry Clark, Dave Fischer, Carla Hargrave, Bill Halfman, Steve Huntzicker, Bryan Jensen

    High corn prices and increase in continuous corn acreage have escalated interest in the use of corn foliar fungicides in the absence of foliar disease pressure. Because insufficient Wisconsin and/or Midwestern data exists, the University of Wisconsin Cooperative Extension staff Read more…

    High corn prices and increase in continuous corn acreage have escalated interest in the use of corn foliar fungicides in the absence of foliar disease pressure. Because insufficient Wisconsin and/or Midwestern data exists, the University of Wisconsin Cooperative Extension staff initiated a coordinated effort to gather data from replicated trials.

     

     

  • Authors:  Joe Lauer, Trent Stanger

    Crop rotation is a universal management practice that has been recognized and exploited for centuries and is a proven process that increases crop yields (Bhowmik and Doll, 1982; Fahad et al., 1982; Baird and Benard, 1984; Dabney et al., 1988; Read more…

    Crop rotation is a universal management practice that has been recognized and exploited for centuries and is a proven process that increases crop yields (Bhowmik and Doll, 1982; Fahad et al., 1982; Baird and Benard, 1984; Dabney et al., 1988; Peterson and Varvel, 1989). Biennial rotation of two summer crops often improves the yield of both crops. In the Midwestern U.S., a biennial rotation of corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] produced significant increases in the yields of both crops (Crookston and Kurle, 1989; Meese et al., 1991). Crookston et al. (1988) concluded that the rotation effect is not due to some lingering positive effect of the previous crop. Rather, a rotated crop apparently serves to relieve the negative effect of continuous cropping, and does not make any positive, growth-regulatory contribution to the yield of a following crop. This paper summarizes some of the recent crop rotation data collected in Wisconsin.

  • Authors:  Dave Stoltenberg

    Unlike many factors that affect the development of weed resistance to herbicides (Stoltenberg 2004), herbicide selection intensity and can be directly affected by the grower. Herbicide selection intensity is determined by herbicide efficacy, persistence, and frequency of application (Gressel and Read more…

    Unlike many factors that affect the development of weed resistance to herbicides (Stoltenberg 2004), herbicide selection intensity and can be directly affected by the grower. Herbicide selection intensity is determined by herbicide efficacy, persistence, and frequency of application (Gressel and Segel 1990). The greater the number of susceptible weeds that are exposed to a herbicide and killed, the greater the selection intensity upon that weed population. Reduced herbicide selection intensity will reduce the probability of resistance development and prolong the usefulness of a herbicide mode of action. However, it is essential to balance the benefits of responsible herbicide stewardship with the need to maintain satisfactory levels of weed management. One rationale for adopting an integrated approach to weed management is to reduce herbicide selection intensity on our weed populations.

    Although the integration of weed management practices is recommended to reduce the potential for weed resistance to glyphosate (Boerboom and Owen 2006), research to quantify the effectiveness of such integration under field conditions is limited. To address this information need, field data from a long-term experiment (Stoltenberg and Jeschke 2007) at the University of Wisconsin Arlington Agricultural Research Station was analyzed to determine the probability (or likelihood) of occurrence of giant foxtail (Setaria faberi), redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus), common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album), velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti), and giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida) resistance to glyphosate as affected by crop sequence, tillage system, and intensity of glyphosate use. The goal was to provide a quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of integrated weed management practices to reduce the risk of selection for resistance to glyphosate among some of our most common weed species.

  • Authors:  William Bland

    It takes an astonishing volume of water to grow a typical human diet: over 1000 gallons for what most of us will eat today. Here in Wisconsin and in the near future this does not appear to be a problem, Read more…

    It takes an astonishing volume of water to grow a typical human diet: over 1000 gallons for what most of us will eat today. Here in Wisconsin and in the near future this does not appear to be a problem, but globally and looking forward to 2050, the water required to grow human diets may prove to be an enormous challenge. Earth’s population is sure to grow substantially, diets are changing toward requiring more water to produce, there is a persistent number of people who do not receive enough to eat each day, and we are coming to learn that we must reserve some water in rivers, lakes, wetlands, and in groundwater to keep ecosystems healthy. Can the global food system meet this challenge?

  • Authors:  Nancy Koval, Paul Esker, Craig Grau

    The cornerstone of a strong soybean management strategy is diligent and timely scouting for insect and disease problems. With a proactive approach, yield losses may often be avoided or reduced. However, when scouting for evidence of diseases in soybeans, many Read more…

    The cornerstone of a strong soybean management strategy is diligent and timely scouting for insect and disease problems. With a proactive approach, yield losses may often be avoided or reduced. However, when scouting for evidence of diseases in soybeans, many difficulties may be encountered. Because most plant pathogens are microscopic, a grower or consultant must rely on symptoms observed on plants. Therein lies a challenge; often symptoms of diseases are not distinct from each other, nor are they always “typical.” Additionally, incorrect diagnosis may result in an ineffective control method, wasting time and money and not preventing yield loss. Ineffective control may allow the pathogen to maintain a presence in subsequent years. It is critical then that soybean producers are able to quickly and accurately diagnose disease conditions in the field.

  • Authors:  Steve Powell

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

  • Authors:  Jerry Clark, Gregg Hadley, Jenny Vanderlin

    Management skill sets of agri-business or organizational managers vary as much as the types of businesses or organizations in which they manage. Successful managers possess and demonstrate various levels of effective skill in specific management attribute areas. How to assess Read more…

    Management skill sets of agri-business or organizational managers vary as much as the types of businesses or organizations in which they manage. Successful managers possess and demonstrate various levels of effective skill in specific management attribute areas. How to assess management skill and a manager’s ability to demonstrate effectiveness has been accomplished through management assessment centers.

  • Authors:  John Lamb

    Manganese (Mn) has become a nutrient of interest in soybean production systems in the Midwest. This interest stems from reports from Purdue researchers of Mn uptake reductions caused by the glyphosate tolerant gene in soybean. Interest also has come from Read more…

    Manganese (Mn) has become a nutrient of interest in soybean production systems in the Midwest. This interest stems from reports from Purdue researchers of Mn uptake reductions caused by the glyphosate tolerant gene in soybean. Interest also has come from grain yield responses in Kansas.

    Manganese is an essential nutrient for crop production. In cases where Mn is not available, a plant can not finish its life cycle without it. Mn is involved with photosynthesis and a cofactor in many plant reactions. Mn activates about 35 different enzymes in the plant and also is involved in nitrogen metabolism in the plant.

  • Authors:  Paul Mitchell

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

  • Authors:  Jon Fischer, Barry Nash, Ron Walejko, Dave Ruen, Paul Vassalotti, Arnie Imholte

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

  • Authors:  Arnie Imholte

    This past year, DuPont received the 2007 Agrow Award for “Best R&D Pipeline” in recognition of the broad array of new technology and biotech traits in development across the DuPont Agriculture & Nutrition platform. The depth and breath of the Read more…

    This past year, DuPont received the 2007 Agrow Award for “Best R&D Pipeline” in recognition of the broad array of new technology and biotech traits in development across the DuPont Agriculture & Nutrition platform. The depth and breath of the DuPont pipeline across new chemistries and genetic traits make it unique to the industry.

    The following is just a sampling of the exciting work done by scientists within the DuPont companies. Pioneer Hi-Bred is preparing to launch its new Optimum™ GAT™ trait in soybeans, which offers growers expanded choices for controlling a broad spectrum of weeds through both glyphosate and ALS herbicide tolerance. The trait also will be introduced in corn and other crops.

  • Authors:  Russell Groves, Scott Chapman

    The Colorado potato beetle (CPB), Leptinotarsa decemlineata, the potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae, and colonizing aphid species remain as the major insect pests of potato in commercial as well as seed production in Wisconsin. If left unchecked, feeding by both the Read more…

    The Colorado potato beetle (CPB), Leptinotarsa decemlineata, the potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae, and colonizing aphid species remain as the major insect pests of potato in commercial as well as seed production in Wisconsin. If left unchecked, feeding by both the larvae and adults of the CPB alone will completely defoliate plants. Potato growers have struggled to control this problematic insect pest since 1865 when the first broad-spectrum insecticide, Paris green (lead arsenate), was dusted onto potato leaves to protect the foliage from CPB. Since that time, maintaining control of this insect remains at the forefront of our efforts to protect potato from damaging insect pests.

  • Authors:  Deana Knuteson, Walt Stevenson

    Fungicide resistance has been increasing in severity and now is found in many registered products. Resistance is defined as an inherited change in pathogen’s susceptibility to a fungicide. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed a voluntary pesticide labeling proposal Read more…

    Fungicide resistance has been increasing in severity and now is found in many registered products. Resistance is defined as an inherited change in pathogen’s susceptibility to a fungicide. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed a voluntary pesticide labeling proposal that groups pesticides with similar modes of action and designates them with a number. The information for fungicides can be found at the Fungicide Resistance Action Committee website at http://www.frac.info/frac/index.htm.

    The genetic alterations that create resistant populations occur most rapidly when growers repeatedly apply pesticides with similar modes of action in consecutive sprays. Therefore, it is essential to not spray the same product or similar products against the same target pest in consecutive applications. Single-site fungicides are more likely to develop resistance by pest populations. Recommended product use for single-site fungicides (including many of the new, reduced-risk products) are to completely avoid consecutive sprays. This rule applies when premix products which include a single-site material are used, or if the applications are tank-mixed with single-site products.

  • Authors:  Sue Porter, Laura Good

    SNAP-Plus is a Microsoft Windows® based Nutrient Management Planning software program designed for the preparation of nutrient management plans in accordance with Wisconsin’s Nutrient Management Standard Code 590. The program is available free of charge for download from the “Current Read more…

    SNAP-Plus is a Microsoft Windows® based Nutrient Management Planning software program designed for the preparation of nutrient management plans in accordance with Wisconsin’s Nutrient Management Standard Code 590. The program is available free of charge for download from the “Current Version” link. This release of Snap-Plus addresses issues found since the September 2007 version 1.121. SNAP-Plus will calculate: • Crop nutrient (N, P2O5, K2O) recommendations for all fields on a farm taking into account legume N and manure nutrient credits consistent with University of Wisconsin recommendations • A RUSLE2-based soil loss assessment that will allow producers to determine whether fields that receive fertilizer or manure applications meet tolerable soil loss (T) requirements. • A rotational Phosphorus Index value for all fields as required for using the P Index for phosphorus management. • A rotational P balance for using soil test P as the criteria for phosphorus management. Updates are released periodically to add new features and bug fixes. The main changes and improvements available in the current version of Snap-Plus are listed below by the menu or screen where they appear in the program.

  • Authors:  Matthew Repking, Carrie Laboski

    Potato plants are very inefficient in their ability to utilize soil phosphorus (P) on some soils (Kelling et al., 1997). The optimum soil test P category for potato is more than three times greater than for other crops (Laboski et Read more…

    Potato plants are very inefficient in their ability to utilize soil phosphorus (P) on some soils (Kelling et al., 1997). The optimum soil test P category for potato is more than three times greater than for other crops (Laboski et al., 2006). Being a high value crop, potato growers generally tend to apply more P fertilizer than recommended because it is inexpensive insurance if a yield response to applied P would occur. State nutrient management regulation requires growers to write and follow a nutrient management plan. This regulation also requires that nutrient application rates should conform to University of Wisconsin Extension (UWEX) guidelines. The potato growers feel that UWEX fertilizer recommendations for P are too low and could potentially reduce potato yield and quality.

  • Authors:  Russell Groves, Scott Chapman

    Effective, economical, and efficient long term management of both onion thrips and onion maggot continues to be a challenge in the production of dry bulb onion. Both insects pests continue to be a high pest priority for Wisconsin onion growers. Read more…

    Effective, economical, and efficient long term management of both onion thrips and onion maggot continues to be a challenge in the production of dry bulb onion. Both insects pests continue to be a high pest priority for Wisconsin onion growers. Problematic populations of onion thrips are not regularly the result of warm summer time temperatures combined with insensitivity to the standard insecticides. Furthermore, many of the currently registered products for control of onion maggot are not equally effective against the seed corn maggot which is becoming locally abundant. As a result, thrips and seed maggot management is a top priority and an improved understanding of the ecology and management of these pests is essential towards the development of long-term control methods.

  • Authors:  Daniel Heider, Jed Colquhoun

    Research was conducted in the 2007 growing season to evaluate potential herbicides in several vegetable crops, including cabbage, table beets, carrots, and snap bean. The intent of this paper is to provide an update on these research projects. However, keep Read more…

    Research was conducted in the 2007 growing season to evaluate potential herbicides in several vegetable crops, including cabbage, table beets, carrots, and snap bean. The intent of this paper is to provide an update on these research projects. However, keep in mind, the majority of the herbicide products mentioned are NOT labeled on these crops. As always, check and read the label prior to any herbicide use. A summary of these projects is included below.

  • Authors:  Joe Bollman, Chris Boerboom, Roger Becker, Vince Fritz

    Sweet corn weed management can be challenging because of the limited number of postemergence herbicides, the potential for these herbicides to cause injury, and the weed spectrum to be controlled. Currently, Callisto and Impact are labeled for use in sweet Read more…

    Sweet corn weed management can be challenging because of the limited number of postemergence herbicides, the potential for these herbicides to cause injury, and the weed spectrum to be controlled. Currently, Callisto and Impact are labeled for use in sweet corn while Laudis is nearing registration and Status is being evaluated for postemergence use in sweet corn. Sweet corn hybrids have had limited evaluation to determine tolerance to Impact and Laudis. We are not aware of any public testing to determine the tolerance of sweet corn hybrids to Status. Therefore, three field studies and one greenhouse study were conducted to evaluate hybrid tolerance to Status, Impact and Laudis applied postemergence.

  • Authors:  Douglas Karlen

    American farmers are now being asked to produce food, feed, fiber, and fuel. My goal is to provide you, as soil and crop consultants, information that will help your clients achieve these multiple goals in an economically and environmentally sustainable Read more…

    American farmers are now being asked to produce food, feed, fiber, and fuel. My goal is to provide you, as soil and crop consultants, information that will help your clients achieve these multiple goals in an economically and environmentally sustainable manner. We will review the potential unintended consequences of increasing corn grain production for ethanol and discuss developments for harvesting corn stover as a cellulosic feedstock. The importance of maintaining or increasing soil carbon and its potential to limit the amount of crop residue that can be removed is discussed. Initial results from Iowa show a average yield penalty of 10% where corn (Zea mays L.) was grown for the third consecutive year and a 50% reduction in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], where corn stover was removed from a site with low soil-test P, K and organic matter. We’ll conclude with ideas for how producers might balance the multiple demands being placed on their time and natural resource base, thus enabling the nation to address bioenergy, water quality, carbon sequestration, erosion, wildlife and other community issues in a truly sustainable manner.

  • Authors:  Dick Wolkowski

    It is estimated that ethanol production will consume about 30% of the US corn crop by 2010. This phenomenon is encouraging favorable grain prices and dramatically increasing corn acreage. Recent USDA data show that corn production rose nearly 20% last Read more…

    It is estimated that ethanol production will consume about 30% of the US corn crop by 2010. This phenomenon is encouraging favorable grain prices and dramatically increasing corn acreage. Recent USDA data show that corn production rose nearly 20% last year from 78 million acres in 2006 to nearly 94 million acres in 2007. While farmers are expected to plant slightly less corn in 2008, in favor of wheat and soybean, it is anticipated that corn acreage could return to a level above 90 million acres in 2009. A consequence of long-term continuous corn production could be the adoption of more aggressive tillage to manage large amounts of crop residue. This could potentially lead to decreased soil quality and increased soil loss. Research has shown that aggressive tillage systems such as moldboard and chisel plowing reduce aggregate stability. Coupled with the lower surface crop residue resulting from tillage the affected soils are prone to more erosion than no-till or other low disturbance systems. Soil quality degradation and increased soil erosion would be a poor trade-off for fuel independence. Therefore, producers must carefully consider tillage options when growing corn on corn. Additionally nutrient management considerations within a continuous corn production may require some adjustment based upon tillage intensity and the need to incorporate manure or other amendments.

  • Authors:  Kevan Klingberg

    Four years (Nov. 03 – Oct. 07) of discharge and water-quality data were collected from three, adjacent, cropped basins on a private southwest WI farm. Field edge discharge through grassed waterways was monitored continuously and composite water samples for rainfall Read more…

    Four years (Nov. 03 – Oct. 07) of discharge and water-quality data were collected from three, adjacent, cropped basins on a private southwest WI farm. Field edge discharge through grassed waterways was monitored continuously and composite water samples for rainfall and snowmeltinduced runoff events were collected and analyzed for nutrients and sediment. Farm management was no-till corn or soybean on 4-6% slope silt loam soil with terraces and grassed waterways in place. For study purposes, livestock manure was applied at typical rates in either fall or late winter, just before snowmelt.

  • Authors:  Eileen Cullen

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, is capable of reducing soybean yield by 20-40% during severe outbreaks in the North Central growing region of the U.S. (McCornack et al., 2007). Since soybean aphid was first documented in Wisconsin in 2000, a common Read more…

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, is capable of reducing soybean yield by 20-40% during severe outbreaks in the North Central growing region of the U.S. (McCornack et al., 2007). Since soybean aphid was first documented in Wisconsin in 2000, a common University research protocol was adopted by entomologists in six North Central states (MN, IA, WI, MI, ND, and NE) who provided data from 19 yield-loss experiments conducted over a 3-year period. Results of this research validated the soybean aphid economic threshold (ET) recommendation to treat within 7 days when aphid density exceeds 250 aphids/plant.

    The ET is the pest density at which management action should be taken to prevent an increasing pest population from reaching the economic injury level (EIL). The EIL is the lowest population of insects that will cause economic damage, i.e., yield loss that equals the cost of control. In 2003, a preliminary EIL of 1,000 aphids per plant was reported based on research from the University of Minnesota. Since then, data from additional states (2003-2005), including Wisconsin, have refined the EIL at 674 (± 95) aphids/plant during the R1 – R5 soybean growth stages (Ragsdale et al., 2007).

  • Authors:  Richard Proost

    Alfalfa is a critically important forage crop to Wisconsin’s dairy industry. According to Wisconsin Agricultural Statistics Service, in 2005 Wisconsin farmers produced 8.53 million tons of alfalfa forage annually on 2.45 million acres. Using an average price of $87.00 per Read more…

    Alfalfa is a critically important forage crop to Wisconsin’s dairy industry. According to Wisconsin Agricultural Statistics Service, in 2005 Wisconsin farmers produced 8.53 million tons of alfalfa forage annually on 2.45 million acres. Using an average price of $87.00 per ton, total crop value, if sold, would be $742 million dollars. Wisconsin farmers place a substantial investment into the production of alfalfa. The UW-Madison Center for Dairy Profitability estimates variable production costs of $241.13 per acre to establish a stand of alfalfa. Bearing in mind that Wisconsin farmers establish 500,000 of alfalfa acres annually, out of pocket expenses for alfalfa establishment reaches nearly $121 million dollars. Despite alfalfa’s importance, dairy farmers have been reluctant to scout alfalfa. The last Pest Management Summary published by the National Agricultural Statistics Service in 2001 indicated that only 31 percent of the farms in the North Central Region scout alfalfa fields, and only 11 percent used scouting information to make insect management decisions.

  • Authors:  Dan Undersander

    Resistance to Potato Leafhopper in alfalfa was discovered over 40 years ago but this trail has been slowly incorporated into alfalfa varieties and those available have been underused by farmers. This occurred because the first varieties with this trait had Read more…

    Resistance to Potato Leafhopper in alfalfa was discovered over 40 years ago but this trail has been slowly incorporated into alfalfa varieties and those available have been underused by farmers. This occurred because the first varieties with this trait had low levels of resistance and did not perform well in the field. Also this resistance is not complete; it raises the spray threshold and reduces the need for spraying but, if insect levels become sufficiently high, fields may still need to be sprayed. Later generations have had good resistant but some yield drag (reduced yield in the absence of the insect compared to nonresistant varieties). The latest generation of potato leafhopper resistant varieties has both good resistance and little yield drag (Table1).

  • Authors:  Paul Mitchell

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

  • Authors:  Jim Brook, Pat Murphy, Tom Bauman

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

  • Authors:  Tom Bauman

    The state of Wisconsin has a number of voluntary and regulatory programs at the local, state and federal level that are intended to ensure that nutrients from all sources are applied properly and in manner that protects waters of the Read more…

    The state of Wisconsin has a number of voluntary and regulatory programs at the local, state and federal level that are intended to ensure that nutrients from all sources are applied properly and in manner that protects waters of the state. The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) has a number of voluntary and regulatory programs designed to promote the creation and implementation of nutrient management plans (NMP). The primary WDNR regulatory tools for NMP implementation are as follows:

    • Water quality protection permits, called Wisconsin Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (WPDES) permits, issued by WDNR to larger-scale livestock operations known as Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFO). These permits are issued under ch. NR 243, Wis. Adm. Code, and are based on EPA delegation of Clean Water Act permitting authority to WDNR and other state water quality protection authority.
    • Statewide Agricultural Performance Standards and Prohibitions contained in ch. NR 151, Wis. Adm. Code. This rule is implemented in concert with the Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection (DATCP) and local units of governments (i.e., towns and counties). The WDNR recently completed revisions to CAFO permit requirements contained in ch. NR 243. These revisions include requirements for phosphorus-based nutrient management, additional restrictions when CAFOs apply manure and process wastewater near lakes, streams and their conduits, and additional restrictions on CAFO applications of manure on frozen or snow-covered ground.
  • Authors:  Bill Jokela, Jack Meisinger

    Livestock manure has the potential to provide significant benefits for soil health and crop nutrient supply; but it also can contribute to a range of environmental problems, including ammonia emission. In particular, maximizing crop utilization of manure N requires careful Read more…

    Livestock manure has the potential to provide significant benefits for soil health and crop nutrient supply; but it also can contribute to a range of environmental problems, including ammonia emission. In particular, maximizing crop utilization of manure N requires careful management to control N losses.

    Manure N can be lost by several different processes—nitrate leaching, gaseous denitrification, and surface runoff of N. But the process that commonly has the potential for the greatest N loss from manure – and the one most readily controlled by management – is ammonia volatilization (Fig. 1). Besides the obvious economic loss requiring replacement with purchased fertilizer N, there are potential environmental concerns as well. Ammonia emission can contribute to eutrophication of surface waters (esp. marine and estuarine) via atmospheric deposition. The decreased amount of available N in manure reduces the N:P ratio and leads to a more rapid build-up of P in the soil for a given amount available N. And ammonia in the atmosphere can form fine particulates that lower air quality.

  • Authors:  Mike Murray

    The Livestock Siting Law (s. 93.90 Wis. Stats.) and Rule (Ch. ATCP 51 Wis. Adm. Code) establish the framework local governments must use if they elect to regulate the siting of new and expanding livestock operations (typically over 500 animal Read more…

    The Livestock Siting Law (s. 93.90 Wis. Stats.) and Rule (Ch. ATCP 51 Wis. Adm. Code) establish the framework local governments must use if they elect to regulate the siting of new and expanding livestock operations (typically over 500 animal units). The state standards and process have been incorporated into 20 county and 24 town ordinances, more are expected. To obtain a conditional use permit or license in these jurisdictions, new and expanding operations must show that they meet state requirements for waste storage, odor, nutrient and runoff management. What does this mean for nutrient management planners?

  • Authors:  Shawn Conley, John Gaska

    Moderate to severe drought stress afflicted much of Wisconsin’s soybean crop in 2007. In soybean there are two growth periods for which soil moisture is critical for optimum growth and development: at planting and during the reproductive stages from bloom Read more…

    Moderate to severe drought stress afflicted much of Wisconsin’s soybean crop in 2007. In soybean there are two growth periods for which soil moisture is critical for optimum growth and development: at planting and during the reproductive stages from bloom through pod fill. The time period from stand establishment to bloom is not as critical. Drought stress during this time period will often shorten internodes; however yield loss rarely occurs. In Wisconsin the main reproductive growth in soybean occurs from early July to mid-September. Soybean in this phase use about 1/4 to 1/3 inch of water per day. Lack of sufficient water can cause flowers and young pods to abort reducing the number of seeds per plant. Also, soybean plants reduce the size of their leaf pore openings to reduce the loss of water vapor. This also reduces the intake of carbon dioxide and the manufacturing of photosynthates which slows plant growth. When normal soil moisture returns, normal growth is resumed. This ability to reduce metabolic activity allows plants to tolerate dry spells without dying or harming their ability to resume growth when normal moisture returns.

  • Authors:  Kevin Shelley, Jim Stute

    Planting a winter rye cover crop after corn silage is an easily implementable conservation practice. Harvest as forage the following spring can generate income which should make the practice even more appealing for producers. Forage best management practices can be Read more…

    Planting a winter rye cover crop after corn silage is an easily implementable conservation practice. Harvest as forage the following spring can generate income which should make the practice even more appealing for producers. Forage best management practices can be found in an NPM Program publication: Planting Winter Rye after Corn Silage, Managing for Forage (http://ipcm.wisc.edu/Publications/tabid/54/Default.aspx). Managing rye for optimum forage yield and quality will maximize conservation benefits including nutrient management. In this paper we will discuss nutrient management implications and opportunities.

  • Authors:  Mark Renz

    Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) policy has historically and continues to require participants to maintain/manage CRP cover throughout the life of the contract. However, often invasive and/or undesirable plants have established and threaten desirable plants that provide cover for wildlife. Contracts Read more…

    Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) policy has historically and continues to require participants to maintain/manage CRP cover throughout the life of the contract. However, often invasive and/or undesirable plants have established and threaten desirable plants that provide cover for wildlife. Contracts require that these unwanted plants are managed, but management activities are restricted so that wildlife and cover for wildlife are not disturbed during critical periods. Often these restrictions limit the effectiveness of many common management methods resulting in poor control. This can frustrate landowners and often leads to them not managing the unwanted vegetation. This has resulted in many CRP fields in Wisconsin with extensive weed populations. When the contract for these fields expires NRCS and FSA staff have found it difficult to allow for reenrollment given the level of these infestations and in some cases have cited landowners for not managing/maintaining desirable cover as stated in their contract. This has caused a great deal of frustration between all parties involved. To provide further clarification, NRCS has developed additional guidelines to assist land managers to improve and better define what weed species are of concern and what population(s) size will be considered acceptable within enrolled acreage.

  • Authors:  Chris Boerboom, Timothy Trower, Carrie Laboski, Todd Andraski

    The question “Fertilizing weeds for a profit?” certainly seems illogical because a corn grower would never intentionally fertilize weeds. However, the potential exists that weeds are being fertilized unintentionally in hundreds of fields in Wisconsin each year. The weeds that Read more…

    The question “Fertilizing weeds for a profit?” certainly seems illogical because a corn grower would never intentionally fertilize weeds. However, the potential exists that weeds are being fertilized unintentionally in hundreds of fields in Wisconsin each year. The weeds that emerge and grow early in the season are competing with the corn for nutrients, but the amount of competition may not be fully understood. Considering the high cost of nitrogen, perhaps a more refined question to ask is “How do weeds and weed management affect a corn grower’s profitable use of nitrogen?” The University of Wisconsin and other Midwest universities have introduced new nitrogen use guidelines to maximize the returns to nitrogen inputs. At the same time, many corn fields are being treated with postemergence herbicide programs, which increase the potential for early season weed competition. This increases the potential that weeds may compete and limit the nitrogen available for the corn. This may not be a concern when excess nitrogen is applied, which would be more affordable at lower nitrogen prices. However, this could be a significant concern when nitrogen rates are being optimized. Because of this concern, we wanted to determine if early season weed competition shifted the economic optimum nitrogen rates in corn.

  • Authors:  Birl Lowery, William Bland, George Kraft, Amber Weisenberger, Mario Flores, Phillip Speth

    In recent years, especially the past 10 years, there has been an alarming decline in groundwater and lake levels and reduced stream flows in the Wisconsin Sand Plains (WSP). This greatly impacts aquatic ecosystems, recreational uses of aquatic resources, and Read more…

    In recent years, especially the past 10 years, there has been an alarming decline in groundwater and lake levels and reduced stream flows in the Wisconsin Sand Plains (WSP). This greatly impacts aquatic ecosystems, recreational uses of aquatic resources, and property values of riparian lands. It is clear that reduced stream flows are associated with reduced groundwater elevations. What is not clear is the cause of the lower groundwater level. However, there is a popular belief that the reduction in groundwater table elevations is associated with irrigation of agricultural land from high capacity irrigation wells. Wisconsin common law related to groundwater makes use of a “reasonable use standard” (Kent and Dudiak, 2001), so potential conflicts between lake riparian owners and groundwater-based irrigation indicates the urgency of developing an improved understanding of irrigation’s impacts on groundwater quantity. There is ample evidence that groundwater fluctuations occur naturally because of drought and high rainfall periods (Heath, 1983), but accompanying this natural fluctuation in precipitation has been a tremendous growth in irrigated cropping in the humid parts of the U.S. in general, and particularly in the WSP (WDNR, 1970; Bajwa et al., 1992; Ellefson et al., 2002). At a broader scientific level, there is a need for understanding irrigation water use (evapotranspiration, ET) by crops with respect to native vegetation (including grass and forest) on WSP, and other sand plains in humid temperate regions with shallow depth to groundwater. Arguably irrigated crops should be viewed as simply another vegetation type on the landscape, with characteristic temporal patterns of evapotranspiration loss and groundwater recharge, albeit strongly driven by human manipulation of soil wetness through irrigation. Foster and Chilton (2003) note the heavy exploitation of groundwater in recent years. They suggest that most consumptive use of pumped groundwater is by irrigated agriculture. We initiated a research project in summer of 2007 to attempt to obtain quantitative data on the causes of changes in groundwater elevation relative to groundwater use for irrigated crop in comparison to natural vegetation on WSP over recent decades. Water use by the differences vegetations will be accomplished via computer model simulation and indirect measurements of groundwater recharge rates.

  • Authors:  John Norman

    For much of the world, water remains a limiting resource for agricultural production. In the U.S. where we have the wealth to provide machinery, genetic material, fertilizers and pesticides to enhance production, crop water needs continue to be a formidable Read more…

    For much of the world, water remains a limiting resource for agricultural production. In the U.S. where we have the wealth to provide machinery, genetic material, fertilizers and pesticides to enhance production, crop water needs continue to be a formidable obstacle to increasing food and fiber production. With all the magic that technology has wrought upon agriculture, why don’t we have plants that use less water? Since less than 1% of the water used by plants is required for metabolism and less than 5% is required to meet the water storage needs within most plants, this question seems reasonable. Photosynthesis is the process whereby plants convert carbon dioxide in the air to carbohydrates in biomass, using light as the energy source. For cells inside of a leaf to get access to carbon dioxide, the plant must provide a pathway for this gas to diffuse from the open atmosphere into the leaf as well as providing a pathway for the waste product, oxygen, to diffuse from inside the leaf to outside. Because all cells in the plant leaf must remain bathed in water to stay alive, this same pathway for carbon dioxide to gain entry to the leaf allows water vapor to exit that same leaf with oxygen. Neither plants, through evolution, nor humans with their creativity have found a way to allow carbon dioxide and oxygen to diffuse without allowing water vapor to diffuse too.

  • Authors:  Matt Laak

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

  • Authors:  John Peters

    Response to sulfur (S) was recorded as early as 1768 by Rev. A. Meyer, who applied gypsum to experimental plots in Switzerland. Shortly after, Ben Franklin demonstrated response to S by writing “THIS LAND HAS BEEN PLASTERED” with gypsum on Read more…

    Response to sulfur (S) was recorded as early as 1768 by Rev. A. Meyer, who applied gypsum to experimental plots in Switzerland. Shortly after, Ben Franklin demonstrated response to S by writing “THIS LAND HAS BEEN PLASTERED” with gypsum on a hillside pasture in Pennsylvania. The incidence of S deficiency is increasing throughout the world and is fairly widespread in Australia, New Zealand, South America and tropical Africa and Asia. In the United States, S deficiency was known in the Pacific Northwest as early as 1900. Since then, S deficiency has been found in many states. The increasing incidence of S deficiency in the past 25 years is primarily due to increased use of high analysis S-free fertilizers, decreased use of Scontaining insecticides and fungicides, decreased use of high S fuels, and increased crop yield, requiring more of all essential elements.

  • Authors:  John Lamb

    Sulfur application in the past has been targeted to alfalfa, corn, canola, and small grains. Normally the yield or growth response has occurred when responsive crops are grown on sandy soils or eroded knobs with a silt loam texture. The Read more…

    Sulfur application in the past has been targeted to alfalfa, corn, canola, and small grains. Normally the yield or growth response has occurred when responsive crops are grown on sandy soils or eroded knobs with a silt loam texture. The soil test for S has not been reliable for predicting S needs on soils that are not sandy in texture. Minnesota currently uses texture to base S recommendations.

    Today sulfur needs may have changed. Some of the reasons for this is a greater occurrence of reduced tillage systems and less sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere. Ninety-five percent of the sulfur in the soil is found in the organic matter. The rest comes from sources such as the atmosphere and irrigation water.

  • Authors:  Carrie Laboski

    Most fertilizer materials are highly soluble salts, which dissociate in the soil solution following application. Almost every spring there are reports of fertilizer burn somewhere in Wisconsin. Seedling injury caused by fertilizer burn can result in minimal to extensive stand Read more…

    Most fertilizer materials are highly soluble salts, which dissociate in the soil solution following application. Almost every spring there are reports of fertilizer burn somewhere in Wisconsin. Seedling injury caused by fertilizer burn can result in minimal to extensive stand loss and can be extremely costly in high value vegetable crops. I have been asked recently to review several problem fields where liquid fertilizer was placed in-furrow with the seed both with and without Y-splitters or was dribbled above the row on the soil surface. Stands were significantly reduced in each field. It is important to understand salt index and factors which contribute to fertilizer burn in order to avoid fertilizer injury to seedlings.

  • Authors:  Carrie Laboski, Todd Andraski, Chris Boerboom, Timothy Trower

    The price of fertilizer nitrogen (N) has increased substantially over the past three months and ranges from $0.37 to 0.60/lb N with anhydrous ammonia at the lower end of the range and poly coated urea (ESN®) at the upper end Read more…

    The price of fertilizer nitrogen (N) has increased substantially over the past three months and ranges from $0.37 to 0.60/lb N with anhydrous ammonia at the lower end of the range and poly coated urea (ESN®) at the upper end of the range. Many dealerships are expecting the price of N fertilizer to increase as we move towards planting. With the increasing N prices, questions are being asked regarding how much N should be applied to maximize economic return in corn production. As of mid-December 2007, the price of corn was between $3.80 to $4.25/bu depending on contract, location, etc. Thus, the N:corn price ratio varies from 0.09 to 0.16. These price ratios do not differ substantially from the price ratios that were prevalent in winter 2005/2006.

    The maximum return to N (MRTN) tool that was released in 2006 can be used to determine an appropriate N rate for corn with fluctuating N and corn prices. Current N fertilizer and grain prices suggest lower N fertilizer rates should be applied to maximize economic return. The object of this project was to evaluate how the MRTN N rate guidelines performed in 2007.

  • Authors:  Paul Esker, Craig Grau, Bryan Jensen

    In 2007, fungicide use for U.S. corn production exploded. Based on discussions amongst Extension Plant Pathologist, it was estimated that approximately 10% of U.S. corn acres (approximately 9 to 10 million acres), were sprayed with a foliar fungicide during the Read more…

    In 2007, fungicide use for U.S. corn production exploded. Based on discussions amongst Extension Plant Pathologist, it was estimated that approximately 10% of U.S. corn acres (approximately 9 to 10 million acres), were sprayed with a foliar fungicide during the season. Current demand for foliar fungicides has focused on products of the strobilurin (pyraclostrobin, azoxystrobin or trifloxystrobin) and/or triazole (propiconazole) classes (Boerboom et al., 2007). Our goal and objective in this paper is to summarize what was learned in 2007 regarding the use of foliar fungicides on corn, as well as some of the factors that need to be considered before making the decision to apply a foliar fungicide.

  • Authors:  Monte Wegner

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

  • Authors:  Brad Mikelson

    As your business changes so does your customer. We live in the era where information is the key to success, but is it? All of us can have information at our finger tips if we choose to have it. Our Read more…

    As your business changes so does your customer. We live in the era where information is the key to success, but is it? All of us can have information at our finger tips if we choose to have it. Our customers also have this opportunity. Information can help or hurt you in business – it is all how it is interpreted. Customers have different needs and also have different ways to research and for fill these needs. Using technology can be a wonderful tool but also can “loose” the deal for you. Using modern day technology can be frustrating at times but if used correctly with the right clients can be a wonderful and successful tool.

  • Authors:  Shawn Conley, Carrie Laboski

    Manganese deficiency in soybean can be expected on Wisconsin soils with high pH (>7.0) and/or higher soil organic matter (OM) contents (>6.0). Soils that meet these criteria are typically, but not exclusively, found in Eastern Wisconsin. In the 2005 and Read more…

    Manganese deficiency in soybean can be expected on Wisconsin soils with high pH (>7.0) and/or higher soil organic matter (OM) contents (>6.0). Soils that meet these criteria are typically, but not exclusively, found in Eastern Wisconsin. In the 2005 and 2006 growing season, Dr. Laboski did not receive any calls/emails regarding suspected Mn deficiency in soybean. However, in the 2007 growing season, Dr. Laboski received many inquiries. Manganese was confirmed to be deficient in many fields over an area from Eastern Waupaca Co. south to Jefferson Co., and mostly east of Lake Winnebago. In every case that was confirmed with soil and tissue analysis, the soil had high pH and/or higher OM content. In most cases, glyphosate resistant (GR) soybean varieties were planted in the field.

  • Authors:  Chris Boerboom

    Weeds evolve in response to the management practices that we impose on them. The evolution of herbicide-resistant weed biotypes is just one example of their adaptation. In regards to herbicide resistance, we have experienced two major periods in the evolution Read more…

    Weeds evolve in response to the management practices that we impose on them. The evolution of herbicide-resistant weed biotypes is just one example of their adaptation. In regards to herbicide resistance, we have experienced two major periods in the evolution of herbicide resistance starting with triazine resistance and followed by ALS-inhibitor resistance. Currently, we are in the midst of a time period where the evolution and spread of glyphosate-resistant weeds is occurring. In reflecting on this current time, I wonder if we also evolve in how we respond to herbicide resistant weeds. Do we progress through five phases similar to the Kubler-Ross model, which are 1) denial, 2) anger, 3) bargaining, 4) depression, and 5) acceptance? Let me explain using a little literary license on the original model.

  • Authors:  David Onstad

    Corn insects have the capability to evolve resistance to insecticides, transgenic insecticidal corn, and crop rotation. The western corn rootworm is the poster pest for resistance evolution. I will present general arguments for resistance management, explain the likely reasons for Read more…

    Corn insects have the capability to evolve resistance to insecticides, transgenic insecticidal corn, and crop rotation. The western corn rootworm is the poster pest for resistance evolution. I will present general arguments for resistance management, explain the likely reasons for resistance evolution by the rootworm in the past, and discuss future insect-resistance management (IRM) strategies for rootworm and corn borer. Effective IRM depends upon good IPM, adequate coordination and compliance amongst corn growers, consultants, and extension specialists, and a preventative/proactive approach. In essence, good IRM is IPM that is successful over a large region and remains effective for a decade or more.

  • Authors:  A.J. Bussan, Michael Copas, Michael Drilias

    Vegetable crop production is the third leading agricultural industry in Wisconsin behind dairy and grain production. The primary region for intensively managed vegetable cropping is located in central Wisconsin, with large production regions located near Spring Green, Janesville, Fond du Read more…

    Vegetable crop production is the third leading agricultural industry in Wisconsin behind dairy and grain production. The primary region for intensively managed vegetable cropping is located in central Wisconsin, with large production regions located near Spring Green, Janesville, Fond du Lac, Markesan, Manitowoc, and Cumberland also playing a vital role in the industry. The current vegetable cropping system inherently demands high fertilizer inputs, specifically nitrogen. Due to current global instability in oil producing regions, chemical nitrogen prices have risen drastically and the potential remains for future price volatility. Exploring alternative cropping systems as a means for providing nitrogen as well as improving the sustainability of the cropping systems without limiting yield or quality of harvested crops is a rapidly developing area of needed research.

  • Authors:  Krista Hamilton

    Analysis of the annual corn rootworm beetle survey revealed a state average population of 1.0 beetle per plant. This represents a decrease from 1.4 per plant in 2006 and 1.6 per plant in 2005. Averages by agricultural reporting district were Read more…

    Analysis of the annual corn rootworm beetle survey revealed a state average population of 1.0 beetle per plant. This represents a decrease from 1.4 per plant in 2006 and 1.6 per plant in 2005. Averages by agricultural reporting district were as follows: northwest 0.4 per plant; north central 0.7 per plant; northeast 0.5 per plant; west central 0.4 per plant; central 0.8 per plant; east central 1.4 per plant; southwest 0.4 per plant; south central 2.2 per plant; southeast 1.0 per plant. The western species was dominant on a statewide basis, while populations of the northern species were higher in the cooler and more northern counties, including Barron, Chippewa, Door, Dunn, Clark, Green Lake, Juneau, Lincoln, Marathon, Marinette, Oconto, Pepin, Polk, Portage, Rusk, Shawano, Taylor, Vernon, Waupaca, Winnebago, and Wood. About 39% of the 222 corn fields surveyed had economic populations of 0.75 or more beetle per plant. The largest increase from 1.7 to 2.2 beetles per plant was documented in the south central district, while the largest decreases from 2006 to 2007 were noted in the southwest (2.2 to 0.4 per plant), northeast (1.8 to 0.5 per plant), and east central districts (2.2 to 1.4 per plant). An average of 0.75 or more beetle per plant indicates the potential for feeding injury by corn rootworm larvae in multi-year corn.

  • Authors:  John Lamb

    There has been a considerable amount of interest in using liquid fertilizer materials at corn planting. Most producers are open to this as long as the fertilizer can be applied on the seed and thus they do not need to Read more…

    There has been a considerable amount of interest in using liquid fertilizer materials at corn planting. Most producers are open to this as long as the fertilizer can be applied on the seed and thus they do not need to use a starter attachment. The major concern with this practice is germination damage from the fertilizer. In the past, the damage has been attributed to the salt and ammonium content of the fertilizer. Several questions have arisen about this practice. How much fertilizer can I put on? Does the soil texture make a difference on fertilizer damage to the seed? Does soil moisture affect the damage? Is it the ammonium or the salt index of the fertilizer that is most important in evaluating the damage? Are difference crops more sensitive than others.

  • Authors:  Anette Phibbs, Daniel Gerhardt

    Plant Industry Laboratory staff diagnoses plant diseases and nematodes of agricultural crops and ornamentals supporting Plant Industry bureau’s duties with regard to inspection, survey, disease detection and export certification. 2007 crop highlights are: Potato Cyst Nematode Survey – No suspects Read more…

    Plant Industry Laboratory staff diagnoses plant diseases and nematodes of agricultural crops and ornamentals supporting Plant Industry bureau’s duties with regard to inspection, survey, disease detection and export certification. 2007 crop highlights are: Potato Cyst Nematode Survey – No suspects so far. Soybean Viruses & Asian Soybean Rust – More Soybean dwarf virus but no rust. Seed Corn – Stewart’s wilt in one county. Soybean Cyst Nematode Map – Still number one economic pest of soybeans!

    Potato Cyst Nematode Survey

    During winter of 2006 USDA APHIS initiated an exhaustive nation-wide survey of potato fields for potato cyst nematodes, after Pale potato cyst nematode (PCN) had been detected in Idaho and Golden nematode in Quebec, CD earlier that year. The two cyst nematodes, pale potato cyst nematode (Globodera pallida) and the Golden nematode (Globodera rostochiensis) are both economically significant quarantine pests. Nematodes are microscopic, worm-like creatures, whose females form an egg-filled resting stage called a cyst. They feed on the roots of solanaceous crops like potatoes, tomatoes and eggplants. Potato Cyst Nematodes are widespread throughout Europe and South America, but are only known to occur in few locations in North America. The Pale potato cyst nematode, in Newfoundland, CD and the Golden nematode in parts of British Columbia, Newfoundland, CD and New York.

  • Authors:  Aaron Burke

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

  • Authors:  David Stoltenberg, Mark Jeschke

    Glyphosate-resistant soybeans have been widely adopted by growers due to the benefits of broad-spectrum efficacy, reduced crop injury, and simplification of weed management. Glyphosate-resistant corn has expanded in use in recent growing seasons and as a result, glyphosate is increasingly Read more…

    Glyphosate-resistant soybeans have been widely adopted by growers due to the benefits of broad-spectrum efficacy, reduced crop injury, and simplification of weed management. Glyphosate-resistant corn has expanded in use in recent growing seasons and as a result, glyphosate is increasingly being depended upon as the primary means of weed management in corn and soybean production.

    The widespread use of this technology has produced concerns about the effect of continuous use of glyphosate on weed community composition and the development of new weed problems. The goal of this research was to determine the long-term weed management and agronomic risks in glyphosate-resistant corn and soybean as influenced by intensity of tillage and glyphosate use. Research was conducted at the University of Wisconsin from 1998 to 2006 to determine the long-term effects of primary tillage system and glyphosate use intensity on weed population dynamics in a glyphosate-resistant corn and soybean annual rotation.

  • Authors:  Jed Colquhoun

    While instances of herbicide injury on non-target vegetation are still rare, the risk for such injury has increased in recent years for several reasons. First, expansion and interspersing of residential areas into traditionally agricultural lands increases the chance of non-target Read more…

    While instances of herbicide injury on non-target vegetation are still rare, the risk for such injury has increased in recent years for several reasons. First, expansion and interspersing of residential areas into traditionally agricultural lands increases the chance of non-target exposure. Two acres of farmland are lost every minute of every day in the U.S. (American Farmland Trust 2006). In Wisconsin, about 18,000 agricultural acres per year were developed from 1992 to 1997, representing an increase in rate of 70% over the previous 5 years. Second, recent expansion of specialty and value-added crops in traditional field crop land increases the probability that sensitive vegetation is nearby. Vineyards, orchards, ornamental nurseries and organic farms tend to be particularly at risk from nearby herbicide applications. In organic farming, for example, the organic certification that adds value to the crop can be compromised by non-target sources of herbicide residue. Third, some newer herbicides cause very obvious symptomology on non-target plants, even at very low doses.

  • Authors:  Eileen Cullen

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

  • Authors:  Maria Redmond

    This presentation thoroughly discusses the role of biofuels, specifically ethanol and biodiesel, in the transportation sector. Presenter will provide attendees with valuable information of why there is great interest in biofuels, a breakdown of the benefits and challenges of biofuel Read more…

    This presentation thoroughly discusses the role of biofuels, specifically ethanol and biodiesel, in the transportation sector. Presenter will provide attendees with valuable information of why there is great interest in biofuels, a breakdown of the benefits and challenges of biofuel use, how biofuels effect the environment and local economy, and what the State of Wisconsin is doing to promote biofuels in the state.

  • Authors:  Chad Hart

    Ethanol production from corn doubled from 2001 to 2005 and will likely double again before the end of 2008. Biodiesel production tripled from 2004 to 2005 with continued growth expected in 2007. Biofuels have become the driving force in the Read more…

    Ethanol production from corn doubled from 2001 to 2005 and will likely double again before the end of 2008. Biodiesel production tripled from 2004 to 2005 with continued growth expected in 2007. Biofuels have become the driving force in the U.S. crops sector. But in this race between biofuels, ethanol has emerged as the main biofuel impacting U.S. agriculture today. The growth in the biofuels industry has created a strong demand pull, especially for corn. Over the past 5 months, we have seen corn prices increase dramatically. In mid-September 2006, the December 2007 corn futures contract was priced at $2.50/bushel. On December 19, 2006, that contract stood at $3.73/bushel. Prices rose throughout the harvest period despite the third largest corn crop on record coming in 2006. This strength in corn prices has been accompanied by increases in soybean and wheat prices. And this strength is not limited to next year as futures prices and industry forecasts project corn prices above $3.00/bushel, soybean prices above $6.00/bushel, and wheat prices above $4.00/bushel for the next several years.

  • Authors:  Judy Derricks

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

  • Authors:  Laura Good

    Currently there are more than 600,000 acres in Wisconsin enrolled in the USDA’s Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). The contracts for approximately 44% of these acres may expire in 2007 and 2008 (Farm Service Agency, 2006). The fate of these lands Read more…

    Currently there are more than 600,000 acres in Wisconsin enrolled in the USDA’s Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). The contracts for approximately 44% of these acres may expire in 2007 and 2008 (Farm Service Agency, 2006). The fate of these lands is uncertain, though a likely scenario, given current rising demand for corn, is that at least a portion will go into a corn-based row crop rotation. These CRP lands were removed from production because of their vulnerability to erosion. Soil and nutrient losses from CRP lands kept in perennial cover are extremely low. If these highly erodible lands go into corn production, will the increasing runoff sediment and nutrient loads lead to disastrous water quality declines? Are there ways to manage corn on former CRP lands that will keep the soil quality and conservation gains from the Conservation Reserve Program from being totally lost?

  • Authors:  John Panuska

    A principal focus of water quality management efforts in the U.S. is related to nutrient, specifically nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), export in runoff from agricultural lands. The focus of this discussion is to investigate the influence of residue levels Read more…

    A principal focus of water quality management efforts in the U.S. is related to nutrient, specifically nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), export in runoff from agricultural lands. The focus of this discussion is to investigate the influence of residue levels and manure addition on particulate P delivery by runoff. Rainfall runoff samples were collected from three hydrologically isolated hillslope tracts in conservation tillage with the following treatments: corn-grain (CG); corn-silage (CS); and corn-silage with fall manure addition (SM). Rainfall-runoff, frost free (FF) events were sampled from May 2004 through September 2005. Samples were analyzed for solids mass, P in the dissolved and particulate forms, sediment P-mass distribution in five different particle-size classes along with particle and aggregate size distributions, and aggregate stability. This discussion is limited to soil and total phosphorus (TP) loss and the distribution of TP mass over five particle size classes in the sediment.

  • Authors:  Jessica Gutknecht

    The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) was implemented in 1985 to protect environmentally fragile or highly erosive crop land from degradation and carbon loss to the atmosphere (CAST, 1992). Currently there are approximately 36 million acres, 8% of the nation’s cropland, Read more…

    The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) was implemented in 1985 to protect environmentally fragile or highly erosive crop land from degradation and carbon loss to the atmosphere (CAST, 1992). Currently there are approximately 36 million acres, 8% of the nation’s cropland, in the CRP program (FSA, 2006). Ethanol production, and the subsequent need for corn for the ethanol industry, may take land from CRP programs, potentially threatening the beneficial effects of the CRP program on soil quality. Here I’ll present possible changes in soil quality resulting from putting CRP land into production.

  • Authors:  Wayne Pedersen

    For many years, wheat acreage has continued to decline. When I first came to Illinois in 1980, growers planted nearly 2,000,000 acres and in 2006 they planted approximately 700,000 acres. Poor yields, diseases (especially scab), and poor prices have contributed Read more…

    For many years, wheat acreage has continued to decline. When I first came to Illinois in 1980, growers planted nearly 2,000,000 acres and in 2006 they planted approximately 700,000 acres. Poor yields, diseases (especially scab), and poor prices have contributed to reductions in acres. In addition, both corn and soybeans have been more profitable. However, growers in the southern Corn Belt, especially Kentucky, have seen significant increases in wheat yields, often exceeding 100 bu/a. Combined with higher prices and good yields in 2006, more acres were planted to wheat this fall in Illinois. To achieve high yields, growers have focused on improved varieties, uniform stands, fungicide and insecticide seed treatments, proper fertilizer application rates and timing, weed control, and foliar fungicides and insecticides. Our research has focused on fungicide/insecticide seed treatments and foliar fungicides.

  • Authors:  Xuejun Pan

    Currently, ethanol counts for about 3% of annual fuel consumption of 140 billion gallons in the United States. Most of the ethanol is made from the starch contained in corn kernel. It is believed that the corn available in US Read more…

    Currently, ethanol counts for about 3% of annual fuel consumption of 140 billion gallons in the United States. Most of the ethanol is made from the starch contained in corn kernel. It is believed that the corn available in US can only produce enough ethanol to replace up to 12% of the nation’s fuel supply. Beyond that, another source for the ethanol needs to be found. A promising and sustainable alternative is lignocellulosic biomass. It is the most abundant renewable resource on the earth. The available biomass for cellulose ethanol production includes agricultural crop residues (corn stove, cereal straws, and bargasse), forest residues (forest thinnings, small size and low quality trees), and wastes from industrial processes (sawdust and paper sludge) as well as special energy plants (switchgrass and fast growing trees). However, different from starch in corn kernel, the cellulose in the plants is blocked by other plant components such as lignin and hemicellulose in a matrix, thus not readily available (accessible) to enzymes. How to expose the cellulose to enzymes is one of primary technical and economical challenges in cellulose ethanol production. Other challenges include the development of more efficient enzymes and high-value co-products from lignin and hemicellulose to offset the expensive processing cost. This presentation will briefly review the cellulose ethanol production. The topics covered include:

    Status of bioethanol production

    Difference between corn ethanol and lignocellulose ethanol

    Available processes for lignocellulose ethanol production

    Barriers to lignocellulose ethanol

    Commercialization of lignocellulose ethanol

    Development of biorefineries

  • Authors:  Ronald Schuler

    Interest in renewable energy has heightened due to the uncertainties of the supplies and prices of the fossil/petroleum fuels. Using vegetable and animal oils as a source of diesel fuel provides an alternative solution. The production of biodiesel in the Read more…

    Interest in renewable energy has heightened due to the uncertainties of the supplies and prices of the fossil/petroleum fuels. Using vegetable and animal oils as a source of diesel fuel provides an alternative solution. The production of biodiesel in the US is becoming increasingly more available. The biodiesel fuels have properties different from petroleum diesel fuel which are both positive and negative with respect to engine performance.

    Since most modern diesel engines were designed for the petroleum fuel, some problems would be expected when using biodiesel fuel due to small differences in properties. But these problems can easily be overcome with minor adjustments in engine operation and maintenance and handling of the fuel.

  • Authors:  John Gaska

    Winter wheat acreage in Wisconsin has been steadily increasing since the early 1970s indicating an interest by existing growers to either increase their present acreage or adding new growers willing to try winter wheat (Fig. 1).

    Winter wheat acreage in Wisconsin has been steadily increasing since the early 1970s indicating an interest by existing growers to either increase their present acreage or adding new growers willing to try winter wheat (Fig. 1).

  • Authors:  Tim Wood, John Gaska, Todd Andraski, Kevin Shelley, Larry Bundy, Joe Lauer

    Winter wheat has a strong tradition in Wisconsin, particularly in the south central and eastern counties. It fits well in rotations with canning crops which are popular there. But in recent years, corn and soybean growers who are looking to Read more…

    Winter wheat has a strong tradition in Wisconsin, particularly in the south central and eastern counties. It fits well in rotations with canning crops which are popular there. But in recent years, corn and soybean growers who are looking to diversify their rotation also find winter wheat attractive. Wheat typically follows soybeans in the rotation and can be drilled notill into the soybean residue. This leads to the question: What is the optimum nitrogen (N) application rate for wheat following soybeans?

  • Authors:  Chad Hart

    The 2002 Farm Bill was the first farm bill to include an energy title, looking at the potential for U.S. agriculture to partially fulfill domestic energy needs. Congress and the Bush Administration passed the 2005 Energy Policy Act, establishing standards Read more…

    The 2002 Farm Bill was the first farm bill to include an energy title, looking at the potential for U.S. agriculture to partially fulfill domestic energy needs. Congress and the Bush Administration passed the 2005 Energy Policy Act, establishing standards for biorenewable fuel usage in the U.S. President Bush, in his 2006 State of the Union address, made ethanol and U.S. energy security priorities for the federal government. Thus, the federal government has concentrated efforts to expand biorenewable fuel production and consumption over the past few years. And we have seen a dramatic increase in the production and usage of biorenewable fuels over the past 5 years.

  • Authors:  Larry Bundy, Todd Andraski

    Improved nitrogen (N) management in corn production is needed to optimize economic returns to farmers and minimize environmental concerns associated with agricultural N use. Nitrogen losses through nitrate leaching can reduce the efficiency of N fertilizers and contribute to elevated Read more…

    Improved nitrogen (N) management in corn production is needed to optimize economic returns to farmers and minimize environmental concerns associated with agricultural N use. Nitrogen losses through nitrate leaching can reduce the efficiency of N fertilizers and contribute to elevated nitrate concentrations in groundwater. Concerns about nitrate leaching are particularly relevant in areas with course-textured soils receiving N fertilizer inputs for intensive, irrigated crop production, such as the Central Sands Region of Wisconsin. Several strategies have been used to control N leaching losses on sandy soils including use of delayed (sidedress) or multiple split applications of N and the use of nitrification inhibitors with ammonium forms of N fertilizers to delay the conversion of ammonium N to nitrate which is susceptible to loss by leaching. Slow-release N fertilizers have been available for many years, but their higher cost has usually limited their use to high value specialty crops. Recently, a polymer-coated urea product (ESN) has become available at a lower cost than traditional slow-release N fertilizers. This product may have potential for controlling N leaching losses from applied N and could allow greater flexibility in the timing of N fertilizer applications relative to conventional fertilizer materials. The polymer coating on the ESN material allows water to diffuse into the capsule, dissolve the urea and allows urea to diffuse back into the soil solution over an extended period of time. Typically, release of urea from the polymer-coated granules is complete in about 6 weeks after application. The release process is also temperature dependent so that the rate of urea release increases as temperature increases. The delayed release of urea from the polymer-coated material could help to avoid N leaching losses during the early part of the growing season and could allow application of the fertilizer material earlier in the growing season without greatly increasing the risk of N loss.

  • Authors:  Ryosuke Fujinuma, NIck Balster

    Nitrogen management in nursery systems faces two challenges: improving seedling quality and reducing environmental impacts on adjacent ecosystems. Nursery management is generally based on the concept of “bigger seedlings are good seedlings.” Guidelines for seedling quality have been developed based Read more…

    Nitrogen management in nursery systems faces two challenges: improving seedling quality and reducing environmental impacts on adjacent ecosystems. Nursery management is generally based on the concept of “bigger seedlings are good seedlings.” Guidelines for seedling quality have been developed based on seedling size and other physical features (Thompson and Schultz, 1995; Dey and Parker, 1997; Kormanik et al., 1998; Jacobs et al., 2005). Seedling performance after outplanting suggests that soil management under conditions of luxury consumption will improve chemical seedling-quality (Timmer, 1997). Maintaining large plant-available nitrogen pools in nursery soils requires large amounts of nitrogen fertilizer over a growing season because of the complexity of the soil nitrogen cycle, the sandy soil texture, and intensive irrigation events typical of tree nursery systems. Thus, maintaining luxury-consumption conditions with nitrogen fertilizer could generate excessive soil nitrogen levels in nursery systems, which may lead to nitrate groundwater contamination.

  • Authors:  Jeffrey Coultas

    Nitrogen use efficiency can be defined as the ratio of grain yield to total nitrogen taken up by the plant. Worldwide NUE for cereal crops is around 33% (Raun and Johnson, 1999), creating an opportunity for improvement. The remainder is Read more…

    Nitrogen use efficiency can be defined as the ratio of grain yield to total nitrogen taken up by the plant. Worldwide NUE for cereal crops is around 33% (Raun and Johnson, 1999), creating an opportunity for improvement. The remainder is unavailable for crop yield and subject to loss from the system. Better utilization of applied and mineralized nitrogen will help address water quality issues while providing greater yield potential. Variation within corn germplasm currently exists for NUE, creating a challenge to release untapped potential in new hybrids. Advances in plant breeding and functional genomics have made it possible to understand how genes may work to enhance nitrogen utilization in corn to improve yield performance. Areas for potential NUE improvement include sensing, uptake, assimilation transport, metabolism and remobilization while maintaining the carbon/nitrogen balance to improve kernel retention and growth. Transgenic products with the potential to improve nitrogen uptake and utilization in corn hybrids are in the early stages of development. Lead events provide more yield per unit input at standard rates of nitrogen fertilization in field trials.

  • Authors:  John Katers, Larry Krom, Tucker Burch

    It is difficult to understate the dairy industry’s significance to Wisconsin. It has been estimated by the University of Wisconsin that the dairy industry contributes approximately $20 billion annually to the state’s economy and is a key component to the Read more…

    It is difficult to understate the dairy industry’s significance to Wisconsin. It has been estimated by the University of Wisconsin that the dairy industry contributes approximately $20 billion annually to the state’s economy and is a key component to the economic well-being of rural communities. As shown in Figure 1, most of Wisconsin’s 1.2 million head of dairy cattle reside on operations with a herd size between 50 and 99 head, with the average herd size for Wisconsin dairy farms being just over 80.

  • Authors:  Bruce Jones

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

  • Authors:  Krista Hamilton

    Wisconsin’s annual fall survey documented a decrease in the state average European corn borer population from 0.40 in 2005 to 0.29 borer per plant in 2006 (29 borers per 100 plants). This compares to a 10-year average of 0.30 and Read more…

    Wisconsin’s annual fall survey documented a decrease in the state average European corn borer population from 0.40 in 2005 to 0.29 borer per plant in 2006 (29 borers per 100 plants). This compares to a 10-year average of 0.30 and a 50-year average of 0.48 borer per plant. The northwest, west central, and central districts showed increases from 0.01 to 0.27, 0.24 to 0.42, and 0.44 to 0.51 borer per plant, respectively. The largest decreases in 2006 were documented in the south central and southwest districts, where averages declined from 0.67 to 0.38 and 0.49 to 0.20 borer per plant. Lower densities in the southern districts may be associated with increased planting of Bt corn hybrids, although no specific evidence for this hypothesis is available at this time. Testing of field corn for transgenic traits during the summer corn rootworm beetle survey showed the highest utilization of hybrids in the southern three tiers of Wisconsin counties (see map in Corn Rootworm section).

  • Authors:  Carsten Croff, Paul Mitchell

    Corn rootworm (CRW) is commonly referred to as “the billion dollar bug” as it costs U.S. growers a billion dollars a year in reduced yields and treatment costs (Burchett, 2001). Traditionally, two-year crop rotations were sufficient to control for CRW. Read more…

    Corn rootworm (CRW) is commonly referred to as “the billion dollar bug” as it costs U.S. growers a billion dollars a year in reduced yields and treatment costs (Burchett, 2001). Traditionally, two-year crop rotations were sufficient to control for CRW. However, in recent years a behavioral variant of the western CRW has moved into Wisconsin cornfields. The variant has adapted to traditional crop rotation by laying its eggs in soybeans and other rotated crops, so that economic damage is caused in corn planted the following year. Soil insecticides were commonly used to control CRW in first year corn, but in 2003, rootworm Bt corn became available for western corn rootworm larval control.

  • Authors:  Mark Renz, Jerry Doll

    Multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora), a nonnative shrub native to East Asia, has established throughout the Midwestern, Southern and Eastern United States. While this plant was intentionally introduced as an ornamental plant and for wildlife habitat, it has become one of Read more…

    Multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora), a nonnative shrub native to East Asia, has established throughout the Midwestern, Southern and Eastern United States. While this plant was intentionally introduced as an ornamental plant and for wildlife habitat, it has become one of the more common invasive plants in the eastern United States as it infests over 45 million acres (Underwood et al., 1996). Currently multiflora rose dominates pastures and edges of forests within the southern part of Wisconsin. Besides losses in productivity in pastures, multiflora rose greatly reduces the accessibility of these areas for recreation due to the creation of impenetrable thickets.

    Recently a disease native to North America called rose rosette disease (RRD) has been found infesting multiflora rose plants within southwestern Wisconsin. This disease was first discovered in Canada in 1940 and currently it can be found in Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maryland Missouri, Nebraska, Oklahoma, Ohio, Pennsylvania Tennessee, Texas, West Virginia, and Wisconsin (Armine, 2002). Its distribution in Wisconsin is limited, but observations indicate that it is spreading. Currently infested multiflora rose plants have been seen in Vernon, Crawford, Grant, Richland, Sauk, Iowa, Lafayette, Green, Racine, and Dane counties (personal communication J.Doll, P. Pelliterri, A. Barta). This disease is fatal to multiflora rose as infected plants they die within 5 years (Epstein and Hill, 1999; Armine 2002). While no tests are currently available that verify if plants are infected, symptoms on multiflora rose are quite distinct making identification easy. Symptoms include a red coloration of the underside of leaf veins, elongated shoots, an increase in the number of thorns, and a proliferation of lateral buds on shoots that produce many reduced and malformed leaves (witches’ broom).

  • Authors:  Chris Boerboom, Tim Trower

    Two-pass herbicide programs often refer to systems where a preemergence herbicide is applied near planting and is followed by a postemergence herbicide. In corn, the preemergence herbicide may target grass weeds or a mixture of grass and broadleaf weeds and Read more…

    Two-pass herbicide programs often refer to systems where a preemergence herbicide is applied near planting and is followed by a postemergence herbicide. In corn, the preemergence herbicide may target grass weeds or a mixture of grass and broadleaf weeds and the postemergence herbicide may be focused more on broadleaf weeds or perennial weeds. In soybean, it may be more beneficial to target broadleaf weeds with the preemergence herbicide because grass weeds are easily controlled postemergence with glyphosate. In general, the benefit of a two-pass program may be more frequent and of greater magnitude in corn than soybean, but two-pass programs in soybean still need to be considered.

    Before asking if two-pass herbicide programs are viable, it’s more important to consider why two-pass programs are even needed. Reasons why two-pass programs fit in corn and soybean weed management systems include (1) improving controlling of problem weeds; (2) reducing the risk of yield loss from late postemergence applications; and (3) increasing herbicide diversity to reduce the risks of herbicide resistant weeds.

  • Authors:  Bruce Rheineck

    Groundwater monitoring initiatives in the 1980s and 1990s in Wisconsin discovered that the herbicide atrazine and its chlorinated metabolites are present in a variety of wells and aquifers around the state. The atrazine in groundwater was believed to have resulted Read more…

    Groundwater monitoring initiatives in the 1980s and 1990s in Wisconsin discovered that the herbicide atrazine and its chlorinated metabolites are present in a variety of wells and aquifers around the state. The atrazine in groundwater was believed to have resulted from the legal use of atrazine (non-point source) and from improper handling, storage and disposal (point source). The distribution of atrazine detections in the state is still widespread. The most recent random statewide survey conducted by the department in 2001 estimated that about 12% of the groundwater in the state contains atrazine or its chlorinated metabolites. And about 1% of the groundwater is over 3.0 µg/L, the health based Enforcement Standard (ES) for atrazine.

  • Authors:  Patricia Kandziora

    Updates on select pesticide regulations will be covered in an overview, including references and opportunities for input.

    Updates on select pesticide regulations will be covered in an overview, including references and opportunities for input.

  • Authors:  Duane Klein, Charlene Khazae

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

  • Authors:  Sebastian Braum

    Fertilizer prices in the U.S. are driven by global and domestic factors. Growing demand for grain worldwide, both for human consumption and for animal feed, has led to the lowest level of grain stocks ever. This has forced grain prices Read more…

    Fertilizer prices in the U.S. are driven by global and domestic factors. Growing demand for grain worldwide, both for human consumption and for animal feed, has led to the lowest level of grain stocks ever. This has forced grain prices higher, which in turn increased the demand for macronutrient fertilizers and especially nitrogen fertilizer. In addition to the traditional grain uses, biofuels made from commodity crops are further increasing demand for grains and therefore fertilizer. Most of this growth in agricultural production and fertilizer demand comes from developing countries, with Brazil, China, and India having the most impact. At the same time, nitrogen production in the U.S. has experienced a steep decline as a result of rapidly rising natural gas prices. Consequently, U.S. nitrogen plants have become swing producers, dependent on the domestic price of natural gas. A large proportion of nitrogen fertilizer is now imported.

  • Authors:  Jim Shelton, Chris Boerboom

    No abstract provided.

    No abstract provided.

  • Authors:  Robin Schmidt, Eric Nelson

    Why are we concerned about agroterrorism? Intelligence reports indicate that those wishing to do us harm are already aware that attacking the agriculture sector would result in economic, psychological and infrastructure disaster for this country. So how can we protect Read more…

    Why are we concerned about agroterrorism? Intelligence reports indicate that those wishing to do us harm are already aware that attacking the agriculture sector would result in economic, psychological and infrastructure disaster for this country.

    So how can we protect ourselves from such an attack? We need to work together to establish public and private partnerships that include prevention, planning and response activities.

  • Authors:  Dave Fredrickson

    The Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection is the State lead agency for enforcing state and federal laws related to pesticides. These include standards for the packaging, labeling, storage, use and disposal of pesticides and their containers. The Agricultural Read more…

    The Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection is the State lead agency for enforcing state and federal laws related to pesticides. These include standards for the packaging, labeling, storage, use and disposal of pesticides and their containers. The Agricultural Resource Management Division is the Division assigned to these responsibilities. Besides pesticide regulation the Division is also responsible for enforcing the state’s feed and fertilizer laws. The Division responds to and investigates over 200 complaints a year related to our programs. The largest area of complaints does relate to pesticide use.

  • Authors:  Nick Schneider

    Many farmers are working to have nutrient management plans in place on their farms by 2008. Methods needed to be developed that could help unique enterprises, such as managed intensive grazing farms, credit manure deposited during gleaning. A MALWEG (Multi-Agency Read more…

    Many farmers are working to have nutrient management plans in place on their farms by 2008. Methods needed to be developed that could help unique enterprises, such as managed intensive grazing farms, credit manure deposited during gleaning. A MALWEG (Multi-Agency Land and Water Education Grant) was awarded to Clark County to help fund and train grazers to prepare nutrient management plans. Fertility trends and methods used will be presented.

  • Authors:  Larry Bundy

    The goal of this paper is to review some of the soil fertility research projects I have contributed to and to make some comments about what results were successful and what areas have continuing research and education needs. In general, Read more…

    The goal of this paper is to review some of the soil fertility research projects I have contributed to and to make some comments about what results were successful and what areas have continuing research and education needs. In general, the purpose of much of this work was to create new knowledge and build upon existing information to provide a sound science base for nutrient management guidelines and recommendations for producers and the industry. In fact, many of the projects were initiated to answer questions or solve problems brought to our attention by farmers and the agricultural industry. The maintenance of a credible science base supporting nutrient management recommendations is made even more important when these recommendations are widely used as the basis for nutrient management regulatory policy.

  • Authors:  Jim Brook

    We plan to present the final draft of the ATCP 50 Wisconsin Administrative Code to the Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection (DATCP) Board in January 2007. If the Board approves the rule, it will go to the legislature Read more…

    We plan to present the final draft of the ATCP 50 Wisconsin Administrative Code to the Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection (DATCP) Board in January 2007. If the Board approves the rule, it will go to the legislature where they may hold hearings and suggest changes back to DATCP before final promulgation.

  • Authors:  Richard Wolkowski

    Grain crop producers continue have interest in P and K fertilizer placement for several reasons. Issues include: (1) the need at high soil test, (2) alternatives to 2×2 because of planter attachment cost, (3) fertilizer use efficiency, (4) convenience/time limitations, Read more…

    Grain crop producers continue have interest in P and K fertilizer placement for several reasons. Issues include: (1) the need at high soil test, (2) alternatives to 2×2 because of planter attachment cost, (3) fertilizer use efficiency, (4) convenience/time limitations, and 5) potential yield benefits. Research has demonstrated that banded placement methods enhance the efficiency of nutrient use and can increase yield. This observation appears to be more important in high residue management systems where nutrient applications are not routinely incorporated. Research conducted by this author has demonstrated increased P and K uptake and yield where the planter 2×2 placement method is used compared with broadcast (Wolkowski, 2000; 2003). Response tended to be greater in no-till relative chisel because soil and environmental condition of the seedbed under no-till resulted in reduced early season plant growth and nutrient uptake.

  • Authors:  John Peters

    Tissue testing is the quantitative measurement of the essential elements in plant tissue. Plants require 17 elements for normal vegetative growth and reproduction. These elements fulfill a variety of functions in plan